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Leigh-on-Sea

Leigh-on-Sea referred to as Leigh, is a town and civil parish in Essex, England. A district of Southend-on-Sea, with its own town council, it is the only civil parish within the borough. Leigh-on-Sea is situated on the northern side of the Thames Estuary, only a few miles from the open waters of the North Sea to the east, a similar distance from the Kent coast to the south; the coastal environs of the town feature a nature reserve at Two Tree Island and a centrally located beach adjacent to Bell Wharf. At low tide, Leigh's foreshore has a wide expanse of mud flats and creeks, extending offshore towards the deep water channel of the Thames. Leigh is 40 miles from central London via road and rail networks and is considered part of the London commuter belt. Archaeological finds of pottery and coins from Romano-British era in the locality suggest early settlement. From at least the Saxon period a hilltop clearing amidst the woodland that covered much of the surrounding area of Essex came to be known as Leigh.

A place of minor economic importance at the time of the Norman Conquest, a reference to Leigh appears in the Domesday Book survey of 1086. Ley is a place-name element found in the nearby towns and villages of Hadleigh, Rayleigh and Thundersley. From the late Middle Ages onwards, Leigh evolved from a rustic backwater through eras of increased and diminished maritime trade to form, by the early 20th century, the westernmost suburb of the borough of Southend-on-Sea. Beyond the fishing and trading settlement on the shore of the Thames Estuary, a number of farms including Leigh Heath Farm, Leigh Park Farm, Belfairs Farm, Gowles/Gowlds, Owls Hall Farm, Wood Farm, Elm Farm and Leigh Hall Farm existed; the parish church, St. Clement's, was rebuilt in the late 15th century or early 16th century, although the list of Rectors dates back 1248; the fabric of the church is of Kentish ragstone and flint rubble, with a Tudor porch constructed of red brick. The medieval structure of the church was added to and altered during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The chancel was extended at the east end in 1872 by C F Haywood, E Geldart added the south aisle in 1897, there were a number of alterations made by Sir Charles Nicholson in 1913 and 1919. The tower at the west end was a prominent landmark for shipping on the Thames Estuary, the building contains a good selection of stained glass dating from between the 18th and 20th centuries; the building is Grade II* listed by Historic England, a key factor for this rating was the sympathetic nature of the 19th and 20th century additions. Leigh Hall, a medieval manor house demolished in the early 20th century, was once situated near the ancient eastern manorial boundary of Leigh and Prittlewell; the house and a trackway leading from it to a church on a nearby clifftop pre-dated the centre of modern-day Leigh-on-Sea and its primary commercial thoroughfare Broadway. The Rt Rev Robert Eden, who became Leigh's rector in 1837, demolished the existing rectory and commissioned a large new one, completed in 1838.

One quarter of the building remains today as Leigh Library, as the other wings of the building were demolished by Southend Corporation when they acquired the building and the surrounding land. The rectory and grounds occupied a 6-acre site, the work carried out by Eden included the construction of Rectory Grove as a public right of way, which replaced an existing cliff-top path called Chess Lane, a second trackway between Elm Road and the springs situated near the top of Billet Lane. In the 11th century Leigh was a marginal community of homesteads; the Domesday Book records'five smallholders above the water who do not hold land', who were engaged in fishing thus giving Leigh a claim to nearly a thousand years of activity in the fishing industry. The main seafood catch from Leigh fishing boats has always been whitebait. Many of the local trawlers were at one time bawleys, two of Old Leigh's pubs – the Peter Boat and Ye Olde Smack – owe their names to types of local fishing boat. Local fish merchants land and trade a wide range of supplies daily, including shrimps, crab, haddock and mackerel, whelks and oysters.

The riverside settlement of'Old Leigh', or'The Old Town', is significant. From the Middle Ages until the turn of the 20th century, Old Leigh hosted the settlement's market square, high street. Leigh had grown to become a prosperous port by the 16th century. Elizabethan historian William Camden described Leigh as "a proper fine little towne and verie full of stout and adventurous sailers". By the 1740s however, Leigh's deep water access had become silted up and the village was in decline as an anchorage and port of call. With the advent of the railway line from London to Southend during the mid-19th century, much of the "old town" was demolished to accommodate its passage, new housing and streets began to be built on the ridge of hills above the settlement. Broadway developed between the 1870s and the 1920s from a residential street to a commercial parade of shopfronts, as the town began to expand. During the 1930s, Broadway was extended further west with the demolition of a large manor house, Black House/Leigh House.

At this time London Road and Leigh Road were becoming established as commercial thoroughfares, with shops, industrial premises, entertainment venues

Gardams Building

Gardams Building is a heritage-listed retail building at 114 Queen Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built in 1881, it is known as Rutter and Sons. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992; this building was constructed in late 1881 and occupied by January 1882. The deed of grant for allotment 11A was made to Auguste Deleuse in September 1881, following the 1880 demolition of the convict barracks which had occupied the site since 1827. A government decision to dispose of this Crown land prompted the redevelopment of that portion of the northern side of Queen street bounded by Albert Street and the first Brisbane Town Hall. Deleuse erected a two storeyed building with basement, negotiated a five year lease with jeweller Thomas Gerrard. Ownership of the property transferred to John Ferguson in April 1888. Ferguson, MLA for Rockhampton at the time, was a building contractor and mining investor, his purchase of this site appears to have been speculative.

After Fergusons death in 1906 title passed to various trustees who retained the site until its purchase by Gardams Silk Store Pty Ltd at auction in August 1950. Tenants at the time of sale were Rutter and Son, there since the latter years of World War I. In addition to the original building, another brick building with ground and two upper floors fronting Burnett Lane was included in the sale. Sewerage maps indicate a structure in that position from at least 1913; this building has been incorporated within the present Gardams premises. The building continued to be used by Gardams until the heritage listing in 1992. Gardams have subsequently relocated to another site. Since 2013, Flight Centre operate their Brisbane flagship store in the building. Gardam's building is a small scale Victorian era commercial building that features some elaborate Italianate detailing, it has two storeys of stuccoed brick on a stone basement. At street level the facade has been modernised with large plate glass shop windows and a recessed central entrance.

However, the upper facade remains. Three window openings with round arched heads fill the upper facade; the elaborate hood moulds of the arches are carried by fluted pilasters with Corinthian capitals. This arrangement gives the impression of arcading on the upper facade. Within the openings are timber sash windows. Large stylised vermiculated keystones rise from the arches to support the cornice. At either end of the upper facade large fluted pilasters with Corinthian capitals support the cornice; the cornice is an elaborate element of the facade considering the size of the building. It has ornamented dentils. Above the cornice is a parapet with a central triangular pediment. At the ends of the parapet are pedestals and an open Italianate balustrade runs between these and the pediment. Three large cast cement urns crown the pediment; the building at the rear of the site fronting Burnett Lane was separate, but has been amalgamated with the front building during the present ownership. Evidence of this connection can be seen from the upper level of the rear building.

A connection has been made at the first floor level in the front section of the building to allow access to the same level of the neighbouring Hardy Brothers building. This example of a small scale Victorian commercial building is part of a surviving group of buildings of similar scale and detail from this era fronting Queen Street and as such contributes to the streetscape. Gardams was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. Gardams Building is significant as evidence of the secondary phase of development in Queen Street during the early 1880s, initiated by the disposal of the convict barracks; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. Gardams remains a good example of a small two-storeyed commercial building of the Victorian era with ornate detailing; the place is important because of its aesthetic significance.

Aesthetically, it is significant as a part of a group of surviving 1880s commercial buildings which contribute to the streetscape of Queen Street. This Wikipedia article incorporates text from "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Media related to Gardams Building at Wikimedia Commons

Harry Levine (sociologist)

Harry Gene Levine is an American sociologist known for his research on alcohol and illicit drugs in American society. He is a professor of sociology at Queens College and the Graduate Center, CUNY, his work has included studies on marijuana arrests in New York City, which have found that such arrests are more common there than in any other city in the world, that they were much more common from 1998-2007 than from 1988-1997. He has found that over the 15 years leading up to 2011, far more of those arrested in New York City for marijuana possession were black than were Latino or white. Levine's research has found that during the period from 2002 to 2010, under the mayoralty of Michael Bloomberg, marijuana arrests by the NYPD increased and 87% of those arrested for marijuana were black or Hispanic. Faculty page

Oga Line

The Oga Line is a railway line in Japan operated by East Japan Railway Company. It connects Oiwake Station in Akita Prefecture to Oga Station in Oga, Akita Prefecture, it is nicknamed the Oga Namahage Line. KiHa 40 series EV-E801 series The line first opened on 9 November 1913 as the Funakawa Light Railway from Oiwake to Futada; this was extended to Wakimoto on 8 November 1914, to Hadachi on 1 December 1915, to Funakawa on 16 December 1916. On 2 September 1922, the line was renamed the Funakawa Line. A freight-only branch from Funakawa to Funakawaminato was opened on 10 June 1937. On 1 April 1968, the line was renamed the Oga Line, coinciding with the renaming of Funakawa Station to Oga Station. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the line came under the control of JR East. In spring 2017, a new EV-E801 series battery electric multiple unit train was introduced on the Oga Line service from Akita. A special recharging facility was built at Oga Station. So far, there is only one battery electric trainset operated on this line, but in December 2019 JR East announced the plan to introduce additional such trainsets on this route after the fiscal year 2020 replacing KiHa 40 and 48 diesel multiple units.

This would make the Oga Line another non-electrified railway line in Japan where battery electric trains replaced diesel trains.

Goofy's Hysterical History Tour

Goofy's Hysterical History Tour is a video game released in September 28, 1993 for the Sega Genesis by Absolute Entertainment. Goofy finds a job that he likes at the Ludwig von Drake History Museum and he turns into a great janitor worker, but his enemy Pete is out to get him fired by sabotaging the exhibits. Goofy must recover the missing pieces of the exhibits, defeat Pete, save his job all before the curator comes in tomorrow. With Goofy's Extend-O-Hand, the player must travel through time; these missions include Medieval Times, the Age of Piracy, Prehistoric Times, the Wild West. List of Disney video games by genre

1946 California's 12th congressional district election

An election for a seat in the United States House of Representatives took place in California's 12th congressional district on November 5, 1946, the date set by law for the elections for the 80th United States Congress. In the 12th district election, the candidates were five-term incumbent Democrat Jerry Voorhis, Republican challenger Richard Nixon, former congressman and Prohibition Party candidate John Hoeppel. Nixon was elected with 56% of the vote, starting him on the road that would a quarter century lead to the presidency. First elected to Congress in 1936, Voorhis had defeated lackluster Republican opposition four times in the then-rural Los Angeles County district to win re-election. For the 1946 election, Republicans sought a candidate who could unite the party and run a strong race against Voorhis in the Republican-leaning district. After failing to secure the candidacy of General George Patton, in November 1945 they settled on Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon, who had lived in the district prior to his World War II service.

Nixon spent most of 1946 campaigning in the district, while Voorhis did not return from Washington D. C. until the end of August. Nixon's campaign worked hard to generate publicity in the district, while Voorhis, dealing with congressional business in the capital, received little newspaper coverage. Voorhis received the most votes in the June primary elections, but his percentage of the vote decreased from his share in the 1944 primaries. At five debates held across the district in September and October, Nixon was able to paint the incumbent as ineffectual and to suggest that Voorhis was connected to communist-linked organizations. Voorhis and his campaign were on the defensive and were ineffective in rebutting Nixon's contentions; the challenger defeated Voorhis in the November general election. Various explanations have been put forward for Nixon's victory, from national political trends to red-baiting on the part of the challenger; some historians contend that Nixon received large amounts of funding from wealthy backers determined to defeat Voorhis, while others dismiss such allegations.

These matters remain subjects of historical debate. Since its creation following the 1930 census, the 12th district had been represented by Democrats; the 12th stretched from just south of Pasadena to the Orange and San Bernardino county lines, encompassing such small towns as Whittier and Covina. The area has since been absorbed into the Los Angeles megalopolis, but at the time it was principally agricultural; the freeway system had touched the 12th district. In 1932, John Hoeppel was elected to represent the 12th district. In 1936, Hoeppel was vulnerable as he had been convicted for trying to sell a nomination to West Point. Voorhis defeated Hoeppel in the Democratic primary and won the general election. Voorhis, who gained a reputation as a respected and hard-working representative, nicknamed "Kid Atlas" by the press for taking the weight of the world on his shoulders, was loyal to the New Deal; the 12th district leaned Republican, the more so after 1941 when the Republican-dominated California State Legislature attempted to gerrymander Congressman Voorhis out of office by removing strong Democratic precincts in East Los Angeles from the district during the decennial redistricting.

The revamped 12th district had little industry and no union influence. Voorhis was left with such Republican strongholds as San Marino, where he did not campaign, concluding that he would receive the same number of votes whether he visited there or not. Despite the maneuvers of the Republicans in the legislature, Voorhis was re-elected in 1942, receiving 57% of the vote, won with a similar percentage two years later. Voorhis had not faced strong opposition prior to 1946. In his initial election, Voorhis benefited from the Roosevelt landslide of 1936, his 1938 opponent was so shy. In 1940, he faced Captain Irwin Minger, a little-known commandant of a military school, his 1942 opponent, radio preacher and former Prohibition Party gubernatorial candidate Robert P. Shuler, "embarrassed GOP regulars". In 1944, the 12th district Republicans were bitterly divided, Voorhis triumphed; as Voorhis served his fifth term in the House, Republicans searched for a candidate capable of defeating him. Local Republicans formed what became known as the "Committee of One Hundred" to select a candidate with broad support in advance of the June 1946 primary election.

This move caused some editorial concern in the district: The Alhambra Tribune and News, fearing the choice of a candidate was being taken away from voters in favor of a small group, editorialized that the committee formation was "a step in the wrong direction" and an attempt to "shove Tammany Hall tactics down our throats". The Committee wooed State Commissioner of Education Walter Dexter. Dexter was reluctant to give up his state post to run and sought a guarantee that he would receive another job if his candidacy failed, he continued to consider running for several months without reaching a decision, frustrating local Republicans. As Dexter dithered, Republicans tried to get General George Patton to run, though they were not certain if the general was a Republican. However, a day after the Los Angeles Times speculated on the run, Patton announced from Germany his intent to "keep out of politics"; the Committee contacted Stanley Barnes, a rising young Republican attorney and former football star at the University of California, Berkeley.

Barnes declined to be considered, skeptical o