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Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, behaviors, values, or preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans and some machines; some learning is immediate, induced by a single event, but much skill and knowledge accumulates from repeated experiences. The changes induced by learning last a lifetime, it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be "lost" from that which cannot be retrieved. Humans learn before birth and continue until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment; the nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many fields, including educational psychology, experimental psychology, pedagogy. Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in intelligent animals. Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness.

Learning that an aversive event can't be avoided nor escaped may result in a condition called learned helplessness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur early on in development. Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through playing educational games. Non-associative learning refers to "a permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus. Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptation, fatigue, or injury do not qualify as non-associative learning."Non-associative learning can be divided into habituation and sensitization.

Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which one or more components of an innate response to a stimulus diminishes when the stimulus is repeated. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinction, an associative process. In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by a reward. An example of habituation can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl is put into the cage, the birds react to it as though it were a real predator. Soon the birds react less. If another stuffed owl is introduced, the birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a specific stimulus, habituated to; the habituation process is faster for stimuli that occur at a high rather than for stimuli that occur at a low rate as well as for the weak and strong stimuli, respectively. Habituation has been shown in every species of animal, as well as the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica and the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus; this concept acts in direct opposition to sensitization.

Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus. This is based on the notion that a defensive reflex to a stimulus such as withdrawal or escape becomes stronger after the exposure to a different harmful or threatening stimulus. An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that occurs if a person rubs their arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation creates a warm sensation that turns painful; the pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful. Sensitisation is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism. Active learning occurs. Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not. By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects.

Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they verbalize understandings. This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time. Studies within metacognition have proven the value in active learning, claiming that the learning is at a stronger level as a result. In addition, learners have more incentive to learn when they have control over not only how they learn but what they learn. Active learning is a key characteristic of student-centered learning. Conversely, passive learning and direct instruction are characteristics of teacher-centered learning. Associative learning is the process by which a person or animal learns an association between two stimuli or events. In classical conditioning a neutral stimulus is paired with a reflex eliciting stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits a response on its own. In operant conditioning, a behavior, reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less to occur in the presence of that stimulus.

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement or instead a punishment given after a given behavior, change the frequency and/or form of that behavior. Stimulus present whe

Cameron Borgas

Cameron James Borgas is an Australian cricketer who plays for the Southern Redbacks and Adelaide Strikers. He is a right-handed middle order batsman and has represented Australia at under 19 level, he plays A grade cricket for Sturt District Cricket Club. He was just 17 years old, he played a couple of games in 2000–01 but it was in 2005–06 that he showed his talent with maiden century of 140 against Tasmania. That was followed with an innings of 149 against New South Wales at Adelaide Oval. Borgas played a part in their one-day campaign in which they narrowly lost the final. On 15 October 2006, he was the hero in the last over. With 18 required off the final over, he hit three sixes, he finished unbeaten on 31 off 9. In January 2011, Borgas was named man of the match in the Redbacks Big Bash Grand Final victory over the NSW Blues, making 62 not out off 39 balls. In 2012, Borgas became a freelance Twenty20 cricketer and has since played in tournaments in Sri Lanka, New Zealand, Netherlands and Hong Kong as well as in Australia where he has signed a 3-year contract to play for the Sydney Thunder in the Big Bash League.

He has the unique record of having represented 3 countries, having played for Scotland and Netherlands as their overseas player in the English County one day competition and for Australia in the Hong Kong Sixes. List of South Australian representative cricketers Cameron Borgas on Twitter


Praecitrullus fistulosus known as Tinda called Indian squash, round melon, Indian round gourd or apple gourd or Indian baby pumpkin, is a squash-like cucurbit grown for its immature fruit, a vegetable popular in South Asia. It is the only member of the genus Praecitrullus; the plant is as with all cucurbits, a prolific vine, is grown as an annual. The plant is prickly with small thorns similar to the zucchini; the fruit is spherical, 5–8 cm in diameter The seeds may be roasted and eaten. Tinda is a famous nickname among Punjabi families in India; this unique squash-like gourd is native to India popular in Indian and Pakistani cooking with curry and many gourmet dishes. Green colored, apple-sized fruits are flattish round in 50 -- 60 grams in weight. Plants are vigorous and begin to bear fruits in 70 days after planting. Tinda is called "tindsi" in Rajasthan. In Marathi, it is called dhemase ढेमसे. in Hindi and Marathi called "dilpasand" In Sindhi language, it is called meha. Tinda can be confused with tendli or kundru due to similar-sounding names from different languages and regions.

Tinda in Punjabi or most North Indian languages is "Indian baby pumpkin". Tinda is considered a boring vegetable by many in North India – part of the reason is it is used in a lot of curries during high season and tastes bland unless used with a lot of spices. Further, its seeds are not favoured by many, it is unknown in South India. " Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne


Whangamomona is a small township in the Stratford District and Manawatū-Whanganui Region in New Zealand. It lies on State Highway 43, the "Forgotten World Highway", 65 kilometres north-east of Stratford and 55 kilometres south-west of Ohura. By rail it is 61 kilometres from Stratford on the Stratford-Okahukura railway line; the first settlers arrived with the town proper established some 2 years later. Growth of the town was affected by the loss of 51 men in the First World War and a major flood in 1924; the town recovered with arrival of the railway line in 1933 and electrification in 1959. However the town went into decline again and the school closed in 1979, followed 9 years by the post office. In 1989 regional council boundaries were redrawn, with an emphasis on connected catchments; these revised maps made Whangamomona part of the then-Manawatu-Wanganui Region. Residents objected, as they wanted to continue being part of the Taranaki Region, on 1 November 1989, they responded by declaring themselves the "Republic of Whangamomona" at the first Republic Day.

Though the move began as a pointed protest, the town continued to hold a celebratory Republic Day once a year, during which a vote for President was held. The day has become a local festival day, attracts visitors from throughout the North Island. In 2001, the celebration became biennial, held in January to take advantage of the summer weather. Ian Kjestrup After being put on the ballot without his knowledge, Kjestrup became the first elected President, serving 10 years. Billy Gumboot the Goat Gumboot was the first elected animal, he won election by a landslide, although some residents speculate he ate the other challengers' ballots in order to win. He died in office after serving for 18 months. Tai the Poodle Tai retired after he was attacked by a mastiff, but some speculate it was an assassination attempt. Though he survived the attack, Tai was left unfit for service and died in 2010. Sir Murt "Murtle the Turtle" Kennard The local garage owner fought off strong competition from former President Kjestrup and a cross-dresser called "Miriam" to become the 4th President.

He was re-elected in 2009 by one vote, again by a landslide in 2011. Kennard died at New Plymouth Hospice on 25 October 2015. Vicki Pratt Pratt was the first female President appointed for the Whangamomona Republic; the local publican was "somehow picked while working in the kitchen". John Herlihy Herlihy was elected ahead of Jack Spearow, Lili Jiao and Ted, despite reported attempts by Spearow to steal ballots. On Republic Day 2019 President Herlihy was re-elected for a second term, having fought off challenges from Maketoni the Teddy Bear, Sherman the Cockatoo, Eunice the Sheep, Griff Robb and a Mrs Brown look-alike at the polls. Controversy surrounded the election due to the disappearance of candidate Eunice the Sheep, with commentators noting that mutton sandwiches were for sale at the Republic Day barbecue. Opening of the road to Aotuhia: tour of the Stratford County hill country, organised by the Stratford County and the Dept. of Land and Survey, Stratford,: Stratford County Council, 1985 Church, Ian N.

The Stratford inheritance: a history of Stratford and the Whangamomona counties, Waikanae,: Heritage Press, ISBN 0-908708-17-3 Garcia, History of Whangamomona County: published by the Whangamomona Centennial Celebrations Committee as a centennial memorial and dedicated to the pioneer settlers of the district, New Plymouth,: Whangamomona Centennial Celebrations Committee 1951 photo of trains crossing at Whangamomona

McNair Evans

McNair Evans is an American photographer living and working in San Francisco and Laurinburg, North Carolina. Evans' photographs document the changing American cultural landscape in the face of forces of modernization and focus on the stories of individuals impacted by these forces in order to explore themes of shared experience and values, his work presents personal, sometimes autobiographical, subject matter in unconventional narrative form, has been recognized for its literary character. Evans grew up in the farming town of Laurinburg, North Carolina, became interested in photography while studying cultural anthropology at Davidson College, he became serious about the medium while working as a fly fishing instructor in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. He continued his education through mentorships with New Documentary photographer Mike Smith of Johnson City and Magnum Photos photographer Alec Soth, completed a Master's in Fine Arts degree from Academy of Art University, San Francisco, in 2011.

Evans is a John Gutmann Foundation Fellow, artist in residence at The Rayko Photo Center, San Francisco, the recipient of the 2013 Paul Conlan Prize. His photographs are held in major public and private collections, including the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, his work has been featured in exhibition settings and editorial publications including Harper's Magazine, The New Yorker, The Wall Street Journal, San Francisco Chronicle, Financial Times, as well as on the cover of William Faulkner's novel, Flags in the Dust, he has served as a lecturer in photography at University of California, The San Francisco Photo Alliance, The Hartford School, University of South Carolina, among others institutions. His first full-length book, Confessions for a Son, was released by Owl and Tiger Press in 2015, he is working on a project documenting the experiences of long-haul Amtrak train travelers. Official website

East Koochiching, Minnesota

East Koochiching is an unorganized territory in Koochiching County, United States. The population was 383 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the unorganized territory has a total area of 386.1 square miles, of which 385.2 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 383 people, 151 households, 109 families residing in the unorganized territory; the population density was 1.0 people per square mile. There were 273 housing units at an average density of 0.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the unorganized territory was 95.82% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.52% from other races, 2.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 151 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.2% were married couples living together, 1.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families.

23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.03. In the unorganized territory the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 118.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.1 males. The median income for a household in the unorganized territory was $32,083, the median income for a family was $32,857. Males had a median income of $35,156 versus $40,179 for females; the per capita income for the unorganized territory was $16,555. About 14.6% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over