Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu
Sopela known as Sopelana, is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town is 820 hectares in area, located in the comarca Mungialdea on the north east side of Bilbao and due east of the Nervión river estuary. In the municipality, other former towns like Larrabasterra are now merged to make Sopela larger; the population is 11,185 people. Thriving expansion of the town puts this number to well over 13,000 people; the area of Sopela is situated among green beaches. This makes it a attractive suburb of Bilbao, with a short commute of 35 minutes on the metro. Since the late 1980s, the population of Sopelana has continued to grow and has 13.000 citizens. During the industrialization the citizens moved to the urban centres that were more crowded but from that decade on this tendency has reversed. Sopelana has become a residential municipality well communicated with bigger municipalities and with Bilbao, it was at first an eminently turistic destination, where the properties and house owners only moved to spend summer holidays but it has turned into a residential town.
At the moment, it is one of the village's with the highest per capita income of the state. Sopela belongs to a region called Uribe, composed by 15 municipalities that are: Arrieta, Barrika, Gámiz-Fica, Gatika, Górliz, Lemoniz, Maruri-Jatabe, Meñaka, Plencia and Urduliz, it borders with the Cantabrian sea in the north, what makes Sopelana have spectacular cliffs and beaches. The municipality of Barrika is located to the Northeast, Getxo to the Northwest, Urduliz to the Southeast and Berango to the Southwest. Sopela's oceanic climate is different from the one of southern Spain. Harsh winds tend to pick up speed along the coast and precipitation is common all year round. Northern winds bring the winter temperature to just above the freezing point, but summers are comfortable from late May to early September. Snow is common three days each winter on average; the summer climate is warm and the temperatures are moderated by the constant sea breezes. Sopela is known for three beaches Atxabiribil and Arrietara.
They have good conditions for surfers. A fourth beach, Meñakoz is of less appeal for sun worshippers and more for the surfer crowd due to the pebble bed ground. Sopela is the host of regional surf competitions as conditions are adequate for surfing in its beaches. A less famous, but internationally known event, is the yearly nude race on Barinatxe beach in the fall. Barinatxe is a clothing optional beach. Another special place in Sopela is a small creek called Ikatza known only by its citizens; the town is connected to the main transport arteries with two metro stations on the Line 1 of Bilbao Metro and highways. Larrabasterra station is located to the far south of Sopela in Larrabasterra, while Sopela station is at the center of the municipality. Several bus routes connect Sopela to Bilbao and nearby towns, like Barrika, Plentzia and Armintza; these buses are: Bizkaibus: A3451: Las Arenas - Arminza. A3531: Sopelana - Munguía - Gatica. A2166: Uribe Kosta - UPV/EHUThere is a local bus service which connects the town centre with the beaches, it joins the following neighbourhoods: Larrabasterra / Arrietara / Beaches / Sopelmar / Ugeraga / Moreaga / Centre.
The patron saint of the town is San Pedro or Saint Peter and his feast days are the most representative ones. They are held at the end of the month of June and they last up to a week and a half; the big day is the 29th. The patroness of the neighbourhood of Larrabasterra is Virgen del Carmen and her feast days are held in mid-July; the big day is the 16th. There are no large shopping malls in Sopela; the shopping centres are located a short car ride away in nearby towns like Getxo, Barakaldo or Bilbao. However, the centre of Sopela is full of small shops with a wide variety of goods. Along the main road to West Sopela, there are several youth oriented shops and surf shops open all year round. SOPELA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website
Abadiño is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain, about 35 km from the provincial capital of Bilbao. The area of the municipality is about 36 km2 and according to the 2014 census, the population is 7504; the original name of the town was Abadiano Celayeta. Abadiño is located on the N-636 road a few kilometres to the southeast of Durango in the province of Biscay in northern Spain; the town is in a broad valley formed by the Urkiola Rivers. Livestock farming is practised here on the flat valley floor, to the south the land rises to form the Urkiola mountain range; the lower slopes are clad in natural woodland of oak and pine, the higher parts consist of limestone peaks with gullies and caves and are included in the Urkiola Natural Park. The town of Abadiño has a number of historic buildings; the Muntsaratz Tower is a good example of ninth century Renaissance architecture. The Sanctuary of San Antonio is a church inside the Urkiola Natural Park.
The Astola Manor House was one of the political and administrative centres of the Merindad de Durango region. It was purchased by the Merindad in 1576 and was subsequently used as a courthouse, as the residency of the local lieutenant, as the local gaol and as the district archive; the Gederiaga Complex includes the Chapel of San Salvador. This was an ancient "oath chapel" in which general assemblies of the authorities of Merindad de Durango valley were held. There are mountain bike riding and horse riding facilities near the town. There are the main one being that of the patron saint, Santa Domingo; this takes place on May 12th and the succeeding days and there is much music and dancing in the town. The Festival of San Blas takes place on February 3rd, at this event there is a livestock fair. Another festival, that of San Antonio, is celebrated on June 13th near his sanctuary in Urkiola. Athletic Bilbao players Ustaritz Aldekoaotalora and Ander Iturraspe were born in Abadiño. ABADIÑO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Abadiño Official Website In Basque and Spanish
Portugalete is a town lying to the west of Bilbao in the province of Biscay in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town is part of Bilbao's metropolitan area, it is located on the left bank. Its land area is only 3.21 km², resulting in a population density of 15,908.4 persons/km², the fifth-most densely populated municipality in Spain. In 1300 Portugalete became the main competitor port for Bilbao, but it lost its predominant position in 1511 when the trade privileges were granted to the Port of Bilbao instead of Portugalete. Despite its name, it is not near the Spanish border with Portugal and its name is not etymologically related with that country: it derives, from a phonetic adaptation of its Basque name to the Spanish language; the city has a transporter bridge. The car ferry is suspended from a frame by wires attached to wheels on tracks above the cabin and moves from one side of the River Nervión to the other via a traction system; this bridge was declared a World Heritage Site on 13 July 2006.
The festivals last four days, from 14 to 17 August, the main festivities occurring on 15 and 16 August, San Roque Day. The people sing the song "La Diana Portugaluja" outside the Town Hall in the morning of 15 August to mark the eve of San Roque Day. Monuments in Portugalete include the 15th century Basílica of Santa María, Salazar's Tower, the town hall in addition to the old mediaeval arches and streets in the older part of the city. Official website PORTUGALETE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Durango is a town and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the main town of one of the comarcas of Biscay; because of its economical activities and population, Durango is considered one of the largest towns in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao. Durango has 29,318 inhabitants; the town is crossed by three rivers. The Ibaizabal river is the main river, lies in the middle of its wide valley, with the scenic Urkiola mountain range and natural park to the south; the most important peak is the majestic Anboto. In addition, inside the town stand out two mountains: Pagasarri mugarra mountain. There are many differing opinions about the origin of the name Durango. Basque linguist Alfonso Irigoyen has suggested its origin to be in the name Duranco used in the early Middle Ages. Other authors suggest the name to be an evolved form of Padurango. In the confirmation of the town's fuero it is referred to as Tavira de Durango.
Until the 16th century, the town was known as Uribarri de Durango, Uribarri being Basque for "New town". It has been postulated by the Royal Basque Academy of the Language that the name Durango stems from the Latin name Turanicus a Roman fundus like many others in the Basque Country. While it is not known when Durango was founded, it was suzerain to the Kingdom of Navarre, is attested on an 1179 document revolving around territorial litigation between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VI of Navarre, The Wise; the impending threat of a military intervention conducted by King Alfonso VIII against the Navarrese led King Sancho VI to found other fortified towns, such as San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz. Between 1199 and 1201, King Alfonso VIII of Castile occupied the lordship of Durango and its hinterland, as well as other key western Basque districts. Durango went on to form part of the Crown of Castile, but former laws and institutions were upheld by the Castilian king. In the 15th century, Durango got engaged in the wider War of the Bands, with various conflicts involving the Ibarguen and Unzueta families.
During this period, tower houses belonging to different clans were erected, such as the ones of Arandoño, Etxebarria, Lariz and Otalora. Henry III and Henry IV, the Castilian Kings, were both received in Durango, as well as Queen Isabel of Castile, who enticed Durango and the Lordship of Biscay to her cause in exchange for ratifying their laws and institutions, i.e. she swore the fueros, favourable trade conditions. According to the municipal records, both monarchs took shelter in the Lariz Tower. In 1517 Durango was devastated by a terrible epidemic of plague that caused many deaths amongst the inhabitants; some years after the epidemic, in 1544, heavy flooding inundated a good part of the town. Just the opposite, in 1554 the town was ravaged by fire, burning all wooden buildings to the ground, i.e. all the buildings were burnt down. In 1597 another plague epidemic spread across the town; the Town Hall is recorded to have been built in the 16th century. The name Durango was used by conquistadores like Francisco de Ibarra to found more Durangos in America named after the Basque original one, e.g. a state in Mexico called Durango, whose principal city is called Durango.
During the 17th century, the town of Durango had to face up to the enormous human and economic cost incurred on the various wars the Crown of Castile embarked upon against France. Following heavy human losses suffered in battles and an episode of cholera epidemic, the town ended up ruined. At the end of the 19th century in 1882, the railway line from Bilbao to Durango was inaugurated. While the construction was expensive, during the early 20th century Durango flourished. On 31 March 1937, Durango was bombed by the Legion Condor, it was a busy shopping day—St. Maria, the central church with a covered marketplace, was targeted. More than 500 people were killed in the following days; the Kurutziaga Cross. It was built between early 16th century, it tells a story and it has a gothic style with a clear Flemish, German influence. Baroque Santa Ana's Arch, designed by local architect Juan de Herdoiza for the now disappeared line of walls; the arch was constructed to symbolise the town gates, through which the King was required to pass when he visited.
Mikeldi idol, of pre-Roman times. Lariz Tower is an urban palace, built around the end of the 15th century, it was renovated in 2009 and it is the Tourist Information Office of the town. It is believed that the Queen Isabella Catholic stayed overnight when she visited Durango in order to swear the regional laws and those of the Merindad de Durango. In the building there are decorative elements of the final Gothic such as large windows of seat or heights of taste Hispanic-Fleming and others of the Renaissance There is less heavy industry in the town than in the late 20th century, as it is being replaced by high density housing projects and shopping facilities. Durango was for many years the home of Euskal Telebista; this public television company broadcasts in Spanish. It has a global presence with satellite channel beamed across the world. ETB has moved to a new headquarters in Bilbao. In Durango, bes