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Lehigh Canal

The Lehigh Canal or the Lehigh Navigation Canal is a navigable canal, beginning at the mouth of Nesquehoning Creek on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania. It was built in two sections over a span of twenty years, beginning in 1818; the lower section spanned the distance between Easton and the town of Mauch Chunk, present-day Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania. In Easton the canal met the Delaware and Morris Canals, with which goods could be brought further up the east coast. At its height, the Lehigh Canal was 72 miles long. Although the canal was used to transport a variety of products, its most significant cargoes were anthracite coal and pig iron. Cornerstones of the American Industrial Revolution, they defined the character of the towns surrounding the canal; the route consisted of dammed-off sections of the Lehigh River. Boatmen had to navigate their barges periodically from the canal through a lock onto the river or vice versa; this design saved time and money while the canal was being built, although it made for a slower, more difficult trip for canal-boat captains.

The Lehigh Coal Mine Company was founded in 1792, a few months after anthracite was discovered at Sharpe Mountain. The company found it easy to find and mine coal from a pit on the mountainside, the coal had to be loaded into sacks and onto pack animals which carried the coal at least 9 miles to the Lehigh shore. Disposable skiffs known as arks were built from local timber, which were manned along the lower Lehigh River rapids. Despite many politically connected stockholders and officers, the operation was unsupervised by upper management. With no officer willing to manage from the field, the LCMC sent out teams. Firewood and charcoal were expensive and hard to find in the eastern U. S. by the War of 1812. Before the war, the LCMC's record of getting coal to market was so dismal that coal imported from England was cheaper and more available; the war gave the company an incentive to send another expedition by independent contractors in 1813. After a year they brought only two to market; the loss was the last straw for many of the company's backers, who were unwilling to fund more expeditions despite the two boats bought back by White and Hazard.

The Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company, its founder Josiah White and White's protege and partner Erskine Hazard established a reputation for innovation. White and Hazard researched emerging technologies as needed, pioneering industrial innovations including the first wire suspension bridge over the Schuylkill River. There are few rivers, the navigation of, more the subject of legislation than that of the Lehigh; the river was first declared a public highway on the fourteenth of March, 1761, an Act, supplementary to this, was passed in 1771. Acts, conferring corporate privileges on the "Lehigh Navigation Company," were passed February 27th, 1798, March 7th, 1810, March 22d, 1814, March 19th, 1816, March 24th, 1817. On March 20th, 1818, their new Lehigh Navigation Company was given ownership of the Lehigh to do as it would, with but one restriction; the lower canal began as a collection of removed stone obstructions and low rock dams with a system of wooden "bear-trap locks" invented by Lehigh Navigation Company managing partner Josiah White, who debugged scale models of the lock design on Mauch Chunk Creek.

Experiments with the bear-trap locks gave Bear Lane, an alley in Mauch Chunk off Broadway in today's Jim Thorpe, its name. White and partner Erskine Hazard, who operated a wire mill and nail factory at the Falls of the Schuylkill, needed energy. After learning the value of anthracite during the British blockades in 1814, White and Hazard joined a number of Philadelphians in a joint-stock venture to build the Schuylkill Canal but quarreled with those on the board of managers who did not favor rapid development, they learned that the managers of the Lehigh Coal Mine Company were willing to option their rights because of their long-term inability to make a profit by transporting anthracite nearly 110 miles from Pisgah Ridge. The Lehigh Navigation Company held a charter to improve the navigability of the Lehigh River, but had accomplished little and the charter would expire in 1817. White and Hazard made a proposal specifying improvements for downriver navigation only, received a charter giving the company ownership of the river in March 1818.

The charter had a fall-back provision allowing the legislature to require improvements enabling two-way navigation. The plan, says Josiah White, its originator, was to "improve the navigation of the river by contracting the channels funnel fashion, to bring the whole flow of water at each of the falls to as narrow a compass as the law would allow, by throwing up the round river stones into low walls not higher than we wanted to raise the water for the required depth of fifteen or eighteen inches by the natural flow, to make artificial freshets to supply the deficiency. I suppo

Milecastle 68

Milecastle 68 is a conjectured milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. The site of the milecastle has been calculated from measurement to known milecastle sites, but no remains providing proof of its existence have been identified. 1969 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted. 1972 - English Heritage Field Investigation. An old excavation trench was noted at grid reference NY37095717; the Field Investigator speculated that it could have been opened in an attempt to find the North-West angle of the milecastle, but without apparent success. The trench had, however revealed some large. 1990 - Hadrian's Wall Project Field Investigation. It was noted that no visible remains existed, no trace of the trench noted by the previous Field Investigator could be identified; each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison.

The turrets associated with Milecastle 68 are known as Turret 68A and Turret 68B, though no evidence of either has been identified. Daniels, Charles, "Review: Fact and Theory on Hadrian's Wall", Britannia, 10: 357–364, doi:10.2307/526069, JSTOR 526069


Redlichia is a genus of redlichiid trilobite in the family Redlichiidae, with large to large species. Fossils of various species are found in Lower Cambrian -aged marine strata from China, Pakistan, the Himalayas, Spain, southern Siberia, Antarctica, from Middle Cambrian -aged marine strata of Australia. Redlichia has a rather flat and thinly calcified dorsal exoskeleton of inverted egg-shaped outline, about 1½× longer than wide, measured across the base of the genal spines and disregarding the spine on the 11th segment of the articulated middle part of the body; the headshield is semicircular, about ⅓× as long as the body, with clear genal spines that are a smooth continuation of the border, that extend backward and outward and curving to be near parallel near their tips, which extend to the backhalf of the articulated middle part of the body. The thorax consists of 11-17 segments, with the 11th from the front bearing a backward directed spine on the midline. Redlich named the genus Hoeferia in 1899.

It turned out however, that this name was given to an arcid bivalve by Bittner in 1894, rendering it an unavailable junior homonym. This is why in 1902, Cossmann renamed 1899 as Redlichia. Mesodema Whitehouse, 1939, Dongshania Lin in Qiu et al. 1983, Spinoredlichia Liu, 1975, are all considered to be synonyms of Redlichia. The type species, R. noetlingi, is found in Lower Cambrian-aged marine strata of Western Pakistan. A similar species, R. chinensis, is found in Lower Cambrian-aged marine strata of China. R. nobilis, is found in Lower Cambrian-aged marine strata of South Korea. Some of the species that were assigned to Redlichia were moved to other genera. R. blanckenhorni = Redlichops blanckenhorni R. finalis = Redlichaspis finalis R. nakamurai = Neoredlichia nakamurai R. walcotti Lu, 1941= Archaeops lui R. walcotti Mansuy, 1912= Saukandiops walcotti R. cf. walcotti Saito, 1934= Latiredlichia saitoi

Angeles Crest 100 Mile Endurance Run

The Angeles Crest 100-Mile Endurance Run, or AC100, is an ultramarathon 100 miles long that takes place annually along trails through California's Angeles National Forest. The course was designed to be a challenging 30-hour course, but due to its difficulty, the official cut-off time is set to 33 hours; the race is limited to 150 participants. The race starts in Wrightwood, following portions of the Pacific Crest Trail, the Silver Moccasin Trail, the Gabrielino Trail, it finishes at Loma Alta Park in CA, near NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first event was held in 1986, was mapped out by Del Beaudoin. Since the course has remained consistent; the original finish line was the Rose Bowl in Pasadena through 1991. In 1992 the finish line was shifted to Johnson's Field in the Arroyo, adjacent to the Arroyo Seco. In 2008 the finish line was moved in Altadena. Since the early 2000s the course has been extended an extra 1 mile around Cooper Canyon due to a closure enforced by the Forest Service to save the endangered Yellow-Legged Tree Frog.

The race was held in September until 2010. After the Station Fire cancelled the 2009 race, the race dates were changed in order to avoid the fire season; when Jim O'Brien set the course record in 1989, the overall course was about 1 mile longer. Runners who cross the finish line in less than 24 hours receive the Silver Belt Buckle. A solid sterling silver belt buckle, only 15 to 20 percent of participants earn this award each All runners finishing between 24 and 25:05 hours receive the Second Sunrise Ram Buckle, made of solid bronze. Any runner who completes the race between 25:47 and 33 hours is awarded with the 33 Hour Ram Buckle. Additionally, all finishers regardless of finishing time get an engraved metal plate mounted on a solid walnut plaque and a finisher T-shirt. Jim O'Brien, until 2013 coach of Arcadia Boys' Cross Country team, has held the men's course record since 1989 with a finish time of 17:35:48. Pam Smith holds the women's course record with her time of 21:04:18, which she achieved in 2014.

This race is one of the four 100-mile endurance runs in the United States that comprise the "Western Slam," a feat entailing the completion of these four notoriously tough 100-mile events: Leadville 100 in Colorado Western States 100 in Northern California Wasatch 100 in Utah Angeles Crest 100 in Southern California Angeles Crest 100 Homepage RealEndurance AC100 race page

Criddle/Vane Homestead Provincial Park

Criddle/Vane Homestead Provincial Park was designated a provincial park by the Government of Manitoba in 2004. The park is 1.32 square kilometres in size. The park is considered to be a Class III protected area under the IUCN protected area management categories. Aweme was the name given to their homestead and the surrounding region by the Criddle and Vane families; this region is the location of the longest continuous observation of insect activity and variety at a single area in Manitoba, much of it represented by voucher specimens in collections across North America. The most significant collections of this material are held by the Canadian National Collection of Insects and Nematodes in Ottawa and the J. B. Wallis Museum of Entomology at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. Norman Criddle was familiar with the insects of the area and made sure that anything new or different was sent to the appropriate specialist for review. Several insect species are described based on specimens collected there.

Ephraim Porter Felt described the following species of gall midges based on specimens collected at Aweme in the first decade of the twentieth century. Rabdophaga rosacea Rabdophaga normaniana Rabdophaga racemiA similar relationship with H. C. Fall resulted in the addition of new beetle taxons. List of protected areas of Manitoba Norman Criddle Historic Sites of Manitoba: Criddle-Vane Homestead

Mrs. Fisher's

Mrs. Fisher's, Inc. known as Mrs. Fishers Potato Chips, is a regional manufacturer of potato chips founded in Rockford, Illinois; the company was begun in 1932 by Ethel Fisher and today is a recognized brand name of potato chips in parts of the Midwestern United States. According to the Mrs. Fisher's website, it was Eugene Fisher, Ethel Fisher's husband, who had the idea of producing potato chips. Eugene and Ethel cooked chips to earn extra money during The Depression; the logo for Mrs. Fisher's potato chips, invented by Eugene in the first year of business, has changed little over the years; the logo features a'potato-man' wearing a top hat dancing in a circle with two children. Packaging for Mrs. Fisher's features bright red and yellow striping along the edges; the brand carried the name "Mr. and Mrs. Fisher's"; the company, which still operates out of Rockford, was sold by Ethel Fisher to truck driver Sylvester Hahn in 1949. Employee Anthony Marsili, his brother Mario, purchased the business in 1962.

And for 29 years, the company was owned by Chuck and Paul DiVenti. The company is owned by Roma and Mark Hailman, former employees who bought the company in 2007. Since its inception Mrs. Fisher's has remained a locally run company. Mrs. Fisher's chips are sold in southern Wisconsin. Mrs. Fisher's produces several types of potato chips: regular, rippled, BBQ, BBQ rippled, French Onion, dark chips; the dark chips are made from a different potato. Mrs. Fisher's chips; the company produces caramel corn and other items under separate label. Rockford, Illinois Potato chip Official website