Southend-on-Sea referred to as Southend, is a town and wider unitary authority area with borough status in southeastern Essex, England. It lies on the north side of the Thames Estuary, 40 miles east of central London, it is bordered to the west by Castle Point. It is home to the longest leisure pier in Southend Pier. London Southend Airport is located 1.5 NM north of the town centre. Southend-on-Sea consisted of a few poor fishermen's huts and farms at the southern end of the village of Prittlewell. In the 1790s, the first buildings around what was to become the High Street of Southend were completed. In the 19th century, Southend's status of a seaside resort grew after a visit from Princess Caroline of Brunswick, Southend Pier was constructed. From the 1960s onwards, the town declined as a holiday destination, Southend redeveloped itself as the home of the Access credit card, due to it having one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges. After the 1960s, much of the town centre was developed for commerce and retail, many original structures were lost to redevelopment.

An annual seafront airshow, started in 1986 when it featured a flypast by Concorde, used to take place each May until 2012. The "south end" of the village of Prittlewell, Southend was home to a few poor fisherman huts and farms that lay at the southern extremity of Prittlewell Priory land. In the 1790s landowner Daniel Scratton sold off land either side of what was to become the High Street, the Grand Hotel and Grove Terrace were completed by 1794, stagecoaches from London made it accessible. Due to the bad transportation links between Southend and London, there was not rapid development during the Georgian Era like Brighton, it was the coming of the railways in the 19th Century and the visit of Princess Caroline of Brunswick that Southend's status of a seaside resort grew. During the 19th century Southend's pier was first constructed and the Clifftown development built, attracting many tourists in the summer months to its seven miles of beaches and bathing in the sea. Good rail connections and proximity to London mean that much of the economy has been based on tourism, that Southend has been a dormitory town for city workers since.

Southend Pier is the world's longest pleasure pier at 1.34 mi. It has suffered fires and ship collisions, most in October 2005, but the basic pier structure has been repaired each time; as a holiday destination, Southend declined from the 1960s onwards, as holidaying abroad became more affordable. Southend became the home of the Access credit card, due to it having one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges, with offices based in the former EKCO factory, Maitland House, Victoria Circus and Southchurch Road. Since much of the town centre has been developed for commerce and retail, during the 1960s many original structures were lost to redevelopment – such as the Talza Arcade & Victoria Market and Southend Technical College. However, about 6.4 million tourists still visit Southend per year, generating estimated revenues of £200 million a year. H. M. Revenue & Customs, are major employers in the town, the central offices for the collection of VAT are located at Alexander House on Victoria Avenue.

An annual seafront airshow, started in 1986 when it featured a flypast by Concorde whilst on a passenger charter flight, used to take place each May and became one of Europe's largest free airshows. The aircraft flew parallel to the seafront, offset over the sea; the RAF Falcons parachute display team and RAF Red Arrows aerobatics team were regular visitors to the show. The last show was held in 2012. Southend-on-Sea was formed as a municipal borough in 1892 with the functions of local government shared with Essex County Council. In 1913 the borough was enlarged by the former area of Leigh on Sea Urban District. In 1914 the enlarged Southend gained the status of county borough, exempt from county council control and a single-tier of local government; the county borough was enlarged in 1933 by the former area of Shoeburyness Urban District and part of Rochford Rural District. In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, Southend became a district of Essex with borough status. However, in 1998 it again became the single tier of local government when it became a unitary authority.

Seventeen wards each return three councillors, a total of 51. Councillors serve four years and one third of the council is elected each year, followed by one year without election. Following the 2019 election results, the composition of the council is: The Southend-on-Sea Borough Council was controlled by the Conservative Party after they gained control in the 2000 election, they maintained a minority administration after the 2012 local elections, however the council was run by a coalition of Lib Dems and Independents after June 2014, with the Conservatives gaining overall control again in 2018. Most day-to-day decisions are by an eight-member executive headed by the council leader; the Latin motto,'Per Mare Per Ecclesiam', emblazoned on the municipal coat of arms, translates as'By Sea, By Church', reflecting Southend's position between the church at Prittlewell and the sea as in the Thames estuary. The town has been twinned with the resort of Sopot in Poland since 1999 and has been developing three-way associations wit

Sz├ęchenyi Chain Bridge

The Széchenyi Chain Bridge is a chain bridge that spans the River Danube between Buda and Pest, the western and eastern sides of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. Designed by English engineer William Tierney Clark and built by Scottish engineer Adam Clark, it was the first permanent bridge across the Danube in Hungary, it was opened in 1849. It is anchored on the Pest side of the river to Széchenyi Square, adjacent to the Gresham Palace and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, on the Buda side to Adam Clark Square, near the Zero Kilometre Stone and the lower end of the Castle Hill Funicular, leading to Buda Castle; the bridge has the name of István Széchenyi, a major supporter of its construction, attached to it, but is most known as the "Chain Bridge". At the time of its construction, it was regarded as one of the modern world's engineering wonders, it has asserted an enormous significance in the country's economic and cultural life, much as the Brooklyn Bridge has in New York and the US. Its decorations made of cast iron, its construction, radiating calm dignity and balance, have elevated the Chain Bridge to a high stature in Europe.

It became a symbol of advancement, national awakening, the linkage between East and West. The bridge was designed by English engineer William Tierney Clark in 1839, following an initiative by Count István Széchenyi, with construction supervised locally by Scottish engineer Adam Clark, it is a larger-scale version of Tierney Clark's earlier Marlow Bridge, across the River Thames in Marlow and was designed in sections and shipped from the United Kingdom to Hungary for final construction. It was funded to a considerable extent by the Greek merchant Georgios Sinas who had financial and land interests in the city and whose name is inscribed on the base of the south-western foundation of the bridge on the Buda side; the bridge opened in 1849, after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, becoming the first permanent bridge in the Hungarian capital. At the time, its centre span of 202 metres was one of the largest in the world; the lions at each of the abutments were carved in stone by the sculptor János Marschalkó and installed in 1852.

They are similar in design to the bronze lions of Trafalgar Square. The bridge was given its current name in 1898; the bridge's cast-iron structure was updated and strengthened in 1914. In World War II, the bridge was blown up on 18 January 1945 by the retreating Germans during the Siege of Budapest, with only the towers remaining, it was rebuilt, reopened in 1949. The inscription on each side of the bridge is to "Clark Adam", the bridge builder's name in the local Eastern name order. A plaque on the Pest side of the river reads "To commemorate the only two surviving bridges designed by William Tierney Clark: The Széchenyi Chain Bridge over the Danube at Budapest and the suspension bridge over the Thames at Marlow, England." In 2001 Hungarian stunt pilot Péter Besenyei flew upside down under the bridge, a manoeuvre that became a standard in Red Bull air races today. The bridge is featured in I Spy, Au Pair, Walking with the Enemy and Spy, is the setting of the climax scene in Bollywood blockbuster Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam.

The bridge appears in the opening shot of the 2019 Black Widow trailer. The bridge featured prominently in Matthew Barney's Cremaster 5, serving as a reference to Harry Houdini, appears in Dan Brown's novel Origin and in the Season Two premiere episode of Syfy channel's 12 Monkeys, which aired in April 2016, it appears at the beginning of the video for Katy Perry's song "Firework", K-pop vocal duo Davichi's music video for the song "Cry Again". Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube Széchenyi Chain Bridge at Structurae Hungarian Electronic Libraries' entry on Hungarian bridges Bridges of Budapest - Chain Bridge Buda Pesth Chain Bridge Archive Recording

The Wright 3

The Wright 3 is a 2006 children's mystery novel written by Blue Balliett and illustrated by Brett Helquist. It is the sequel to the children's novel Chasing Vermeer, it chronicles how Calder and Tommy strive to save the Robie House in their neighborhood, Hyde Park, Chicago. The underlying plot elements include 3-D pentominoes, Frank Lloyd Wright, the Robie House Fibonacci numbers, The Invisible Man, mysterious occurrences. A sequel, The Calder Game, was published in 2008; the Wright 3 is the sequel to Chasing Vermeer. She debated on writing a sequel as she walked around Hyde Park, the Robie House stood out to her. Balliett was inspired by the number 3, as it appeared in the triangles of Wright's windows on the Robie House, she thought about how it was hard to communicate with three people and tried to weave the two together. Calder's friend Tommy Segovia, who moved away a year before, has moved back to Chicago, he is jealous of Calder and Petra as they received the "glory" of saving a Vermeer painting in the previous book.

Tommy feels. In his first new day of class, Ms. Hussey announces that the world-famous Robie House is soon to be demolished, which she considers to be murder; the class takes a field trip to the house, both Calder and Petra discover that there are many secrets concerning the building that they were not aware of. After Tommy learns to tolerate Petra, the three work to save the house breaking into it toward the end. Tommy realizes it is worth a lot of money. After saving their own lives against a band of robbers in the Robie house, they manage to save that of the house. In a few illustrations, there is a drawing of a fish, they appear in some chapters with the fibonacci sequence. On one of the last illustrations, a dragon can be found, expressing the change from carp to dragon in the story. Toward the bottom of the last picture there are footprints from the invisible man. In some images, a face could be spotted. Adam Liptak in a review for The New York Times praised Helquist's work, but noted an "overstuffed narrative", although the loose ends could be perceived as charming or frustrating.

He pointed out that too much of the book seemed devoted on the relationship between Tommy and Petra and the climax was reminiscent of cartoons. Kirkus Reviews was more positive toward the "tense struggle to transform from duo to trio" and gave a starred review. BookPage left a positive review, praising the "framework" of the novel; the website Kidsreads praised the plot coincidences. Children's Literature reviewer Erin Pelletier claimed The Wright 3 would "not disappoint readers" and thought the Robie House was "woven beautifully throughout the book". Kaden Enterprises, a game puzzle company, awarded Balliett their Annual Pentomino Excellence Award for her use of the tool in Chasing Vermeer and The Wright Three; the award incorporated the F, L, W pentominoes