Madison County, Texas
Madison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 13,664, its seat is Madisonville. The county was created in 1853 and organized the next year, it is named for the fourth president of the United States. The current Madison County Courthouse was built in 1970, it is at least the fifth courthouse to serve Madison County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 472 square miles, of which 466 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles is covered by water. The county has three natural borders: its eastern boundary is defined by the Trinity River, its western boundary is defined by the Navasota River, the portion of its southern border adjacent to Walker County is defined by Bedias Creek. Interstate 45 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 21 State Highway 75 State Highway 90 State Highway OSR Leon County Houston County Walker County Grimes County Brazos County As of the census of 2000, there were 12,940 people, 3,914 households, 2,837 families residing in the county.
The population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 4,797 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.79% White, 22.87% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.90% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 15.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,914 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 13.00% from 18 to 24, 31.90% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.
For every 100 females there were 142.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 155.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,418, the median income for a family was $35,779. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $19,777 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,056. About 12.30% of families and 15.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. The Ferguson Unit, a Texas Department of Criminal Justice prison for men, is located in an unincorporated area in the county. Madisonville Midway Normangee North Zulch National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Madison County Madison County government's website Madison County from the Handbook of Texas Online
U.S. Route 79
U. S. Route 79 is a United States highway; the route is considered and labeled as a north-south highway, but it is more of a diagonal northeast-southwest highway. The highway's northern/eastern terminus is in Russellville, Kentucky, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 68 and KY 80, its southern/western terminus is in Round Rock, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35, ten miles north of Austin. US 79, US 68, Interstate 24/US 62 are the primary east–west access points for the Land Between the Lakes recreation area straddling the Kentucky/Tennessee border. US 79 begins at Interstate 35's Exit #253 north of Austin in Round Rock; the route travels eastward through Hutto and Taylor to Rockdale, where it intersects US 77. In Milano, US 79 begins a concurrency with US 190 until Hearne, Texas; the route continues through Franklin and Jewett before reaching Buffalo, where it intersects Interstate 45 at its Exit #178. US 79 has a brief duplex with US 84 that begins near Oakwood and continues through Palestine before separating.
The route continues to the northeast through Jacksonville, where it has a junction with US 69, Henderson, where it crosses US 259. The highway travels due east to Carthage, where it meets US 59, before resuming a northeasterly direction and crossing into Louisiana near Panola. US 79 is entwined with two tragedies of country music. Johnny Horton was killed by a drunk driver on the highway near Milano in 1960 and Jim Reeves, killed in a plane crash in 1964, is buried and memorialized on US 79 in his hometown of Carthage. US 79 joins US 80 near Greenwood, the two routes are cosigned through Shreveport. US 79/80 continue into Bossier City; the routes parallel Interstate 20 through the old Bossier City Entertainment District until Minden, where the two routes separate: US 80 continues eastward, while US 79 turns to the northeast toward Homer. In Homer, the route resumes a more northerly direction, traveling through Haynesville before crossing the Arkansas border about 7 miles south of Emerson, Arkansas.
US 79 continues northward from Louisiana into Emerson and Magnolia, where it has a brief concurrency with US 82 through the city. From here, the route turns to the northeast, through Camden, where it intersects US 278, Fordyce, in which it has a brief concurrency with US 167. East of Kingsland, the highway travels in a more northerly direction as it prepares to enter the Pine Bluff metropolitan area. In Pine Bluff, U. S. 79 joins the Interstate 530 freeway. After the freeway ends, US 79 and US 63, with which it is cosigned, leave the city toward the north; the two routes stay joined until Stuttgart. US 79 continues to the east and northeast, through Marianna and Hughes, before turning due north to an intersection with Interstate 40 near Jennette. US 79 joins I-40 and the two routes stay cosigned through the concurrency with Interstate 55 in West Memphis, before US 79 joins I-55 to cross the Mississippi River at the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge into Memphis. U. S. Route 79 enters Memphis with U. S. Route 70, U.
S. Route 64 and Tennessee State Route 1, travelling east along E. H. Crump Boulevard, turns north on Third Street and travels through Downtown Memphis along both Second and Third Streets, it continues east on Union Avenue, north along East Parkway, east along Summer Avenue. At Stage Road in Bartlett, it continues along Summer Avenue with US 70 while US 64 turns east along Stage Rd. From here, US 79 continues north from Bartlett, passing through the rest of Shelby County as a 4-lane undivided highway. In Arlington, the road narrows to 2 lanes and passes through Fayette County, Tipton County, Haywood County until Brownsville, Tennessee. In Brownsville, U. S 79, along with U. S. 70 and SR 1, goes to the south along a bypass. On the east side of the city, U. S. 70 and SR 1 turn east while US 79 and 70A continue to the northeast, passing through Crockett and Gibson Counties. The section from Milan, Tennessee to the Carroll County line was widened to 4 lanes. U. S. 70A splits off from US 79 near Atwood, Tennessee and US 79 continues to the northeast into Henry County, passing through the city of Paris and crosses the Tennessee River.
The portion from McKenzie, Tennessee to the Tennessee River is 4-lanes, plans are in the works to widen the portion in between this section and the Milan section. The section from Brownsville to the Tennessee River is part of the "Austin Peay Memorial Highway". Once US 79 comes into Stewart County, it passes to the south of the Land Between the Lakes recreation area and crosses the Cumberland River; the portion between the rivers is known as Donelson Parkway. It enters Montgomery County and the city of Clarksville, Tennessee; this portion between Dover and Clarksville is known as Dover Road. One through Clarksville, US 79 enters Kentucky. Wilma Rudolph Boulevard is the name given to the portion of U. S. Route 79 in Clarksville, Tennessee between the Interstate 24 in Clarksville to the Red River bridge near the Kraft Street intersection; this section of Highway 79 in Clarksville was called the Guthrie Highway, for nearby Guthrie, but in 1994, the name was changed to honor Wilma Rudolph, an Olympic runner from Clarksville, who won three gold medals in the 1960 Rome Summer Olympic Games.
Between Clarksville and Dover, the road is known as "Dover Road". US 7
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Texas State Highway 7
State Highway 7 is an east–west state highway that runs from Interstate 35 south of Waco to U. S. Highway 84 about 3 miles west of the Texas-Louisiana state line. Between Crockett and Nacogdoches, SH 7 passes through the Davy Crockett National Forest. SH 7 was one of the original 25 state highways proposed on June 21, 1917, proposed as a'Central Texas Highway.' In 1919 the routing was proposed between San Angelo and Goldthwaite, but only the segment to Paint Rock was created. From Goldthwaite, the road follows U. S. Highway 84 to Waco; the remainder follows SH 164 to Personville, FM 39 to Jewett, was unbuilt between Jewett and Crockett, SH 7 SH 103 to Lufkin, onto the state line via present day U. S. Highway 69, SH 63 and US 190. On November 20, 1917, SH 7 was rerouted along current U. S. Highway 67 to Brownwood, U. S. Highway 84 to Waco. Due to the amount of construction necessary to build this route as proposed, on December 18, 1917, the road was rerouted via U. S. Highway 84 to Palestine, south on U.
S. Highway 287 following the proposed route from there. On March 20, 1918, the road was rerouted via current U. S. Highway 84 through Lubbock to Sweetwater. Between Sweetwater and Coleman, the road was not constructed as proposed. SH 7 returns to US 84, through Waco to Palestine, heads south on U. S. Highway 287 to Crockett, turns to Lufkin via the current SH 7 SH 103 and onto Jasper and Newton via present day U. S. Highway 69, SH 63 and US 190; the old route of SH 7 from Brownwood to San Angelo was renumbered as SH 7A. On August 21, 1923, SH 7 had been realigned yet again due to constructions issues; the Sweetwater-Coleman road was never built, SH 7 was rerouted over existing roads into Abilene. The road's east terminus was shortened to Long Lake; the Crockett-Lufkin section was cancelled, the section east of Zavalla had been renumbered as SH 63. In 1926, U. S. Highway 70, 80, 67 were overlaid over pieces of SH 7, which maintained its number. On October 26, 1932, the highway was extended east across SH 294 into Alto, SH 21 to Nacogdoches, ending in Joaquin via current SH 7, replacing SH 76.
On May 23, 1933, SH 7 Loop was designated through Post. On November 27, 1934, SH 7 Spur was designated to Southland. On July 15, 1935, the section of SH 7 from Elkhart to Alto was cancelled. On June 16, 1936, this section was restored. On February 21, 1938, SH 7 Business was designated in Goldthwaite. On May 24, 1938, a spur to Oglesby was not designated. On December 21, 1938, SH 7 Spur was designated in Oglesby. On September 26, 1939 most of the highway had been overrun by a patchwork of US Highways, leaving only a small portion from Joaquin to Crockett remaining, rerouted yet again to a more southerly route from Nacogdoches, replacing SH 266 and part of SH 103. SH 7 Loop and SH 7 Spur became Spur 18, Spur 45, Loop 46. On April 1, 1940, SH 7 extended west to Centerville. On November 22, 1940, the section from Ratcliff to Crockett was cancelled. On December 3, 1940, SH 7 extended west to Marquez. On February 20, 1942, the section from Ratcliff to Crockett was redesignated as part of SH 7. SH 7 replaced SH 139 from Chilton to Marquez on July 15, 1948.
SH 7 was signed to extend west to Eddy on July 31, 1975. The extension to Eddy was designated on August 29, 1990, replacing a portion of FM 107. SH 7A was a spur route of SH 7 that split off at Brownwood and traveled southwest to San Angelo designated on March 20, 1918, replacing part of SH 7, rerouted. On December 20, 1917, an intercounty highway was designated from San Angelo to Fort Stockton. On February 19, 1919, it extended to Fort Stockton over this intercounty highway, it was transferred to portions of SH 23 and SH 30 on August 21, 1923, with the section from San Angelo to Fort Stockton cancelled. SH 7B was a spur route of SH 7 designated on January 23, 1922 that split off at Lufkin and traveled southwest through Groveton to Trinity. On August 21, 1923, it was cancelled. SH 7 begins at an intersection with Interstate 35 and FM 107 in extreme southern McLennan County in Central Texas; the highway travels east until it reaches an intersection with US Route 77. It travels south with US 77 around the western side of Chilton before turn east again through town.
The highway continues east through sparsely populated farmland before reaching Interstate 45 at Centerville. The highway continues east, passing through Crockett before turning northeast and passing through the center of the city of Nacogdoches; the highway continues to its final location, ending at US 84 in extreme northeast Shelby County, just short of the Louisiana State Line. Media related to Texas State Highway 7 at Wikimedia Commons
Victoria is the largest city and county seat of Victoria County, Texas. The population was 62,592 as of the 2010 census; the three counties of the Victoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 111,163 as of the 2000 census. Its elevation is 95 ft.. It is a regional hub for a seven-county area known as the "Golden Crescent", serves a retail trade area of over 250,000 people. Victoria is known as "The Crossroads" because of its location within a two-hour drive of Corpus Christi, San Antonio, Austin. Victoria is named for General Guadalupe Victoria, who became the first president of independent Mexico. Victoria is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Victoria in Texas; the city of Guadalupe Victoria was founded in 1824 by Martín De León, a Mexican empresario, in honor of Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of the Republic of Mexico. Victoria was part of De León's Colony, founded that same year. By 1834, the town had a population of 300. During the Texas Revolution, Guadalupe Victoria contributed soldiers and supplies to pro-revolutionary forces.
However, after James Fannin was defeated by the Mexican army at the Battle of Coleto, the town was occupied by Mexican forces. After Santa Anna was defeated at the Battle of San Jacinto, the town's Mexican residents were driven out by Anglo settlers, who renamed it Victoria. In 1840, a Comanche raid on nearby Linnville killed many residents of the town. A cholera outbreak occurred in 1846. During the mid-19th century, the city developed a large population of European immigrants Germans. By the turn of the 20th century, Victoria was experiencing rapid population growth thanks to its position as a regional trade center; the city's advantageous proximity to Gulf Coast ports, the larger cities of San Antonio and Corpus Christi, prosperous industries in agriculture and petrochemicals solidified its prominence. The University of Houston–Victoria was founded in 1971. Victoria is located on the coastal plains of Texas about 50 miles from the Gulf of Mexico and 20 miles from the nearest bay waters, it lies just to the east of the Guadalupe River.
The topography is flat to rolling with an average elevation of 95 feet. Most of the city is underlain by smectite-rich clay, locally capped by silt or fine sand. Vegetation in better-drained areas consists of short grasses with post oaks and other small timber and brush. Moist sites can grow tall forests dominated by elm and pecan. Victoria is classified as humid subtropical. June through August is hot and humid with high temperatures exceeding 100°F; the record high temperature of 111°F. was recorded in September 2000. Spring and autumn are mild to warm with lower humidity. Winters are mild with occasional cold spells; the record low temperature was recorded in December 1989, when the temperature dropped to 9 °F. Snow is infrequent occurring on average once every 11 years. On December 24–25, 2004, Victoria recorded its first White Christmas when 12.5 inches of snow fell. Average monthly precipitation is lowest in winter and has a secondary minimum in August, with intense heat and humidity prevailing.
On average, the wettest months are May, June and October. Victoria has occasional severe weather from flooding. Hurricanes have the potential to bring severe damage to the area. Hurricane Claudette in July 2003 was the last hurricane to score a direct hit on the city. During this event, winds gusted to 83 mph at the Victoria Regional Airport and 90% of the city lost power; the most intense hurricane to affect Victoria remains Hurricane Carla in September 1961. In May 2013, a rare tornado hit Victoria on a Saturday afternoon with tornado warnings everywhere from Corpus Christi to the southeast Houston/Sugarland Metro area. A short-lived tornado took a swipe at an open field northeast of Victoria, dodging all structures and causing no injuries but kicking up dirt and debris visible for miles, it was rare in the case that the area gets tornados. Though when the Gulf Coast has a tornado it is associated with a hurricane. Https://www.victoriaadvocate.com/news/2013/may/26/ew_tornado_052613_210572/ As of census of 2000, 60,603 people, 22,129 households, 15,755 families resided in the city.
The population density was 1,838.3 people per square mile. There were 24,192 housing units at an average density of 733.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 55.2% White, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 42.4% of the population, 7.59% African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 17.31% from other races, 2.35% from two or more races. Of the 22,129 households, 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.8% were not families. About 24.5% of all households were made up of an individual, 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was distributed as 28.8% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the city
Freestone County, Texas
Freestone County is a county located in the east central part of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,816, its county seat is Fairfield. The county was created in 1850 and organized the next year. Archeological evidence of the farming Kichai band of the Caddoan Mississippian culture dates to 200 BCE in the area; the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1541 resulted in violent encounters with the Caddo Native Americans who occupied the area. Spanish and French missionaries carried smallpox, measles and influenza as endemic diseases; the Caddo were forced to reservations. The Tawakoni branch of Wichita Indians originated as a tribe north of Texas, but migrated south into east Texas. From 1843 onward, the Tawakoni were part of treaties made by both the Republic of Texas and the United States; the name of the Tawakoni was sometimes spelled as Tehuacana. In 1826, empresario David G. Burnet received a grant from the Coahuila y Tejas legislature to settle 300 families. By contracting how many families each grantee could settle, the government sought to have some control over colonization.
The threat of Indian hostilities kept most from homesteading in Freestone County until the Treaty of Bird's Fort. Within three years of the treaty, colonization from Southern states, had been so successful that the counties surrounding Freestone had been organized. In 1850 the Texas legislature formed Freestone County from Limestone County. Freestone is a descriptive name referring to the quality of the soil; the county was organized in 1851. Fairfield was designated as the county seat. Of the county's total 1860 population of 6,881, more than half were slaves. Freestone County voted 585–3 in favor of secession from the Union. After the Civil War, while the loss of slave labor may have hurt the planters in the local county economy, by the end of Reconstruction, the number of farms doubled. There were more smaller farms than before the war. Continuing economic and social tensions after Reconstruction resulted in whites lynching blacks to keep them in place as second-class citizens. Freestone County had nine such lynchings from 1877 into the early 20th century, most around the turn of the century.
This was the fifth-highest total in the state, tied with that of Texas. The Houston and Texas Central Railway was constructed to skirt the county to the west and south in 1870, giving the local economy a boost, and the International – Great Northern Railroad The Trinity and Brazos Valley Railway, laid track across the county in 1906, helping the growing economy. The Prohibition Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution took effect in 1920, banning the sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages for public consumption. In the period until its repeal by the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1933, some enterprising individuals in Freestone followed a national trend and began bootlegging for profit; this illegal activity put food on the table for some people during a period when the local economy was in a downward slide. In 1969, the Texas Utilities Generating Company located a new power plant near Fairfield called Big Brown Power Plant. A dam was built to create Fairfield Lake to provide stored water for a cooling system for the plant.
Fairfield Lake State Park was established around the lake and opened to the public in 1976. Big Brown was shut down in February 2018. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 892 square miles, of which 878 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Interstate 45 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 14 State Highway 75 State Highway 164 State Highway 179 Henderson County Anderson County Leon County Limestone County Navarro County As of the census of 2010, there were 19,816 people, 6,588 households, 4,664 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 8,138 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.1% White, 16.1% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 8.1% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. 13.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,259 households out of which 28% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families.
27% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.5% ages 19 and under, 4.8% from 20 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 28.1% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.9 years. For every 100 females there were 111.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,560, the median income for a family was $59,696. Males had a median income of $30,633 versus $19,214 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,338. About 9.80% of families and 14.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.80% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. Freestone County is listed as part of the Dallas-Fort Worth DMA. Local media outlets include: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, KFWD-TV.
Although located in eastern Central Texas geographically closer to
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may