An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
The untitled fifth studio album by the British electronic music duo Autechre was released in 1998 by Warp Records. No title was printed anywhere within the artwork, so it is referred to as LP5, in line with the EP EP7; this album shows Autechre abandoning the full, warm sounds of earlier albums like Amber in favor of a fine-tuned, technical style they had begun exploring on Chiastic Slide and the Cichlisuite EP. The track "Drane2" is a response to Aphex Twin's "Bucephalus Bouncing Ball", according to Sean Booth, is an answer to Autechre's earlier track "Drane":yeah we did the track drane, which had that exponential speeding-up delay thing happening, rich did that bouncing ball track, we answered it with drane2, the same delay trick but feeding percussion into it instead, as a kind of tease Greg Prato of AllMusic gave the album 4.5 out of 5 stars and said that "all the songs are cut from the same sonic cloth". Pitchfork listed LP5 as album number eight on their 2017 list of "The 50 Best IDM Albums of All Time", stating that LP5 balances the accessibility of their earlier work with the more challenging material to come, thus represents "a certain peak."
All tracks written by Rob Brown. On US pressings, the hidden track is moved to its own 12th track, the silence after "Drane2" is shortened by three minutes; the hidden track is not found on vinyl pressings
Oversteps is the tenth album by electronic music duo Autechre, released on Warp Records in 2010. The album was made available for official download on bleep.com and the Japanese iTunes Store on 22 February 2010. Critics were quite positive about Oversteps, with many considering it more focused and accessible than previous albums. A few months after its release, Oversteps was followed by a companion EP entitled Move of Ten. In a March 2010 interview with Clash, Autechre members Sean Booth and Rob Brown said they did not know if any other music influenced the development of Oversteps; the dynamic between the duo in the studio was called "hilariously accommodating" in the same interview, with Booth stating "I don’t mind backing down". Autechre streamed a twelve-hour webcast in early March 2010, coinciding with the album's release, as they had with the releases of Untilted and Quaristice; the album artwork was created by The Designers Republic. Oversteps was released on 23 March 2010. Before its release, numerous fake versions of the album showed up on Internet websites, just as had happened with the previous three sets.
Brown said. Oversteps peaked at No. 15 and No. 46 on Billboard's Dance/Electronic Albums and Heatseekers Albums charts the week of 10 April 2010. Oversteps received positive reviews, with most agreeing it is one of the band's most accessible albums to date. Matt Kennedy of BBC was complimentary, noted that while "Oversteps is no exception to their outwardly difficult aesthetic.... Beneath the icy exterior, deceptively warm hearts beat", he added that, as per usual, the album was not accessible, but that listening to it is "the only method of absorbing Oversteps’ depths", concluding, "Autechre continue to test themselves and listeners alike with stunningly intricate results."Paul Clarke of Drowned in Sound agreed, saying Oversteps "initially still seems as imposing as an abandoned warehouse surrounded by nine feet of razor wire", but "does have entry points for the casual listener". He compared it to mid-1990s sets by fellow IDM group Future Sound of London, saying the album's songs "all seem to blossom out of each other to immerse the listener in a synaesthetic environment."
He concluded his review on a similar note as Kennedy, saying, "Oversteps is still a challenging listen, one which reveals endless layers of new detail with each spin. But it’s their most rewarding—and arguably best—album to date."Patrick Sisson of Pitchfork Media said the album recalled earlier works such as Amber, saying, "the ambience and atmospheres of Oversteps are haunting." He called the album "less rigid" and "almost organic", concluding that Autechre were "still incorporating new designs, not repackaging the previous products." All tracks written by Rob Brown. Official release announcement
Quaristice is the ninth studio album by British electronic music duo Autechre released on 29 January 2008 by Warp Records. It was made available for download via bleep.com in FLAC and MP3 format on 29 January 2008 and received a physical release on 3 March 2008. Autechre members Rob Brown and Sean Booth changed their approach for Quaristice, moving from a more deliberate studio process to a more spontaneous and "jam session" style of songwriting doubling the usual number of tracks per album to twenty. Booth said in a March 2008 interview, "a lot of the album tracks are edited-down jams. We’d have a fifteen-minute jam, a ten- or a seven-minute and end up with a three- or four-minute track, we just kept them all." The album is accompanied with track-by-track artwork from The Designers Republic. The last thirty seconds of "The Plc" contain a brief repeated sample of Run–D. M. C.'s 1985 track "Here We Go". In an interview, Booth said "the actual product is the FLAC file – but I don't object to those who want to own something that they can hold."
The album was released as a 2-CD set with alternate versions of 11 tracks on a second 68-minute CD. The casing is a photo-etched, steel case and the release was limited to 1000 copies; the limited edition sold out within 12 hours of being announced. Quaristice received somewhat positive reviews overall. Andy Kellman of AllMusic said that despite the large amount and short running time of the tracks, that "the ideas arrive formed, never appearing to be dashed off or loosely sketched, "and that "not since LP5 has being impressed been so secondary to enjoyment." Mark Richardson of Pitchfork said that while the album was "in some ways the most listenable album created in a decade," he warned that it was "ultimately no easier to parse, can be rough going indeed if you're not in the mood for their peculiar world." However, Andy Gill of The Independent gave a negative review, saying that the album found "the Autechre duo of Rob Brown and Sean Booth still searching vainly for structure and meaning among a impenetrable undergrowth of synthesized ticks and tones."
All tracks written by Rob Brown. A second disc, entitled Quaristice, was included in the limited edition. Listen to Quaristice at Bleep.com Quaristice at metacritic
Incunabula is the debut studio album by English electronic music duo Autechre, released by UK label Warp on 29 November 1993, again by Wax Trax! on 25 January 1994 in the United States. Incunabula was re-released on vinyl by Warp on 11 November 2016. In 2012, UK magazine Fact named it the 11th best album of the 1990s. Autechre member Rob Brown stated that the album was "more of a compilation of old material" and that he considered their follow-up album Amber to be group's first proper album for Warp. Music critics David Stubbs and Ned Raggett noted that Incunabula would differ from Autechre's releases. Raggett found that the album "doesn't display the full experimentation which would dominate their future albums and singles" while Stubbs that following both Incunabula and Amber that Autechre "took an remote turn, moving away from both the blissful pastures of the chillout zone and the wildfire, staplegun rhythms characteristic of the'Intelligent Dance Music' brigade."Raggett continued that the first track "Kalpol Introl" "sets the overall mood for the rest of the record" with the track's combination of minimal beats and bass with various keyboard textures and understated melodies.
He concluded. In a contemporaneous review, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch stated that most techno would be repellent to audiences with its "insistent beat and repetitive tape loops" but that this was not the case with the genre's "ambient strain", lumping Autechre with groups like The Orb and Ultramarine and artists such as Aphex Twin; the review found little relevance in citing individual tracks as highlights as they ebbed and flowed into each other, but stated that "the music is never boring and does inspire fits of introspection."From retrospective reviews, David Stubbs of The Wire discussed both Incunabula and Amber stating the two were "terrific adventures in homebrewed Techno but not radically dissimilar in method from the work of their Warp contemporaries." Raggett of AllMusic stated that "despite the relative sameness in the basic arrangements of tracks covering the better portion of the album -- a few song subtractions wouldn't have hurt the 75-minute length any -- Incunabula still stands out as a better effort than many other U.
K. techno albums of the early'90s." The New Rolling Stone Album Guide gave the both Incunabula and Amber two and half stars out of five, describing them as "smart if unexciting ambient watercolors" that "give no indication of the innovations to follow". Pitchfork gave a positive review of the album, while echoing Raggett's comment on an excessive 75 minute running time with tracks like "Windwind" "exhausting it's 11-minute runtime" while praising tracks such as "Bike" and "Basscadet", described as a "fan favourite." Fact would place the album at 11th place on their list of best albums of the 1990s, stating that it was a "symphony of whirrs and rattling spokes. All tracks written by Rob Brown. Credits adapted from Incunabula's liner notes. Sean Booth – writer, producer Rob Brown – writer, producer Adrian Harrow – assistance Richard Brown – assistance Darrell Fitton – assistance Geoff Pesche – mastering The Designers Republic – design Daniel 72 – original images Incunabula at the official Warp website
Intelligent dance music
Intelligent dance music is a form of electronic music originating in the early 1990s, regarded as "cerebral" and better suited to "home listening" than dancing. Emerging from electronic and rave music styles such as techno, acid house, ambient music, breakbeat, IDM tended to rely upon individualistic experimentation rather than adhering to characteristics associated with specific genres. Prominent artists associated with the genre include Aphex Twin, μ-Ziq, the Black Dog, the Orb, the Future Sound of London, Luke Vibert, Venetian Snares and Boards of Canada; the term "intelligent dance music" has been criticised and rejected by artists associated with the style, including Aphex Twin and µ-Ziq, as elitist and derogatory towards other genres. The term is said to have originated in the US in 1993 with the formation of the "IDM list", an electronic mailing list chartered for the discussion of a number of prominent English artists appearing on the 1992 Warp compilation Artificial Intelligence. In 2014, music critic Sasha Frere-Jones observed that the term "is reviled but still used".
In the late 1980s, riding the wave of the acid house and early rave party scenes, UK-based groups such as The Orb and The KLF produced ambient house, a genre that fused house music with ambient music. By the early 1990s, the distinct music associated with dance music experimentation had gained prominence with releases on a variety of UK-based record labels, including Warp, Black Dog Productions, R&S Records, Carl Craig's Planet E, Rising High Records, Richard James's Rephlex Records, Kirk Degiorgio's Applied Rhythmic Technology, Eevo Lute Muzique, General Production Recordings, Soma Quality Recordings, Peacefrog Records, Metamorphic Recordings. In 1992, Warp released Artificial Intelligence, the first album in the Artificial Intelligence series. Subtitled "electronic listening music from Warp", the record was a collection of tracks from artists such as Autechre, B12, The Black Dog, Aphex Twin and The Orb, under various aliases; this would help establish the ambient techno sound of the early 1990s.
Steve Beckett, co-owner of Warp, has said the electronic music that the label was releasing was targeting a post-club, home-listening audience. Following the success of the Artificial Intelligence series, "intelligent techno" became the favored term, although ambient—without a qualifying house or techno suffix, but still referring to a hybrid form—was a common synonym. In the same period, other names were used, such as "art techno," "armchair techno," and "electronica", but all were attempts to describe an emerging offshoot of electronic dance music, being enjoyed by the "sedentary and stay at home". At the same time, the UK market was saturated with frenetic breakbeat and sample-laden hardcore techno records that became formulaic. Rave had become a "dirty word," so as an alternative, it was common for London nightclubs to advertise that they were playing "intelligent" or "pure" techno, appealing to a "discerning" crowd that considered the hardcore sound to be too commercial. In 1993, a number of new "intelligent techno"/"electronica" record labels emerged, including New Electronica, Mille Plateaux, 100% Pure, Ferox Records.
In November 1991, the phrase "intelligent techno" appeared on Usenet in reference to Coil's The Snow EP. Off the Internet, the same phrase appeared in both the U. S. and U. K. music press in late 1992, in reference to Jam & Spoon's Tales from a Danceographic Ocean and the music of The Future Sound of London. Another instance of the phrase appeared on Usenet in April 1993 in reference to The Black Dog's album Bytes, and in July 1993, in his review of an ethno-dance compilation for NME, Ben Willmott replaced techno with dance music, writing "...current'intelligent' dance music owes much more to Eastern mantra-like repetition and neo-ambient instrumentation than the disco era which preceded the advent of acid and techno."Wider public use of such terms on the Internet came in August 1993, when Alan Parry announced the existence of a new electronic mailing list for discussion of "intelligent" dance music: the "Intelligent Dance Music list", or "IDM List" for short. The first message, sent on 1 August 1993, was entitled "Can Dumb People Enjoy IDM, Too?".
A reply from the list server's system administrator, Brian Behlendorf, revealed that Parry wanted to create a list devoted to discussion of the music on the Rephlex label, but they decided together to expand its charter to include music similar to what was on Rephlex or, in different genres but, made with similar approaches. They picked the word "intelligent" because it had appeared on Artificial Intelligence and because it connoted being something beyond just music for dancing, while still being open to interpretation. Artists that appeared in the first discussions on the list included Autechre, Atom Heart, LFO and Rephlex Records artists such as Aphex Twin, µ-ziq and Luke Vibert. By the end of 1996, Boards of Canada and the Schematic Records label were among the usual topics of discussion, alongside perennial favorites like Aphex Twin and the Warp repertoire; as of 2015, the mailing list is still active. Warp's second Artificial Intelligence compilation was released in 1994; the album featured fragments of posts from the IDM mailing list incorporated into typographic artwork by The Designers Republic.
Sleeve notes by David Toop acknowledged the genre's multitude of