Michael William Gatting OBE is an English former cricketer, who played first-class cricket for Middlesex and for England from 1977 to 1995, captaining the national side in twenty-three Test matches between 1986 and 1988. He toured South Africa as captain of the rebel tour party in 1990, he replaced John Buchanan as the county coach, serving during 1999 and 2000. He is an elected member of the Middlesex C. C. C. Executive Board and the M. C. C. Committee, he has served as the ECB managing director of Cricket Partnerships and President of Marylebone Cricket ClubCricket writer Colin Bateman has stated that "talk of Gatting the batsman always evokes adjectives such as pugnacious, bold and belligerent". As a youngster, Gatting became first batsman to score a century on Youth ODI debut in 1976, he scored 126 runs. Before playing cricket professionally, Gatting used to play football for Watford reserves; as a fourteen-year-old goalkeeper on trial at Queen's Park Rangers, Gatting was told that he was too short and fat to make the grade.
Gatting went on an unfrutiful trial with fellow Londoners Arsenal. That being so, he turned to cricket for his sporting future and QPR signed the other trialist that day, Phil Parkes. In domestic cricket, Gatting was one of the most prolific batsmen in England for most of his career, but it took him several years to establish himself in the England team, he had great difficulty converting fifties into centuries at Test match level and he did not achieve a Test century until his fifty-fourth Test innings. His highest Test score of 207 was scored in Madras. Graeme Fowler scored a double century in the same innings. Gatting captained England to an Ashes series victory in Australia in 1986/87. During a one-day match in 1986, Gatting's nose was shattered by a ferocious delivery from West Indies fast bowler Malcolm Marshall. Marshall found shards of the nose embedded in the ball's leather; the incident set the tone for the series as the West Indies' fearsome pace attack spearheaded England's thrashing 5–0.
Another mishap for which Gatting will be remembered is being caught by Australian wicketkeeper Greg Dyer, after trying to play a reverse sweep off opposing captain Allan Border's first ball during the 1987 World Cup final. In 1987, Gatting gained notoriety in the "Shakoor Rana affair" when he argued with umpire Shakoor Rana in Faisalabad, he was accused of adjusting the field illegally, i.e. after the bowler had started running in, warned. In fact, Gatting had been signalling to the long leg fielder to stop walking in, the move was legal as it was not in the batsman's eyeline. Rana shouted'stop, stop' and signalled dead ball, infuriating Gatting. Tempers were frayed following a string of umpiring decisions that had gone against England, the England team were unhappy that Rana was wearing a Pakistan sweater under his jacket. An on-pitch argument ensued, during the course of which Rana accused Gatting of breaking the rules and Gatting shouted'We made the rules', he had to be dragged away by Bill Athey.
Rana refused to resume the match the following morning until Gatting delivered a handwritten apology, which he did under protest – the match was drawn due to bad light. The England hierarchy supported him, flying officials out to mediate with the board and deal with press relations; the Pakistan board supported Rana, naming him umpire for the deciding Test, from which position they only backed down when it was clear the England team would not play if Rana officiated, naming two other umpires. Indeed, the TCCB subsequently paid all players in the England party a £1000'hardship' bonus for the tour. Martin Williamson, editor of Cricinfo, subsequently commented of the incident,'Whatever the provocation, Gatting was in the wrong.' Gatting reflected that'it wasn't a proud moment of my career.' He admitted that, whatever the official reason given, it was the real reason why he lost the England captaincy the following summer. However, it went a long way towards establishing the principle of the superiority of the umpire over the players, which had not always been the case and Rana said he did it'for umpires everywhere'.
Gatting was sacked as England captain the following summer over an alleged encounter with a barmaid, triggering the "summer of four captains". He subsequently led a controversial rebel tour to South Africa. Gatting hit the headlines during the tour for describing a protest outside the rebel team's hotel as "a few people singing and dancing". In June 1993, during England's first innings at Old Trafford, Gatting received Shane Warne's first delivery – now known as the "Ball of the Century" – in an Ashes match. Warne pitched the ball a foot outside leg stump and spun the ball past Gatting's bat to clip the off bail. Gatting's dismissal in the second innings was unusual, in that he was bowled off the last ball of the fourth day's play by Merv Hughes, meaning he was unable to help England bat out the last day. Australia went on to win during the last session on that last day. Gatting's last Tests were played on tour in Australia in 1994/95. Graham Gooch and himself were the only two members of the original touring party to be fit for all matches, although they were the two oldest in the squad.
In the first innings of the Adelaide Test he scored his final century, a battling effort where he spent a lot of time in the nineties. His score helped England to their only win in the series. Gatting was a useful right arm medium pace bowler, he avera
Glossary of cricket terms
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding. Cricket is known for its rich terminology; some terms are thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game. Across the line A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball. Agricultural shot A swing across the line of the ball played without much technique. One that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat, or that winds up with the ball going to cow corner. A type of a slog. Air When a spin bowler delivers a ball with a more looping trajectory than usual, he is said to be giving the ball some air. In combination with top spin, the objective is to lure the batsman into misreading the length of the ball.
In combination with off spin or leg spin, the objective is to give the ball more time to drift. All out When an innings ends due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness. All-rounder Traditionally, a player adept at both bowling. Good all-rounders in the modern game include Shane Watson, Ben Stokes, Shakib Al Hasan; some recent sources regard a wicket-keeper/batsman as another type of all-rounder, but this usage is not universal. Anchor A top-order batsman capable of batting for a long time. Batsmen at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, is the top scorer in the innings. Angler A type of late-swing delivery used by Bart King in the early 1900s. King, a right-arm fast bowler, delivered his inswinger with the right arm raised over the left ear, concealed the seam of the ball by starting his action with the ball held in both hands, in the manner of baseball pitchers.
It is unclear whether angler referred to his outswinger. Appeal A bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Phrased in the form of howzat Common variations include'Howzee?', or turning to the umpire and shouting. The umpire cannot give a batsman out unless the fielding side appeals if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met. However, batsmen who are out will leave the field without waiting for an appeal. Approach The motion of the bowler before bowling the ball, it is known as the run-up. The ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Arm ball A deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler, not spun, so that, it travels straight on. A good bowler's arm ball might swing away from the batsman in the air. Around the wicket or round the wicket A right-handed bowler passing to the right of the non-striker's stumps in his run-up, vice versa for a left-handed bowler. Compare with over the wicket; the Ashes The perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series.
The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, the body would be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia; the English press dubbed the next English tour to Australia as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women; the contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of a bail. Asking rate The run rate at which the team batting second needs to score to catch the opponents' score in a limited overs game. Same as'required run rate'. Attacking field A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more at the risk of allowing more runs to be scored should the ball get past them. Attacking shot An strong hit by the batsman designed to score runs.
Average A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed. Away swing see out swing Back foot In a batsman's stance, the back foot is the foot, closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot, the bowling foot is the back foot. Back foot contact The position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just before releasing the ball Back foot shot A shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot. Back spin A delivery with a backward spin, so that after pitching the ball slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman. Backing up 1; the non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run.
A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler. 2. A fielder w
Mushtaq Ahmed (cricketer, born 1970)
Mushtaq Ahmed Malik is a Pakistani former cricketer who acts as the spin bowling coach for the West Indies cricket team. A leg break googly bowler, at his peak he was described as being one of the best three wrist-spinners in the world. In an international career that spanned from 1990 until 2003, he claimed 185 wickets in Test cricket and 161 in One Day Internationals, he was at his most prolific internationally between 1995 and 1998, but his most successful years were as a domestic player for Sussex in the early 2000s. Mushtaq was part of the Pakistan team which won the 1992 Cricket World Cup, five years he was named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year. During his time with Sussex, he was the leading wicket-taker in the County Championship for five successive seasons, helped the county win the competition in 2003, 2006 and 2007. Mushtaq Ahmed made his first-class cricket debut in January 1987, at the age of 16. Playing for Multan, he claimed four wickets in the second innings of the match against Sukkur.
He claimed his maiden recorded five-wicket haul in the format the following season, playing for the Punjab Chief Minister's XI against the touring England cricket team. Shortly thereafter, he competed in the 1988 Under-19 World Cup, where he was the joint leading wicket-taker, claiming 19 wickets at an average of 16.21. Pakistan reached the final of the tournament. Early the following season, Mushtaq took the first ten-wicket haul of his career, collecting six wickets in the first innings and eight in the second innings of a match against Peshawar, he continued to impress that season, took 52 wickets at an average of 22.84. He continued to appear for Pakistan Under-19s, took 26 wickets in their series against India under-19s, more than double any other Pakistani player, his strong performances resulted in a call-up to the Pakistan national cricket team in March 1989. He made his full international debut on 23 March 1989, playing a One Day International against Sri Lanka, he took two wickets for 33 runs in the match.
He retained his place in the Pakistan side for the subsequent tri-series with India and the West Indies, made his Test cricket debut in January 1990 against Australia at the Adelaide Oval. His only wicket of the match was that of Mark Taylor. A year took fourteen wickets in a match against Peshawar, collecting five in the first innings, followed by nine in the second, finishing the match with figures of 14 for 130. In 1992, Mushtaq was part of the Pakistan team, he was joint-second amongst bowlers by wickets taken, having claimed 16 during the tournament, trailing only his compatriot Wasim Akram. He struggled to make a significant impact in Test cricket for a number of years after his debut: between 1990 and 1994, he only claimed ten or more wickets in a Test series on one occasion, against England in 1992. However, between November 1995 and March 1998, he took at least ten wickets in every Test series, claimed ten five-wicket hauls; the first occasion on which he claimed five wickets in an innings in Test cricket was the second Test against Australia in November 1995.
He repeated the feat in the third Test of that series, in the only Test of the subsequent series against New Zealand, in which he recorded his best figures in a Test match, seven for 56. His only five-wicket haul in ODI cricket occurred in the fifth ODI of the "Sahara'Friendship' Cup", a series played between India and Pakistan in Toronto, Canada, he took five wickets for 36 runs to help Pakistan win the match by 52 runs, thus clinch the series 3–2. During his most prolific years of Test cricket, he played his first spell of county cricket, appearing for Somerset between 1993 and 1998. In his book Somerset County Cricket Club, Eddie Lawrence describes Mushtaq as "one of Somerset's best-ever "overseas" signings." He played 62 first-class matches for the county, claimed 289 wickets at an average of 26.32. In 1997, he was named as one of the five Wisden Cricketers of the Year, in which he was described as being a member of "a glittering triumvirate of wrist-spinners who adorn the modern game."In the late 1990s, Mushtaq was one of a number of Pakistan cricketers who were suspected of match-fixing.
Saleem Pervez alleged that he had given Mushtaq, along with Salim Malik, £100,000 to intentionally lose a match against Australia in September 1994. After an inquiry, Mushtaq was fined £3,500, banned from captaining Pakistan; the judge presiding over the inquiry stated that: "There are sufficient grounds to cast strong doubt on Mushtaq Ahmed." After losing his place in the Pakistan national cricket team, Mushtaq played one season of county cricket for Surrey in 2002, having appeared in the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition for Northop Hall the previous year. He failed to impress for Surrey, claiming eight wickets at an average of 38.12. The following season, he joined Sussex, where he became the leading county wicket taker for five seasons in a row, playing a major role in Sussex's first County Championship title, his form for the county prompted a recall to international duty, but it was short-lived: he played two Tests and one ODI before being dropped for the final time. He helped Sussex to win the County Championship twice more before persistent knee injuries forced him to retire at the end of the 2008 season.
In 85 matches with Sussex, Mushtaq claimed 478 wickets at an average of 25.34. In late 2008, the England and Wales Cricket Board appointed Mushtaq as spin-bowling coach to the England cricket team until 2014 when lost his job in Peter Moores reshuffle, he joins batting coach Graham Gooch and Richard Halsall, the fielding coach in not retaining their ro
Bernard Bosanquet (cricketer)
Bernard James Tindal Bosanquet was an English cricketer best known for inventing the googly, a delivery designed to deceive the batsman. When bowled, it appears to be a leg break, but after pitching the ball turns in the opposite direction to that, expected, behaving as an off break instead. Bosanquet, who played first-class cricket for Middlesex between 1898 and 1919, appeared in seven Test matches for England as an all-rounder, he was chosen as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1905. Bosanquet played cricket for Eton College from 1891 to 1896, before gaining his Blue at Oriel College, Oxford, he was a moderately successful batsman who bowled at fast-medium pace for Oxford University between 1898 and 1900. As a student, he made several appearances for Middlesex and achieved a regular place in the county side as an amateur. While playing a tabletop game, Bosanquet devised a new technique for delivering a ball named the "googly", which he practised during his time at Oxford, he first used it in cricket matches around 1900, abandoning his faster style of bowling, but it was not until 1903, when he had a successful season with the ball, that his new delivery began to attract attention.
Having gone on several minor overseas tours, Bosanquet was selected in 1903–04 for the representative Marylebone Cricket Club tour of Australia. During that tour, he made his Test debut for England and although he failed as a batsman, he performed well as a bowler and troubled all the opposing batsmen with his googly. More success followed. However, he never remained an erratic performer. After 1905, Bosanquet's bowling went into decline. After taking part in the First World War in the Royal Flying Corps, he married and had a son, Reginald Bosanquet, who became a television newsreader, he died in 1936, aged 58. Bosanquet was born in Bulls Cross, Middlesex, on 13 October 1877, he was one of five children of his wife Eva Maude Cotton. Many of his relations were well known in their fields, including his uncle and namesake Bernard Bosanquet the philosopher, his grandfather, James Whatman Bosanquet, was a banker and achieved distinction as a biblical historian. His father worked for the banking firm Bosanquet & Co. and became a partner in a firm of hide and fur brokers in London.
His great grandfather, Sir Nicolas Conyngham Tindal was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas between 1829 and 1846. After going to Sunnymede School in Slough, Bosanquet attended Eton College between 1891 and 1896. While at Eton, he received cricket coaching from the Surrey professionals Maurice Read and Bill Brockwell, they improved his play to the point where he played for the cricket first eleven in 1896. Against Winchester College, he took three wickets and scored 29 not out in the second innings, while at Lord's Cricket Ground against Harrow School, Bosanquet scored 120 runs in 140 minutes. At this time, he bowled fast-medium pace, while as a batsman he had developed, in the words of his obituary in The Times, "a rather curious, wristless style. In 1897, Bosanquet went to Oriel College and although he left in 1900 without completing a degree, he recorded many sporting accomplishments. Making his first-class debut in 1898 for Oxford University against a team selected by Middlesex captain A. J. Webbe, he had little batting success during the season, having a top score of 17 runs.
He was more productive with the ball, twice taking five wickets in an innings for Oxford, was awarded his cricket Blue. Selected for the University Match, he made 54 not out, his highest score of the season, he made two appearances for Middlesex, but did not distinguish himself, scoring 17 runs and taking no wickets. In all first-class matches in 1898, Bosanquet scored 168 runs at a batting average of 14.00 and took 30 wickets at a bowling average of 18.70. At the end of the season, he joined a team led by Plum Warner which toured America, where he had further success as a bowler. Bosanquet improved his record for Oxford in 1899, scoring two fifties and taking five wickets on three occasions before the University match. Against Cambridge, he took seven wickets for 89 runs in the first innings. Bosanquet's record earned him selection for the Gentlemen against the Players, he played another two matches for Middlesex and ended the season with a batting record of 419 runs in all matches, at an average of 27.93, 55 wickets at 22.72.
He played some end of season non-first-class matches for I Zingari, taking 16 wickets in a game against Ireland, went on another tour of America, led by K. S. Ranjitsinhji. Bosanquet's final season for Oxford was his best statistically, he scored his maiden first-class century against London County and, against Sussex, he recorded what were to be the best bowling figures of his career, taking nine for 31 in the second innings and a total of 15 wickets in the game for 65 runs. His final match for Oxford was the 1900 University match, in which he scored 42 and 23. For the remainder of the season, Bosanquet re-joined Middlesex, in his second match, against Leicestershire, achieved the rare distinction of a century in each innings: 136 in 110 minutes in the first innings, followed by 139 in 170 minutes in the s
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.