SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Leeds and Liverpool Canal

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal is a canal in Northern England, linking the cities of Leeds and Liverpool. Over a distance of 127 miles, it crosses the Pennines, includes 91 locks on the main line, it has several small branches, in the early 21st century a new link was constructed into the Liverpool docks system. In the mid-18th century the growing towns of Yorkshire, including Leeds and Bradford, were trading increasingly. While the Aire and Calder Navigation improved links to the east for Leeds, links to the west were limited. Bradford merchants wanted to increase the supply of limestone to make lime for mortar and agriculture using coal from Bradford's collieries and to transport textiles to the Port of Liverpool. On the west coast, traders in the busy port of Liverpool wanted a cheap supply of coal for their shipping and manufacturing businesses and to tap the output from the industrial regions of Lancashire. Inspired by the effectiveness of the wholly artificial navigation, the Bridgewater Canal opened in 1759–60.

A canal across the Pennines linking Liverpool and Hull would have obvious trade benefits. A public meeting took place at the Sun Inn in Bradford on 2 July 1766 to promote the building of such a canal. John Longbotham was engaged to survey a route. Two groups were set up to promote one in Liverpool and one in Bradford; the Liverpool committee was unhappy with the route proposed, following the Ribble valley through Preston, considering that it ran too far to the north, missing key towns and the Wigan coalfield. A counter-proposal was produced by John Eyes and Richard Melling, improved by P. P. Burdett, rejected by the Bradford committee as too expensive because of the valley crossing at Burnley. James Brindley was called in to arbitrate, ruled in favour of Longbotham's more northerly route, though with a branch towards Wigan, a decision which caused some of the Lancashire backers to withdraw their support, and, subsequently amended over the course of development. In 1768 Brindley gave a detailed estimate of a distance just less than 109 miles built at a cost of £259,777.

An Act was passed in May 1770 authorising construction, Brindley was appointed chief engineer and John Longbotham clerk of works. A commencement ceremony was held at Halsall, north of Liverpool on 5 November 1770, with the first sod being dug by the Hon. Charles Mordaunt of Halsall Hall; the first section of the canal opened from Bingley to Skipton in 1773. By 1774 the canal had been completed from Skipton to Shipley, including significant engineering features such as the Bingley Five Rise Locks, Bingley Three Rise Locks and the seven-arch aqueduct over the River Aire, at Dowley Gap. Completed was the branch to Bradford. On the western side, the section from Liverpool to Newburgh was dug. By the following year the Yorkshire end had been extended to Gargrave, by 1777 the canal had joined the Aire and Calder Navigation in Leeds. From Liverpool it had reached Wigan by 1781, replacing the earlier and unsatisfactory Douglas Navigation. By now, the subscribed funds and further borrowing had all been spent, work stopped in 1781 with the completion of the Rufford Branch from Burscough to the River Douglas at Tarleton.

The war in the American colonies and its aftermath made it impossible to continue for more than a decade. In 1789 Robert Whitworth developed fresh proposals to vary the line of the remaining part of the canal, including a tunnel at Foulridge, lowering the proposed summit level by 40 feet, using a more southerly route in Lancashire; these proposals were authorised by a fresh Act in 1790, together with further fund-raising, in 1791, construction of the canal recommenced south-westward from Gargrave, heading toward Barrowford in Lancashire. By this time planning for the competing Rochdale Canal was under way and it was to offer a more direct journey to Liverpool via Manchester and the Bridgewater Canal; the same year John Rennie surveyed a branch of the Rochdale between Burnley. In 1794 an agreement was reached with the Manchester and Bury Canal company to create a link near Red Moss near Horwich; the company's experiences running the two sections of the canal had shown that coal not limestone would be its main cargo, that there was plenty of income available from local trade between the settlements along the route.

With this in mind in the same year, the route was changed again with a further Act, moving closer to that proposed by Burdett. The Manchester and Bury Canal company proposed another link from Bury to Accrington; this new link would have been known as the Haslingden Canal. The Peel family asked the canal company not to construct the crossing over the River Hyndburn above their textile printworks. Accrington was bypassed and the Haslingden Canal was never built, yet more fund-raising took place, as the Foulridge Tunnel was proving difficult and expensive to dig. The new route took the canal south via the expanding coal mines at Burnley and Blackburn, but would require some sizable earthworks to pass the former; the completion in 1796 of the 1,640 yards long Foulridge Tunnel and the flight of seven locks at Barrowford enabled the canal to open to eastern Burnley. At a cost of £40,000 the tunnel became the most expensive single item in the whole project. At Burnley, rather than using two sets of locks to cross the shallow Calder valley, Whitworth designed the Burnley Embankment, a 1,350 yards (1,2

Talat Yot

Talat Yot is a khwaeng of Phra Nakhon District, considered to be majority area of Bang Lamphu neighbourhood. Its name after Talat Yot, a large marketplace that used to be located in this area, it was known as Bang Lumphu. At the beginning it was just a small market during the reign of King Nangklao it grew into a bigger market, there was a major improvement in the year 1902. Talat Yot was a large market in the inner Bangkok in those days. There was a wide variety of goods trading, such as both fresh and dried foods, flowers and candles, various Thai desserts and jewelry stores, leather stores, fabric shops, they starting from small stores and successively develop, until the reign of King Vajiravudh therefore became an important trading centre to date. Moreover, there was another important market near Talat Yot called Talat Norarat, a fruit market outside Rattanakosin Island. In the 1970s, Bang Lamphu consists of three main markets, namely Talat Yot, Talat Turian, Talat Nana. For Talat Nana, its name is derived from the surname of Lek Nana, a Thai-Indian politician and real estate entrepreneur, an owner.

It closed down in the 1980s. Neighbouring subdistricts are: Wat Sam Phraya, Ban Phan Thom, Bowon Niwet, Phra Borom Maha Ratchawang, Chana Songkhram

Cape Arkona

Cape Arkona is a 45-metre high cape on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It forms the tip of the Wittow peninsula, just a few kilometres north of the Jasmund National Park; the protected landscape of Cape Arkona, together with the fishing village of Vitt, belongs to the municipality of Putgarten and is one of the most popular tourist destinations on Rügen, receiving about 800,000 visitors annually. On the cape there are two lighthouses, a navigation tower, two military bunker complexes, the Slavic temple fortress of Jaromarsburg and several tourist buildings; because of its geology and the weathering that occurs here, there are frequent coastal collapses in winter. Cape Arkona is referred to as "the northernmost point of Rügen", not true. One kilometre to the north-west, there is a point on the steep coast, known as the Gellort, a little further north. Directly at the foot of the Gellort is a 165-ton glacial erratic boulder known as the Siebenschneiderstein; the cape offers an impressive view of the island, both from sea.

The smaller of the two lighthouses was built of brick in 1826/27 based on plans by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and taken into service in 1828. It has a focal height of 60 m above sea level; the rooms of the three-storey tower are used as operating and storage rooms. It is called the Schinkelturm. On 31 March 1905 it was taken out of service, it is the second oldest lighthouse on the German Baltic Sea coast after the Travemünde Lighthouse. The largest tower was built in 1901/02 right next to the old tower and entered service on 1 April 1905, it is 35 metres high and has a focal height of 75 m above NN. It stands on an octagonal granite base. For 90 years its light source was two arc lamps, but they were replaced in 1995 by a Metal-halide lamp. This, combined with the rotating triple optics, emits 3 flashes every 17 seconds; the old naval navigation tower was acted as a marine navigation beacon. From 1911 to 1925, attempts were made - which were ground-breaking for that time - to improve navigation for the Sassnitz-Trelleborg railway ferry, established in 1909, using the emission of radio waves.

The foundations of the associated radio operating facility inside the ramparts have survived to this day. The technical facilities of the navigation tower were destroyed, however, in 1945 All three towers were renovated in the early 1990s and are open to visitors. In the old lighthouse, there is now a branch of the registry office. Marriages may be commemorated here on a small plaque in the ground in front of the tower; the navigation tower is used as studio. On each tower there is a viewing platform from which there are unobstructed views of Rügen and the peninsula of Wittow. In clear weather you can see as far as the Danish island of Møn. From the 9th to the 12th centuries, the Jaromarsburg was a cult site for the Rani, a Slavic tribe, dedicated to their god Svantevit. Located at the tip of the cape, it was protected on three sides by cliffs and from the land side by a 25-metre-high burgwall; the temple located within the ramparts grew in importance as a religious centre for the Slavs of Mecklenburg after the destruction of Rethra in 1068.

In 1168, the Danish king Valdemar I conquered Rügen which became Christian. Churches were established and the castle and its temple destroyed. At the tip of Arkona in recent centuries, the cliffs have collapsed into the sea, with the result that only the ramparts of the Jaromarsburg are still visible today. Several metres west of Cape Arkona is the Königstreppe, whose 230 steps climb up the 42-metre-high cliff 230; the Swedish king, Frederick IRügen belonged to Sweden – had a daymark erected near the present-day steps during the Russo-Swedish War in order to warn the population. Hence the spot was known as the Königssteig or "King's Climb". In 1833, for the arrival of the steamboat Hercules during its Imperial Russian chronometer expedition, the Prussian king, Frederick William III - Rügen was now Prussian - had a landing stage and flight of steps built. From this point in 1865, the first telegraph cable was laid under the Baltic Sea to Sweden. With the rise of the island's coastal resorts, tourism at Cape Arkona grew.

Many travelers came by excursion boats. The landing stage was, however destroyed by the storm flood of 1953; the new Königstreppe steps were completed in 1995 at the same historic spot. South of the remnants of the ramparts at Jaromarsburg are the Veilchentreppe, a descent to the beach that runs from Arkona to Vitt; the name comes from the violets. There are 2 bunkers in the immediate neighbourhood of the 2 lighthouses; the smaller, older bunker dates from Wehrmacht times and, in GDR days, housed an outpost of the 6th Border Brigade. It is called the Arkona Bunker; the larger, newer bunker was built from 1979 to 1986 and acted as a command post for the Sixth Flotilla, stationed on Bug, the Baltic Fleet. Starting from a main central tunnel with two entrances, there are several autonomous individual bunkers with a total area of 2,000 square metres, they comprise nine small ones, made of prefabricated concrete elements. The FB-75 type bunker had an intermediate floor level, where the sleeping areas were located, an emergency exit.

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