Select committee (United Kingdom)
In British politics, parliamentary select committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee of Parliament" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on Human Rights. Committees may exist as "sessional" committees – i.e. be near-permanent – or as "ad-hoc" committees with a specific deadline by which to complete their work, after which they cease to exist, such as the Lords Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change. The Commons select committees are responsible for overseeing the work of government departments and agencies, whereas those of the Lords look at general issues, such as the constitution, considered by the Constitution Committee, or the economy, considered by the Economic Affairs Committee. Both houses have their own committees to review drafts of European Union directives: the European Union Committee in the House of Lords, the European Scrutiny Committee in the House of Commons.
The Intelligence and Security Committee is not a select committee, though it contains members from both houses. It is a unique committee of parliamentarians nominated by the Prime Minister and reporting to him or her, not Parliament. In the United Kingdom, departmental select committees came into being in 1979, following the recommendations of a Procedure Select Committee, set up in 1976, which reported in 1978, it recommended the appointment of a series of select committees covering all the main departments of state, with wide terms of reference, with power to appoint specialist advisers as the committees deemed appropriate. It suggested that committee members should be selected independently of the party whips, as chosen by the Select Committee of Selection; the fourteen new committees began working in 1980. The chairs of select committees have been elected by the house as a whole since June 2010: before that members were appointed by their parties and chairs voted on by those members. There are select committees of the Commons that are tasked with the detailed analysis of individual Bills.
Most Bills are referred, since the 2006–7 session, to public bill committees, before that, there were Standing Committees. In July 2005, the Administration Select Committee was instituted, replacing the five Domestic Committees, responsible for the consideration of services provided for the House in the Palace of Westminster from 1991 to 2005, it deals with issues as diverse as catering services, the House of Commons Library, computer provision, visitor services. The House of Lords has a set of five major select committees: The European Union Committee, which has six sub-committees The Constitution Committee The Economic Affairs Committee The Science and Technology Committee The Communications Select CommitteeThese committees run inquiries into topics within their remit, issuing reports from time to time; the European Union Committee scrutinises EU legislation and other EU proposals, as well as conducting inquiries. Some English local authorities have a select committee system, as part of their Overview and Scrutiny arrangements.
The Osmotherly Rules set out guidance on how civil servants should respond to parliamentary select committees. Parliamentary Committees of the United Kingdom Committees UK Parliament Select Committee of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong Democracywiki Unlock Democracy
Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (Canada)
The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons, more known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the government's legislative program in the House of Commons of Canada. The position is not entitled to cabinet standing on its own, so all Government House Leaders must hold another portfolio. In recent years, sinecure assignments have been used to give House Leaders cabinet standing while allowing them to focus on house business; the current House Leader is Bardish Chagger. The Government House Leader works on the government's behalf by negotiating with the House Leaders of the Opposition parties; this includes discussion over timetables and may include concessions to demands by opposition parties to ensure quick passage of a bill or opposition support. The position is crucial during periods of minority government, when no party has a majority in the House and the government must rely on the support of one or more Opposition parties to not only pass its legislative agenda but remain in power.
The holder of the position must be an expert in parliamentary procedure in order to argue points of order before the Speaker of the House of Commons as well as be a good strategist and tactician in order to outmanoeuvre the opposition parties. From 1867 until World War II, the Prime Minister of Canada took upon himself the responsibilities of being Leader of the Government in the House of Commons and coordinating House of Commons business with the other parties; the expansion of government responsibilities during the war led to Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King deciding to delegate the House leadership to one of his ministers. In 1946, the position of Government House Leader was formally recognized. In 1968, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau designated the Government House Leader as President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. Under Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, the roles of Government House Leader and President of the Privy Council were separated in 1989. Under Mulroney and his successors, the position of House Leader would be held by someone, named a Minister of State without any portfolio responsibilities specified.
Since 2003, this Minister of State status has been obscured in all but the most official circumstances by the use of a "Leader of the Government in the House of Commons" style in its place. Prime Minister Paul Martin's first House Leader, Jacques Saada was Minister responsible for Democratic Reform. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Bardish Chagger as House Leader on August 22, 2016, she retained the Minister of Tourism portfolio. Chagger is Canada's first female House Leader; until 2005, the position of Government House Leader was not technically a cabinet-level post, but rather a parliamentary office, so to qualify for cabinet membership, an individual had to be named to cabinet in some other capacity. For a time, with the position having evolved into a full-time job, Government House Leaders have been named to cabinet as Ministers of State with no portfolio specified; the Martin government created these positions so that the Minister of State title is invisible. An amendment to the Salaries Act made this unnecessary by listing the Government House Leader as a minister.
Key: 1. The Turner Ministry never convened the House, so Ouellet never technically served as Government House Leader, he was named "Minister of State for Economic and Regional Development". 2. During this period Erik Nielsen, the Conservative House Leader when the party had been in Opposition, had the position of President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. In practice this meant that Nielsen was senior Government House Leader in all but name and that Hnatyshyn was, in practice, Nielsen's deputy despite having the title of Government House Leader; this situation ended when Hnatyshyn became President of the Privy Council on February 27, 1985. 3. From August 27, 1987 Mazankowski was President of the Treasury Board and Minister responsible for Privatization and Regulatory Affairs. From September 15, 1988 he was Minister of Agriculture. 4. The Campbell Ministry never convened the House, so Lewis never technically served as Government House Leader. 5. LeBlanc took over the portfolio after the resignation of Hunter Tootoo.
6. During the cabinet shuffle on July 18, 2018, the portfolio was reassigned to Mary Ng. Chagger was not assigned a new additional cabinet portfolio after the shuffle
Jacob William Rees-Mogg is a British politician serving as the Member of Parliament for North East Somerset since the general election of 2010. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been characterised as conservative. Rees-Mogg was born in Hammersmith and educated at Eton College, he studied History at Trinity College and was President of the Oxford University Conservative Association. He worked in the City of London for Lloyd George Management until 2007 co-founded a hedge fund management business Somerset Capital Management LLP, he has amassed a significant fortune: his estimated net worth in 2016 was from £55 million to £150 million. Moving into politics, he unsuccessfully contested the 1997 and 2001 general elections before being elected as the MP for North East Somerset in 2010, he was re-elected in 2015 and 2017. Within the Conservative Party he joined the traditionalist and conservative Cornerstone Group. Under David Cameron's government, Rees-Mogg was one of the parliamentary Conservative Party's most rebellious members, opposing the government on issues such as the introduction of same-sex marriage and further intervention in the Syrian Civil War.
He became filibustering in parliamentary debates. A Eurosceptic, he proposed a Conservative coalition with the UK Independence Party and campaigned for the Leave side in the 2016 referendum on membership of the European Union, he subsequently joined pro-Brexit pressure groups Leave Means Leave and the European Research Group, becoming Chair of the latter. He attracted support through the social media campaign Moggmentum, has been promoted as a potential successor to Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May. Rees-Mogg is a controversial figure in British politics. On the other hand, critics view him as a reactionary figure, some of his positions have made him the target of organised protest and criticism. Rees-Mogg was born in Hammersmith on 24 May 1969, the youngest son of William Rees-Mogg, a former editor of The Times newspaper, created a life peer in 1988, Gillian Shakespeare Morris, his wife, a daughter of Thomas Richard Morris, a Conservative party local government politician and Mayor of St Pancras in London.
He was one of five children, having three elder siblings, Emma Beatrice Rees-Mogg, Charlotte Louise Rees-Mogg and Thomas Fletcher Rees-Mogg, one younger sister, Annunziata Rees-Mogg. Prior to his birth, in 1964 the family purchased Ston Easton Park, a country house located near the village of Ston Easton in Somerset, where Rees-Mogg grew up attending weekly mass and Sunday school at the Church of the Holy Ghost, Midsomer Norton. Here he attended mass in the ordinary form. A few years in 1978, the family moved to the nearby village of Hinton Blewett where they purchased The Old Rectory, a Grade II listed former rectory, today valued at £2 million. Living in Somerset, he commuted to his family's second home in Smith Square, where he attended independent boys' prep school Westminster Under School. Growing up, Rees-Mogg was raised by the family's nanny Veronica Crook, whom he describes as a formative figure. Crook now looks after Rees-Mogg's own children; when Rees-Mogg was ten, he was left £50 by a distant cousin, his father, on his behalf, invested in shares in the now-defunct General Electric Company.
Rees-Mogg ascribes to this event the beginnings of his interest in stock markets. Having learned how to read company reports and balance sheets, he attended a shareholders' meeting at GEC, where he voted against a motion because dividends were too low, he subsequently invested in London-based conglomerate Lonrho owning 340 shares, caused the company's chairman Lord Duncan-Sandys "discomfort" by quizzing him at an annual general meeting on the low dividends offered to shareholders. In 1981, at a shareholders' meeting of GEC, in which he owned 175 shares at the time, he told the chairman Lord Nelson that the dividend on offer was "pathetic", sparking amusement among board members and the media. After prep school, Rees-Mogg entered Eton College, where he was described in a school report as a "particularly dogmatic" Thatcherite. Upon leaving Eton, he had his portrait painted by Paul Branson RP for the Eton College Collections, put on display during the Faces of 1993 Royal Society of Portrait Painters exhibition.
He read History at Trinity College, where he graduated with an upper second-class honours degree in 1991. While at Oxford he became president of the Oxford University Conservative Association and was a member and frequent debater at the Oxford Union, where he was elected Librarian. Reflecting on his time at university, he has admitted regret at not having studied Classics. After graduating from the University of Oxford in 1991, Rees-Mogg worked for the Rothschild investment bank under Nils Taube before moving to Hong Kong in 1993 to join Lloyd George Management. During his tenure in Hong Kong, he became a close friend with Governor Chris Patten and was a regular at Government House. Three years he returned to London and was put in charge of some of the firm's emerging markets funds and by 2003, was managing a newly established Lloyd George Emerging Markets Fund. In 2007, Rees-Mogg left the company with a number of colleagues to set up their own fund management firm, Somers
First Lord of the Treasury
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, is by convention the Prime Minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "Treasurer" in other governments; as of the beginning of the 17th century, the running of the Treasury was entrusted to a commission, rather than to a single individual. Since 1714, it has permanently been in commission; the commissioners have always since that date been referred to as Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, adopted ordinal numbers to describe their seniority. In the middle of the same century, the First Lord of the Treasury came to be seen as the natural head of the overall ministry running the country, and, as of the time of Robert Walpole, began to be known, unofficially, as the Prime Minister; the term Prime Minister was but decreasingly, used as a term of derogation. William Pitt the Younger said the Prime Minister "ought to be the person at the head of the finances"—though Pitt served as Chancellor of the Exchequer for the entirety of his time as Prime Minister, so his linkage of the finance portfolio to the premiership was wider than proposing the occupation of the First Lordship by the Prime Minister.
Prior to 1841 the First Lord of the Treasury held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer unless he was a peer and thus barred from that office. As of 1841, the Chancellor has always been Second Lord of the Treasury when he was not Prime Minister. By convention, the other Lords Commissioners of the Treasury are Government Whips in the House of Commons. 10 Downing Street is the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, not the office of Prime Minister. Chequers, a country house in Buckinghamshire, is the official country residence of the Prime Minister, used as a weekend and holiday home, although the residence has been used by other senior members of government. Much of this list overlaps with the list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, but there are some notable differences, principally concerning the Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister but not First Lord in 1885–86, 1887–92 and 1895–1902; those First Lords who were Prime Minister are indicated in bold. Thereafter the posts of First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister have continually been held by the same person.
Chief Baron of the Exchequer List of Lords Commissioners of the Treasury Minister for the Civil Service, by convention the Prime Minister Secretary to the Treasury
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and to the electorate; the office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016; the office is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists only by long-established convention, which stipulates that the monarch must appoint as Prime Minister the person most to command the confidence of the House of Commons. The position of Prime Minister was not created; the office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament.
Although the Sovereign was not stripped of the ancient prerogative powers and remained the head of government, politically it became necessary for him or her to govern through a Prime Minister who could command a majority in Parliament. By the 1830s the Westminster system of government had emerged; the political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication, photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged. Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons; however as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.
The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury; the status of the position as Prime Minister means that the incumbent is ranked as one of the most powerful and influential people in the world. The Prime Minister is the head of the United Kingdom government; as such, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and commands a majority in the House of Commons; the incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the Prime Minister appoints all other Cabinet members and ministers, co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, the staff of the Civil Service.
The Prime Minister acts as the public "face" and "voice" of Her Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Upon the advice of the Prime Minister, the Sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document. The British constitution consists of many documents and most for the evolution of the Office of the Prime Minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:In this country we live... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges, they rest on usage, convention of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.
The relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Minister's executive and legislative powers are royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the Sovereign, who remains the head of state. Despite its growing
King's Lynn (UK Parliament constituency)
King's Lynn was a constituency in Norfolk represented continually in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1298 until it was abolished for the February 1974 general election. The Parliamentary Borough of King's Lynn, known as Lynn or Bishop's Lynn prior to 1537, returned two Members of Parliament until 1885, when its representation was reduced to one member by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, it was abolished as a Borough under the Representation of the People Act 1918 and was reconstituted as a Division of the Parliamentary County of Norfolk, absorbing the bulk of the abolished North Western Division. It was abolished for the February 1974 general election, being replaced by the re-established constituency of North West Norfolk. Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister, was an MP for the constituency for the entirety of his parliamentary career, from 1702 to 1742. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of King's Lynn, the Urban Districts of New Hunstanton and Walsoken, the Rural Districts of Docking, Freebridge Lynn, King's Lynn, Marshland, in the Rural District of Downham the civil parishes of Wiggenhall St Germans, Wiggenhall St Mary the Virgin, Wiggenhall St Mary Magdalen, Wiggenhall St Peter.1950-1974: The Municipal Borough of King's Lynn, the Urban District of New Hunstanton, the Rural Districts of Docking, Freebridge Lynn, Marshland.
Minor changes to the boundary with South West Norfolk to align with boundaries of local authorities, rationalised. Marginal changes to county boundaries with Isle of Ely and Parts of Holland. Canning resigned after being appointed the United Kingdom's ambassador to Turkey, causing a by-election. Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck's death caused a by-election. Jocelyn's death caused a by-election. Stanley was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies. Stanley was appointed President of the Board of Control for the Affairs of India, requiring a by-election. Stanley was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Stanley succeed to the peerage, causing a by-election. Representation reduced to one member Bourke's resignation on appointment as Governor of Madras caused a by-election. General Election 1914/15 Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1914 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected.
The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X; the Constitutional Year Book for 1913 J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "K"