Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
The Space Shuttle was a reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Space Shuttle program, its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, the Hubble Space Telescope; the Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters, the expendable external tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Space Shuttle was launched vertically, like a conventional rocket, with the two SRBs operating in parallel with the OV's three main engines, which were fueled from the ET. The SRBs were jettisoned before the vehicle reached orbit, the ET was jettisoned just before orbit insertion, which used the orbiter's two Orbital Maneuvering System engines. At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to re-enter the atmosphere; the orbiter glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. After landing at Edwards, the orbiter was flown back to the KSC on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a specially modified Boeing 747; the first orbiter, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability. Four operational orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger and Atlantis. Of these, two were lost in mission accidents: Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003, with a total of fourteen astronauts killed.
A fifth operational orbiter, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of Atlantis's final flight on July 21, 2011; the U. S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020. The Space Shuttle was a reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit and operated by the U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration from 1981 to 2011, it resulted from shuttle design studies conducted by NASA and the U. S. Air Force in the 1960s and was first proposed for development as part of an ambitious second-generation Space Transportation System of space vehicles to follow the Apollo program in a September 1969 report of a Space Task Group headed by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon. Nixon's post-Apollo NASA budgeting withdrew support of all system components except the Shuttle, to which NASA applied the STS name.
The vehicle consisted of a spaceplane for orbit and re-entry, fueled from an expendable External Tank containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, with two reusable strap-on solid rocket boosters. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982, all launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida; the system was retired from service in 2011 after 135 missions, with Atlantis making the final launch of the three-decade Shuttle program on July 8, 2011. The program ended after Atlantis landed at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. Major missions included launching numerous satellites and interplanetary probes, conducting space science experiments, servicing and construction of space stations; the first orbiter vehicle, named Enterprise, was used in the initial Approach and Landing Tests phase but installation of engines, heat shielding, other equipment necessary for orbital flight was cancelled. A total of five operational orbiters were built, of these, two were destroyed in accidents.
It was used for orbital space missions by NASA, the U. S. Department of Defense, the European Space Agency and Germany; the United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany. SL-J was funded by Japan. At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank; some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS. The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch; the Shuttle stack launched vertically like a conventional rocket. It lifted off under the power of its two SRBs and three main engines, which were fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the ET; the Space Shuttle had a two-stage ascent. The SRBs provided additional thrust during first-stage flight. About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which parachuted into the ocean, to
Wingtip devices are intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft by reducing drag. Although there are several types of wing tip device, which function in different manners, their intended effect is always to reduce an aircraft's drag by partial recovery of the tip vortex energy. Wingtip devices can improve aircraft handling characteristics and enhance safety for following aircraft; such devices increase the effective aspect ratio of a wing without increasing the wingspan. Extending the span would lower lift-induced drag, but would increase parasitic drag and would require boosting the strength and weight of the wing. At some point, there is no net benefit from further increased span. There may be operational considerations that limit the allowable wingspan. Wingtip devices increase the lift generated at the wingtip and reduce the lift-induced drag caused by wingtip vortices, improving lift-to-drag ratio; this increases fuel efficiency in powered aircraft and increases cross-country speed in gliders, in both cases increasing range.
U. S. Air Force studies indicate that a given improvement in fuel efficiency correlates directly with the causal increase in the aircraft's lift-to-drag ratio; the initial concept dates back to 1897, when English engineer Frederick W. Lanchester patented wing end-plates as a method for controlling wingtip vortices. In the United States, Scottish-born engineer William E. Somerville patented the first functional winglets in 1910. Somerville installed the devices on his early monoplane designs. Vincent Burnelli received US Patent no: 1,774,474 for his "Airfoil Control Means" on August 26, 1930; the earliest-known implementation of a Hoerner-style downward-angled "wingtip device" on a jet aircraft was the so-called Lippisch-Ohren attributed to the Messerschmitt Me 163's designer Alexander Lippisch, first added to the M3 and M4 third and fourth prototypes of the Heinkel He 162A Spatz jet light fighter for evaluation. This was done in order to counteract the dutch roll characteristic the marked three degrees of dihedral angle for each wing panel that the original He 162 design's wings possessed.
As production of the Third Reich's chosen turbojet-powered emergency fighter was of prime importance at the start of 1945, disruption of the production line to make other types of changes to correct such a problem were not to have been available, the added wingtip devices became a standard feature of the 320 completed He 162A jet fighters built, with hundreds more He 162A airframes going unfinished by V-E Day. Following the end of World War II, Dr. Sighard F. Hoerner was a pioneer researcher in the field, having written a technical paper published in 1952 that called for drooped wingtips whose pointed rear tips focused the resulting wingtip vortex away from the upper wing surface. Drooped wingtips are called "Hoerner tips" in his honor. Gliders and light aircraft have made use of Hoerner tips for many years; the term "winglet" was used to describe an additional lifting surface on an aircraft, like a short section between wheels on fixed undercarriage. Richard Whitcomb's research in the 1970s at NASA first used winglet with its modern meaning referring to near-vertical extension of the wing tips.
The upward angle of the winglet, its inward or outward angle, as well as its size and shape are critical for correct performance and are unique in each application. The wingtip vortex, which rotates around from below the wing, strikes the cambered surface of the winglet, generating a force that angles inward and forward, analogous to a sailboat sailing close hauled; the winglet converts some of the otherwise-wasted energy in the wingtip vortex to an apparent thrust. This small contribution can be worthwhile over the aircraft's lifetime, provided the benefit offsets the cost of installing and maintaining the winglets. Another potential benefit of winglets is; those pose a hazard to other aircraft. Minimum spacing requirements between aircraft operations at airports are dictated by these factors. Aircraft are classified by weight because the vortex strength grows with the aircraft lift coefficient, thus, the associated turbulence is greatest at low speed and high weight, which produced a high angle of attack.
Winglets and wingtip fences increase efficiency by reducing vortex interference with laminar airflow near the tips of the wing, by'moving' the confluence of low-pressure and high-pressure air away from the surface of the wing. Wingtip vortices create turbulence, originating at the leading edge of the wingtip and propagating backwards and inboard; this turbulence'delaminates' the airflow over a small triangular section of the outboard wing, which destroys lift in that area. The fence/winglet drives the area where the vortex forms upward away from the wing surface, since the center of the resulting vortex is now at the tip of the winglet. Aircraft such as the Airbus A340 and the Boeing 747-400 use winglets while other designs such as versions of the Boeing 777 and the Boeing 747-8 have raked wingtips; the fuel economy improvement from winglets increases with the mission length. Blended winglets allow a steeper angle of attack reducing takeoff distance. Richard T. Whitcomb, an engineer at NASA's Langley Research Center, further developed Hoerner's concept in response to the sharp increase in the cost of fuel after the 1973 oil crisis.
With careful aeronautical design, he showed that angled and shaped winglets could maintain the same or lower bending moment with a smaller wingspan and
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Wichita is the largest city in the U. S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Sedgwick County. As of 2017, the estimated population of the city was 390,591. Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 644,610 in 2015. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s and was incorporated as a city in 1870, it became a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to Kansas railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown."In the 1920s and'30s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita, including Beechcraft and Stearman Aircraft. The city became a U. S. aircraft production hub known as "The Air Capital of the World." Textron Aviation, Learjet and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita, the city remains a major center of the American aircraft industry. Wichita is home to McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, the largest airport in Kansas.
As an industrial hub, Wichita is a regional center of culture and trade. It hosts several universities, large museums, theaters and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena and Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center; the city's Old Cowtown Museum maintains historical artifacts and exhibits on the city's early history. Wichita State University is the third-largest post-secondary institution in the state. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation near the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers, the site of present-day Wichita, as early as 3000 B. C. In 1541, a Spanish expedition led by explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado found the area populated by the Quivira, or Wichita, people. Conflict with the Osage in the 1750s drove the Wichita further south. Prior to American settlement of the region, the site was located in the territory of the Kiowa. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it became part of Kansas Territory in 1854 and the state of Kansas in 1861.
The Wichita returned in 1864 due to the American Civil War and established a settlement on the banks of the Little Arkansas. During this period, trader Jesse Chisholm established a trading post at the site, one of several along a trail extending south to Texas which became known as the Chisholm Trail. After the war, the Wichita permanently relocated south to Indian Territory. In 1868, trader James R. Mead established another trading post at the site, surveyor Darius Munger built a house for use as a hotel, community center, post office. Business opportunities attracted area hunters and traders, a new settlement began to form; that summer and others organized the Wichita Town Company, naming the settlement after the Wichita tribe. In 1870, Munger and German immigrant William "Dutch Bill" Greiffenstein filed plats laying out the city's first streets. Wichita formally incorporated as a city on July 21, 1870. Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads which led to markets in eastern U.
S. cities. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached the city in 1872; as a result, Wichita became a railhead for the cattle drives, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". Across the Arkansas River, the town of Delano became an entertainment destination for cattlemen thanks to its saloons and lack of law enforcement; the area had a reputation for violence until local lawmen, Wyatt Earp among them, began to assertively police the cowboys. By the end of the decade, the cattle trade had moved west to Dodge City. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. Rapid immigration resulted in a speculative land boom in the late 1880s, stimulating further expansion of the city. Fairmount College, which grew into Wichita State University, opened in 1886. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state after Kansas City and Topeka with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom, the city entered an economic recession, many of the original settlers went bankrupt. In 1914 and 1915, deposits of oil and natural gas were discovered in nearby Butler County.
This triggered another economic boom in Wichita as producers established refineries, fueling stations, headquarters in the city. By 1917, there were five operating refineries in Wichita with another seven built in the 1920s; the careers and fortunes of future oil moguls Archibald Derby, who founded Derby Oil, Fred C. Koch, who established what would become Koch Industries, both began in Wichita during this period; the money generated by the oil boom enabled local entrepreneurs to invest in the nascent airplane manufacturing industry. In 1917, Clyde Cessna built his Cessna Comet in the first aircraft built in the city. In 1920, two local oilmen invited Chicago aircraft builder Emil "Matty" Laird to manufacture his designs in Wichita, leading to the formation of the Swallow Airplane Company. Two early Swallow employees, Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech, went on to found two prominent Wichita-based companies, Stearman Aircraft in 1926 and Beechcraft in 1932, respectively. Cessna, started his own company in Wichita in 1927.
The city became such a center of the industry that the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce dubbed it the "Air Capital of the World" in 1929. Over the following decades and aircraft manufacturing continued to drive expansion of the city. In 1934, Stearman's Wichita facilities became part of Boeing which would become the city's largest employer. I
Mississippi State University XV-11 Marvel
The Mississippi State University XV-11A Marvel was an experimental American STOL research aircraft of the 1960s. The MARVEL was a single-engined pusher monoplane fitted with a boundary layer control system; the first all-composite aircraft, it carried out its initial program of research on behalf of the US Army in the late 1960s, was rebuilt in the 1980s as a proof-of-concept for a utility aircraft. The Department of Astrophysics and Aerospace Engineering at the Mississippi State University had been involved in a program of research into boundary layer control on behalf of the Office of Naval Research and the US Army since the early 1950s, carrying out trials on a modified Schweizer TG-3 glider, a Piper L-21 and a Cessna O-1. Based on the results of these studies, the US Army awarded the Department a contract to develop a new STOL research aircraft the XV-11 MARVEL; the resultant design was a shoulder-winged monoplane powered by a single Allison T63 turboprop engine driving a pusher ducted propeller.
The aircraft's structure was made of fiberglass, making the Marvel the first example of an all-composite aircraft. The boundary layer control system used a blower driven by the engine to draw suction through more than one million tiny holes in the wings and fuselage, while instead of conventional flaps the Marvel used a form of wing warping to deflect the wing trailing edges to vary the wing's camber; the aircraft's tail surfaces were attached to the duct around the propeller, extending behind the duct. The undercarriage, of the so-called "Pantobase" configuration, with tandem wheels fitted within two sprung wooden pontoons, was meant to allow operation from rough surfaces, or from water, it was constructed of fiberglass, with steel used for reinforcement and as heat shields around the engine. The aircraft's wing and ducted propeller were tested on a piston-engined test bed, the XAZ-1 Marvelette; the full-sized Marvel was built by the Parsons Corporation based at Traverse City, making its first flight on December 1, 1965.
It completed a 100-hour flying program for the US Army in 1969, where it demonstrated good STOL performance, taking off within 125 ft, although the boundary layer control system was not as effective as hoped, it still provided a large amount of test data. Following the completion of the US Army testing in 1969, it was sent to storage awaiting further tests; the Marvel was brought out of storage as a proof-of-concept demonstrator of a STOL utility aircraft for Saudi Arabia. It was fitted with a more powerful engine and longer span (36 ft 10½ in wings, first flying in this form as the Marvel II on August 17, 1982. After initial tests in the United States, the Marvel II was shipped to Ta’if, Saudi Arabia, carrying out a short test program which showed that its landing gear was unsuitable for operating from soft sand and it was still underpowered, after which it returned to Mississippi. In 2000, the aircraft was displayed at EAA Airventure promoting the Mississippi State Department of Aerospace Engineering.
In 2004, the XV-11A was donated to the Southern Museum of Flight at the Birmingham International Airport in Alabama. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969–70General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 2 passengers Length: 23 ft 3.75 in Wingspan: 26 ft 2.5 in Height: 8 ft 8.25 in Wing area: 106 sq ft Aspect ratio: 6.48 Airfoil: NACA 63615 Empty weight: 1,958 lb Max takeoff weight: 2,620 lb Powerplant: 1 × Allison T63-A-5A turboprop, 316 shp Propellers: 2-bladed Aeroproducts Model 272 ducted fan, 5 ft 6 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 225 mph at 15,000 feet Cruise speed: 184 mph range cruise at 15,000 feet Stall speed: 60 mph Never exceed speed: 287 mph Range: 265 mi Service ceiling: 15,000 ft Rate of climb: 1,880 ft/min Related development AZ-1 MarveletteAircraft of comparable role and era Edgley Optica RFB Fantrainer Related lists List of experimental aircraft List of military aircraft of the United States Citations Bibliography
The Learjet 40 is a light business jet produced by Bombardier Aerospace. The Learjet 40 is derived from the Learjet 45, but with a shorter fuselage, is powered by two Honeywell TFE731-20AR engines; these are known as the "AR" engines. The 40 model takes place of discontinued light Learjet 31a in Learjet model line, with several welcome performance and comfort improvements taken from 45 model; the prototype aircraft, a rebuilt Model 45, first flew on August 31, 2002, the first production aircraft performed its maiden flight on September 5, 2002. Both flights took place from the Wichita Mid-Continent Airport; the LJ40 entered into service in January, 2004. The Learjet 40XR is an upgraded version introduced in October, 2004, offering higher takeoff weights, faster cruise speeds and faster time-to-climb rates as compared to the LJ40; the increases are due to the upgrading of the engines to the TFE731-20BR configuration. These are the "BR" engines. LJ40 owners can upgrade their aircraft through the incorporation of several service bulletins.
By 2018, Learjet 40XRs start at $2 million. General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 7 passengers Length: 55.56 ft Wingspan: 47 ft 9 3/8 in Height: 14.13 ft Wing area: 311.6 ft ² Loaded weight: 13,633 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 21,000 lb Cabin Height: 4.9 ft Cabin Width: 5.1 ft Cabin Length: 19.75 ft Cabin Volume: 368 ft³ Door Height: 4.8 ft Door Width: 2.5 ft Baggage Volume Internal: 15 ft³ Baggage Volume External: 50 ft³ Maximum Landing Weight: 19,200 lb Usable Fuel: 5,325 lb Payload with Full Fuel: 993 lb Maximum Payload: 2,305 lb Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell TFE731-20AR or -20BR in the Lear 40XR turbofan engines, 3500 lb eachPerformance Maximum speed: 464 kn Cruise speed: 457 kn Range: 1,692 nmi Service ceiling: 51,000 ft Rate of climb: 2,820 ft/min Long Range Cruise Speed: 425 kn Range – Seats Full: 1,552 nmi Balance Field Length: 4,285 ft Landing Distance: 4,442 ft Rate of Climb – One Engine Out: 710 ft/min One Engine Inoperative Service Ceiling at Maximum Weight: 27,000 ft Related lists List of civil aircraft Bombardier Learjet website Year of Learjet website