A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court; the mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, entered into force on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations after World War II, it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations, subject to future discussions and formal agreements. Most of the remaining mandates of the League of Nations thus became United Nations Trust Territories. Two governing principles formed the core of the Mandate System, being non-annexation of the territory and its administration as a “sacred trust of civilization” to develop the territory for the benefit of its native people.
The mandate system was established by Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, drafted by the victors of World War I. The article referred to territories which after the war were no longer ruled by their previous sovereign, but their peoples were not considered "able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world"; the article called for such people's tutelage to be "entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility". All of the territories subject to League of Nations mandates were controlled by states defeated in World War I, principally Imperial Germany and the Ottoman Empire; the mandates were fundamentally different from the protectorates in that the Mandatory power undertook obligations to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League of Nations. The process of establishing the mandates consisted of two phases: The formal removal of sovereignty of the state controlling the territory.
The transfer of mandatory powers to individual states among the Allied Powers. The divestiture of Germany's overseas colonies, along with three territories disentangled from its European homeland area, was accomplished in the Treaty of Versailles, with the territories being allotted among the Allies on 7 May of that year. Ottoman territorial claims were first addressed in the Treaty of Sèvres and finalized in the Treaty of Lausanne; the Turkish territories were allotted among the Allied Powers at the San Remo conference in 1920. The League of Nations decided the exact level of control by the Mandatory power over each mandate on an individual basis. However, in every case the Mandatory power was forbidden to construct fortifications or raise an army within the territory of the mandate, was required to present an annual report on the territory to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; the mandates were divided into three distinct groups based upon the level of development each population had achieved at that time.
The first group, or Class A mandates, were territories controlled by the Ottoman Empire that were deemed to "... have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory." The second group of mandates, or Class B mandates, were all former Schutzgebiete in West and Central Africa which were deemed to require a greater level of control by the mandatory power: "...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion." The mandatory power was forbidden to construct naval bases within the mandates. The Class C mandates, including South West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, were considered to be "best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory" According to the Council of the League of Nations, meeting of August 1920: "draft mandates adopted by the Allied and Associated Powers would not be definitive until they had been considered and approved by the League... the legal title held by the mandatory Power must be a double one: one conferred by the Principal Powers and the other conferred by the League of Nations,"Three steps were required to establish a Mandate under international law: The Principal Allied and Associated Powers confer a mandate on one of their number or on a third power.
S. State Department Digest of International Law says that the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne provided for the application of the principles of state succession to the "A" Mandates; the Treaty of Versailles provisionally recognized the former Ottoman communities as independent nations. It required Germany to recognize the disposition of
The West Pole is the ninth studio album by The Gathering. It is the first album to feature the new vocalist Silje Wergeland, previous front woman of Octavia Sperati; this album includes two guest singers, Dutch Anne van den Hoogen and Mexican Marcela Bovio, as well as other guest musicians. Music videos were made of the songs "All You Are" and "No Bird Call". Band membersSilje Wergeland - vocals and grand piano René Rutten - electric and acoustic guitars, stylophone Frank Boeijen - keyboards, piano and vibraphone Marjolein Kooijman - bass guitar Hans Rutten - drums and percussionsAdditional musiciansMarcela Bovio - vocals on track 8 Anne van den Hoogen - vocals on track 6, megaphone nonsense on track 1 and megaphone backing vocals on track 2 Jos van den Dungen - violin and viola on tracks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 John Mitchell - cello on tracks 3, 4, 5 and 8 Marije de Jong and Jonas Pap - narrative on track 4
Martha Chen is an American academic and social worker, presently a Lecturer in Public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School and Senior Advisor of the global research-policy-action network WIEGO and a member of the Advisory Board of the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research. Chen is a development practitioner and scholar who has worked with the working poor in India, South Asia, around the world, her areas of specialization are employment, poverty alleviation, informal economy, gender. She lived in Bangladesh working with BRAC, one of the world's largest non-governmental organizations, in India, as field representative of Oxfam America for India and Bangladesh for 15 years. In 2011, she received the Padma Shri from the Government of India for her contributions in the field of social work. Martha was born on February 1956 to Jim Alter and his wife Barry, her family hailed from Ohio in the USA, Martha's grandparents had come to India as missionaries of the Presbyterian church.
They pursued their ministry of converting people to Christianity in undivided Punjab in Sialkot and Peshawar, with brief interludes in Lahore, Martha's father was born in Sialkot. Martha's paternal grandfather took up a position as headmaster of Woodstock School in Landour, on the outskirts of Mussoorie; the family settled here, Martha grew up in the hills of Mussoorie and Landour. She was one of three children, her brothers were Tom Alter, the well-known film and theatre actor, John Alter, she attended Woodstock School from 1948-60. After graduating, she studied for a year at Isabella Thoburn College in India, she went to the US for her undergraduate and graduate studies, where she received a B. A. cum laude from Connecticut College for Women and a PhD in South Asian Studies from the University of Pennsylvania. During the 1970s and much of the 1980s, Chen lived with her husband and children in Bangladesh, where she worked with the NGO BRAC. Afterward, she lived in India, where she was the field representative of Oxfam America covering India and Bangladesh.
Chen teaches at the Harvard Kennedy School. She has undertaken four field studies in India: on household coping strategies during a prolonged drought in a village in Gujarat, she carried out policy research on issues relating to the working poor, taught several courses on international development, provided advisory services to international development agencies. In 1997, Chen co-founded the WIEGO network which works to raise the voice and visibility of the working poor – including domestic workers, home-based producers, street vendors, waste pickers – around the world. In 1999, the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University invited Dr. Chen to be its Horner Distinguished Visiting Professor in recognition of her scholarship on the situation of working poor women around the world. In 2001, the Radcliffe Institute extended appointment for a third year. From 2003-2006, she was a Visiting Professor at the SEWA Academy in India. In 2006, Woodstock School in Mussoorie recognized Dr. Chen as a Distinguished Alumna for her work with poor women in South Asia for her work examining the status of widows in India by undertaking extensive field research and organizing a national conference on what can be done to improve the status of widows.
Dr. Chen edited a volume of proceedings from the conference called Widows in Rural India: Social Neglect and Public Action, she is one of the Board Members of the Technological Change Lab at Columbia University. Martha Alter is married to Lincoln Chen; the Connecticut College Medal Padma Shri from the Government of India, 2011. Distinguished Alumni Award from Woodstock School, India, 2005 Matina S. Horner Distinguished Visiting Professor, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1999–2001 BA Cum Laude with Honors in English Literature, Connecticut College for Women, 1965 Chen, Martha. A quiet revolution: women in transition in rural Bangladesh. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing. ISBN 9780870734533. Chen, Martha. Indian women: a study of their role in the dairy movement. New Delhi: Vikas Publishers. ISBN 9780706930351. Chen, Martha. Coping with seasonality and drought in Western India. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. Chen, Martha. Speaking out: women's economic empowerment in South Asia.
London: IT Publications on behalf of Aga Khan Foundation Canada and United Nations Development Fund for Women. ISBN 9781853393822. Chen, Martha. Widows in India: social neglect and public action. New Delhi/Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. ISBN 9788170367031. Chen, Martha. Perpetual mourning: widowhood in rural India. New Delhi/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195648850. Chen, Martha. Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture. Geneva: Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing. Chen, Martha. Mainstreaming informal employment and gender in poverty reduction a handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders. London: Commonwealth Secretariat and International Development Research Centre. ISBN 9780850927979. Chen, Martha.
The Yung See San Fong House, or "Young's Home in the Heart of the Hills", is a house in Los Gatos in the U. S. state of California. It is a combination of Asian decorative motifs and pagoda roofs together with Western massing and layout, it was completed in 1917 for Ruth Comfort Mitchell Young, a writer, her husband, Sanborn Young, a gentleman farmer and California State Senator. The house is now a private residence. Ruth had spent summers in Los Gatos, where her grandparents had summer homes. In 1916 the Youngs started building Yung See San Fong on property granted to them by her parents. Earlier that year, her play The Sweetmeat Game opened at the Palace Theatre on Broadway starring Olive Wyndham. With a Chinese setting the successful play toured the Orpheum circuit around the country for two years; the play provided her with the inspiration to combine the best of Chinese tastes and usage with her conception of beauty and comfort in the building and furnishing of her home, which she termed a "bungahigh".
Chinese traditions were adhered to as exemplified by the winding road, supposed to deter the devil from finding the house. A statue of the Chinese God of Rice and Plenty still greets visitors at the main gate. Materials used in the house's construction include stucco, wooden shake shingles, board and batten siding; the interior has hand-carved wooden panels with Chinese characters. The rooms were furnished with Chinoiserie hand-carved teak tables and chairs, prints and works of art; the dining room, screened in the summer and had glass windows in the winter, had woven sea grass seat furniture, stylish for the time. Yung See San Fong was a self-sustaining farm where vegetables and poultry were raised. In an interview, Young stated, "We raise everything we eat but the staple groceries and the filet mignon." A Chinese man named. His activities included cooking the meals, planting the gardens, milking the cows, assisting with the interior decoration; as the Youngs were prominent politically and civically, many well-known people visited here, including President Herbert Hoover, who lived in nearby Palo Alto.
Others included movie stars Joan and Constance Bennett, Senator James D. Phelan, former Mayor of San Francisco; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service
The Angola–Republic of the Congo border is 231 km in length and runs from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the tripoint with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the east. The border starts in the west at the Atlantic coast, between Lake Cayo and Lake Massabi, proceeding to the north-east via straight line segments and some irregular overland lines. In the vicinity of Manga Missou the border turns to the south-east via down to the DRC tripoint. Portugal had begun exploring the coast of modern Angola in the 1480s, over the following century established a number of coastal settlements expanding into the interior at the expense of the native kingdoms of Kongo, Matamba and others. Portugal had established a tentative presence in what is now Cabinda in 1783, a claim recognised in an Anglo-Portuguese treaty of 22 January 1815. Meanwhile France began settling along the coast of modern Congo in the 1830-40s. In the 1880s numerous European powers sought to create colonies in the continent a process known as the Scramble for Africa.
As a result, Portugal's claim to Cabinda was recognised, at the expense of Portugal's giving up a short section of coast to the Congo Free State of Belgian King Leopold II, thereby cutting off Cabinda from mainland Angola. France gained recognition of its coastal settlements, as well as the interior lands explored by Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza for France in Central Africa. France and Portugal signed a border treaty on 12 May 1886 delimiting the western section of the frontier, extended to its current limit by a further treaty of 23 January 1901. France amalgamated its central African territories into the federal colony of French Equatorial Africa. France granted more political rights and representation for its African colonies, culminating in the granting of broad internal autonomy to each colony in 1958 within the framework of the French Community. In August 1960 France granted French Congo full independence. Portugal however resisted the wave of decolonisation in Africa, making Angola a legal part of Portugal in 1951.
Angolan nationalists began fighting for independence in 1961, achieved in 1975 following a revolution in Portugal. Cabinda meanwhile sought kick-starting the Cabinda War. Tando Limbo Miconge Banga Manga Missou Tsatou Kimongo
The New York Cosmos were an American soccer club based in New York. The side was created in 1971 by brothers Ahmet and Nesuhi Ertegun, with the support of Warner Brothers president Steve Ross; the new team entered the North American Soccer League, in its fourth season. Bankrolled by parent company Warner Communications, the Cosmos became the NASL's most successful side, winning a record five championships in front of the league's largest crowds; the team included international stars signed from European and South American clubs, including Brazilians Pelé and Carlos Alberto, West German Franz Beckenbauer, Italian striker Giorgio Chinaglia and many others. When the team was sold by Warner in 1983, to a Chinaglia-owned consortium, the Cosmos' financial resources were reduced causing the sale of the majority of the team's key players; as a result, on-the-field performance declined. The Cosmos entered the Major Indoor Soccer League for the 1984–85 indoor season, but left mid-year after disappointing gates.
After the NASL folded in March 1985, the team attempted to operate independently but played its final game in 1985 before folding. A new incarnation of the Cosmos, formed in 2010, made its debut in the new North American Soccer League during the 2013 season. In the winter of 1975, the NASL organized a two-tiered, 16 team indoor tournament with four regional winners meeting in a "final-four" style championship; the New York Cosmos won their region at the Rochester War Memorial Arena by virtue of a tie-breaker, but lost both the semi-final and the third-place matches at the Cow Palace to Tampa Bay and Dallas respectively. A. a b The "top scorer" given is the top scorer of points. Goals scored two points, assists one; these figures include the regular season only. B. ^ Starting in 1975, tied games were decided by a shootout. C. ^ The NASL's indoor seasons used the games behind system rather than points to rank the teams. The 1983–84 indoor season counted both goals and assists as one point. D. ^ The Cosmos did not enter an indoor league for the 1982–83 season.
E. ^ The Cosmos pulled out of the Major Indoor Soccer League after 33 games. The MISL used the games behind system, ranked both goals and assists as one point. BibliographyNewsham, Gavin. Once in a Lifetime: The Incredible Story of the New York Cosmos. New York, New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-4288-5. GeneralBackground sourced. NASL statistics sourced to: Whitney, David. "North American Soccer League". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 2011-01-20. Top scorers sourced to: Litterer, David. "American Soccer History Archives". American Soccer History Archives. Retrieved 2011-01-20. MISL statistics sourced to: Litterer, David. "Major Indoor Soccer League I". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 2011-01-20. Trans-Atlantic Cup statistics sourced to: Courtney, Barrie. "Trans-Atlantic Challenge Tournament". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 2011-02-17. Notes