Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire a crown land of the Austrian Empire and also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928. Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 and about 3 million inhabitants, 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic; the statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. The people are named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs; the land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno.
Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital. Though abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia; the region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh; the German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier. Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west and in the east, where all the rivers rise.
Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians, provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started. Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south, Slovakia in the southeast, Poland shortly in the north, Czech Silesia in the northeast, its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west.
The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs along the Moravice and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia. Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region, the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians, between the Danube basin and the North European Plain, its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley, the Upper Morava Valley and the Lower Morava Valley. The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin; the valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians.
The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd. Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the east, with Smrk, south from here Javorníky; the White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice; the fluvial system of Moravia is cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, thus the entire area is drained by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya from Bečva. Morav
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Ukrians were a West Slavic Polabian tribe in the Uckermark from the 6th–12th centuries. Their settlement area was centered on the lakes Oberuckersee and Unteruckersee at the spring of the Uecker River. In this region, burghs with a proto-town suburbium were set up at Drense and on an isle in Lake Oberuckersee. In 954, Margrave Gero of the Saxon Eastern March, aided by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I's son-in-law, Conrad of Lorraine, launched a successful campaign to subdue the Ukrians, who had come within reach of the Holy Roman Empire's Northern March after the 929 Battle of Lenzen. After the 983 revolt of the Obodrites and Lutici, the area became independent again, yet remained under permanent military pressure from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. Uckermark Ukranenland Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages List of medieval Slavic tribes Brandenburg Veleti Prissani
The Radimichs were a East ￼￼Slavic tribe of the last several centuries of the 1st millennium, which inhabited upper east parts of the Dnieper down the Sozh River and its tributaries. The name derives from the name of the forefather of the tribe - Radim; the lands of the Radimichs were conveniently connected with the central regions of the Kievan Rus by waterway. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Radimichs had a few known cities: Homiy and Chechersk on the Sozh, Vshchizh on the Desna River, Vorob'yin and others. Seven-beam temporal jewelry made of bronze or silver represent a specific ethnic trait of the Radimichs of the 9th - 11th century. There is little information on the Radimichs; some sources describe them as West Slavs. According to Nestor the Chronicler, the tribe of Radimichs were Lachy, similar to Lendians and used to live in areas east from Vistula river. Due to some foreign invasion they moved to the East. Historians know. In 885, the Radimichs became part of Kievan Rus. In 907, the Radimichs are mentioned as a part of Oleg's army in his military campaign against Byzantine empire.
In 984, the Radimichs tried to break away from the Kievan Rus, but were defeated on the Pischan River by Vladimir the Great's commander Volchiy Khvost. Since there had been no mentioning of the tribe in the chronicles, they continued living on their land assimilating with neighboring tribes and peoples and forming the Belarusian nationality. Subsequently, the lands of the Radimichs became a part of the Smolensk principalities; the Radimichs were last mentioned in a chronicle in 1169. List of Medieval Slavic tribes M458 genetic marker in area of Moscow Vyatichi-West genetic marker This article includes content derived from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969–1978, in the public domain
The Hevelli or Hevellians known as Stodorans were a tribe of the Polabian Slavs, who settled around the middle Havel river in the present-day Havelland region of Brandenburg in eastern Germany from the 8th century onwards. West Slavic tribes had settled in the Germania Slavica region from the 7th century onwards; the Hehfeldi as they were called by the Bavarian Geographer about 850 built their main fortification at Brenna and a large eastern outpost at the current site of Spandau. In 906 the Hevelli princess Drahomíra married. Baçlabič was the prince of Hevelli from 921-936. Brenna was occupied by the German king Henry the Fowler in his 928/29 Slavic campaign and incorporated into the Marca Geronis. Henry's successor Otto I in 948 established the Bishopric of Brandenburg in order to Christianize the pagan population; these efforts were aborted in the course of the 983 Great Slav Rising in the Northern March, which again defied German control over the region. Together with the neighbouring Sprevane in the east, the Hevelli waged war against not only the German Saxon forces to the west, but other Slavic tribes.
The baptized Hevelli prince Pribislav bequested his lands to the Ascanian count Albert the Bear. Albert until 1157 could re-conquer the territory of the former Northern March, whereafter he established the Margraviate of Brandenburg; the Slavic Hevelli were assimilated by German settlers in the course of the Ostsiedlung. List of medieval Slavic tribes genealogie-mittelalter.de
The Lutici were a federation of West Slavic Polabian tribes, who between the 10th and 12th centuries lived in what is now northeastern Germany. Four tribes made up the core of the federation: the Redarians, Circipanians and Tollensians. At least in part, the Lutici were a continuation of the Veleti. In contrast to the former and the neighboring peoples, the Lutici were not led by a Christian monarch or duke, rather power was asserted through consensus formed in central assemblies of the social elites, the Lutici worshipped nature and several deities; the political and religious center was Radgosc. The Lutici were first recorded by written sources in the context of the uprising of 983, by which they annilihated the rule of the Holy Roman Empire in the Billung and Northern Marches. Hostilities continued until 997. Thereafter, tensions with the empire eased, in 1003 the Lutici entered an alliance with the emperor against duke Boleslaw I of Poland. However, by 1033 the alliance broke apart, a German-Lutician war broke out that lasted until 1035, when the Lutici became tributaries of the empire again, but otherwise retained their independence.
A civil war between the core tribes began the decline of the Lutici in 1056/57. The neighboring Obodrites subdued the northwestern faction. In 1066, the Lutici succeeded in stirring up a revolt against the Obodrite elites, in the course of which John, the bishop of Mecklenburg, was captured and sacrificed at Radgosc; as a consequence, the bishop of Halberstadt and the emperor sacked and destroyed Radgosc in subsequent campaigns, its role as the leading pagan cult site was taken over by the Swantewit temple at Arkona. Another civil war in the 1070s led to a further decline of the Lutician federation, who were unable to resist conquests and looting by their neighbors in the following decades. During the first half of the 12th century, the settlement area of the Lutici was partitioned between Obodrite principalities, the Duchy of Mecklenburg, the re-constituted Northern March, which became the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Pomerania; the Lutici were converted to Christianity, in the 13th century were assimilated by German settlers and became part of the German people during the Ostsiedlung.
At least in part, the Lutici were a continuation of the Veleti, who are referred to by sources of the late 8th and first half of the 9th centuries as having inhabited the same region, according to the Bavarian Geographer were organized in four tribes. Whether the Lutici were ethnically identical with the Veleti remains unproven. Contemporary chronicles sometimes connect the Lutici to the Veleti, e.g. Adam von Bremen refers to them as "Leuticios, qui alio nomine Wilzi dicuntur", Helmold von Bosau says "Hii quatuor populi a fortidudine Wilzi sive Lutici appellantur." Modern scholarship sometimes refers to both entities by a double name, e.g. "Wilzen-Lutizen" in German or "Wieleci-Lucice" in Polish. In the second half of the 9th century, the Veleti disappeared from written records. Lutician tribes first appear in written records after this gap: the Redarii were mentioned first in 928 by Widukind of Corvey, who listed them in the context of Slavic tribes subdued by Henry I. Incidentally, this list contains the first mention of the Veleti after beforementioned gap, the Redarians are listed as a separate entity from the Veleti.
In 955, the Tollensians and Circipanians are first mentioned in the annals of St. Gallen in addition to the Veleti, in the context of the Battle of Recknitz; this co-listing of Veleti with Redarians, Tollensians and/or Circipanians was however not repeated in subsequent records, e.g. the Ottonian documents do not mention the Veleti at all, while referencing Redarians, Tollensians and other tribes in the respective area. Furthermore, there are only few mentions of the Veleti in 10th-century sources: in addition to beforementioned records, the Veleti are referenced only in the annals of St. Gallen in 995 and in the annals of Quedlinburg in 995 and 997. According to Fritze, this reflects the uncertain nomenclature after the Veleti's decline, at least as a political entity, in the mid-9th century. A variant of the designation "Lutici" was first recorded in the annals of Hildesheim in 991, starting in eastern Saxony, this name was adopted by other chroniclers; the first mention of the Kessinians is an entry in Adam von Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, referring to the year of 1056.
The Lutici were a federation of several smaller tribes between the Warnow and Mildenitz in the west, the Havel in the south and the Oder in the east, with the core formed by four tribes: Redarians, Tolensians and Circipanians. Within the federation, power was asserted by representatives of the clans and settlement communities; the highest political institution of both Veleti and Lutici was the assembly of the free, yet in contrast to the Veleti who were led by a prince, the Lutici were a "tribe without a ruler", meaning political power was asserted via discourse in an assembly. This type of government had its roots in the Veleti period: since the mid-9th century, no Veleti princes or kings are recorded, archaeology has revealed that in this period, many small strongholds were built in the area, in part on the ruins of the earlier, large strongholds. During the Lutician assemblies, decisions were made based on consensus, once a decision had been made it was enforced by "severe punishment" of any violations.
The Obotrites or Obodrites spelled Abodrites, were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany. For decades, they were allies of Charlemagne in his wars against the Germanic Saxons and the Slavic Veleti; the Obotrites under Prince Thrasco defeated the Saxons in the Battle of Bornhöved. The still heathen Saxons were dispersed by the emperor, the part of their former land in Holstein north of Elbe was awarded to the Obotrites in 804, as a reward for their victory; this however was soon reverted through an invasion of the Danes. The Obotrite regnal style was abolished in 1167, when Pribislav was restored to power by Duke Henry the Lion, as Prince of Mecklenburg, thereby founding the German House of Mecklenburg; the Bavarian Geographer, an anonymous medieval document compiled in Regensburg in 830, contains a list of the tribes in Central Eastern Europe to the east of the Elbe. The list includes the Nortabtrezi - with 53 civitates.
Adam of Bremen referred to them as the Reregi because of their lucrative trade emporium Reric. In common with other Slavic groups, they were described by Germanic sources as Wends; the main tribes of the Obotritic confederation were: the Obotrites proper. Other tribes associated with the confederation include: the Linonen near Lenzen, the Travnjane near the Trave, the Drevani in the Hanoverian Wendland; as allies of the Carolingian kings and the empire of their Ottonian successors, the Obotrites fought from 808 to 1200 against the kings of Denmark, who wished to rule the Baltic region independently of the empire. When opportunities arose, for instance upon the death of an emperor, they would seek to seize power. At times they levied tribute from the Saxons. Under the leadership of Niklot, they resisted a Christian assault during the Wendish Crusade. German missionaries such as Vicelinus converted the Obotrites to Christianity. In 1170 they acknowledged the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Empire, leading to Germanisation and assimilation over the following centuries.
However, up to the late 15th century most villagers in the Obotritic area were still speaking Slavic dialects, although subsequently their language was displaced by German. The Polabian language survived until the beginning of the 19th century in Hanoverian Wendland, eastern Lower Saxony; the ruling clan of the Obotrites kept its power throughout the Germanisation and ruled their country as House of Mecklenburg until the end of monarchies in Germany in November Revolution 1918. The rulers of Obotrite lands were the Dukes and Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg. List of Medieval Slavic tribes Praedenecenti Herrmann, Joachim. Die Slawen in Deutschland. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH. Turasiewicz A. Dzieje polityczne Obodrzyców od IX wieku do utraty niepodległości w latach 1160 - 1164, Warszawa 2004, ISBN 83-88508-65-2 Works related to Geographus Bavarus at Wikisource Emperor Charles the Great in 804 gave Saxon land to Obodrites, dispersed Saxons