A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Texas State Highway 7
State Highway 7 is an east–west state highway that runs from Interstate 35 south of Waco to U. S. Highway 84 about 3 miles west of the Texas-Louisiana state line. Between Crockett and Nacogdoches, SH 7 passes through the Davy Crockett National Forest. SH 7 was one of the original 25 state highways proposed on June 21, 1917, proposed as a'Central Texas Highway.' In 1919 the routing was proposed between San Angelo and Goldthwaite, but only the segment to Paint Rock was created. From Goldthwaite, the road follows U. S. Highway 84 to Waco; the remainder follows SH 164 to Personville, FM 39 to Jewett, was unbuilt between Jewett and Crockett, SH 7 SH 103 to Lufkin, onto the state line via present day U. S. Highway 69, SH 63 and US 190. On November 20, 1917, SH 7 was rerouted along current U. S. Highway 67 to Brownwood, U. S. Highway 84 to Waco. Due to the amount of construction necessary to build this route as proposed, on December 18, 1917, the road was rerouted via U. S. Highway 84 to Palestine, south on U.
S. Highway 287 following the proposed route from there. On March 20, 1918, the road was rerouted via current U. S. Highway 84 through Lubbock to Sweetwater. Between Sweetwater and Coleman, the road was not constructed as proposed. SH 7 returns to US 84, through Waco to Palestine, heads south on U. S. Highway 287 to Crockett, turns to Lufkin via the current SH 7 SH 103 and onto Jasper and Newton via present day U. S. Highway 69, SH 63 and US 190; the old route of SH 7 from Brownwood to San Angelo was renumbered as SH 7A. On August 21, 1923, SH 7 had been realigned yet again due to constructions issues; the Sweetwater-Coleman road was never built, SH 7 was rerouted over existing roads into Abilene. The road's east terminus was shortened to Long Lake; the Crockett-Lufkin section was cancelled, the section east of Zavalla had been renumbered as SH 63. In 1926, U. S. Highway 70, 80, 67 were overlaid over pieces of SH 7, which maintained its number. On October 26, 1932, the highway was extended east across SH 294 into Alto, SH 21 to Nacogdoches, ending in Joaquin via current SH 7, replacing SH 76.
On May 23, 1933, SH 7 Loop was designated through Post. On November 27, 1934, SH 7 Spur was designated to Southland. On July 15, 1935, the section of SH 7 from Elkhart to Alto was cancelled. On June 16, 1936, this section was restored. On February 21, 1938, SH 7 Business was designated in Goldthwaite. On May 24, 1938, a spur to Oglesby was not designated. On December 21, 1938, SH 7 Spur was designated in Oglesby. On September 26, 1939 most of the highway had been overrun by a patchwork of US Highways, leaving only a small portion from Joaquin to Crockett remaining, rerouted yet again to a more southerly route from Nacogdoches, replacing SH 266 and part of SH 103. SH 7 Loop and SH 7 Spur became Spur 18, Spur 45, Loop 46. On April 1, 1940, SH 7 extended west to Centerville. On November 22, 1940, the section from Ratcliff to Crockett was cancelled. On December 3, 1940, SH 7 extended west to Marquez. On February 20, 1942, the section from Ratcliff to Crockett was redesignated as part of SH 7. SH 7 replaced SH 139 from Chilton to Marquez on July 15, 1948.
SH 7 was signed to extend west to Eddy on July 31, 1975. The extension to Eddy was designated on August 29, 1990, replacing a portion of FM 107. SH 7A was a spur route of SH 7 that split off at Brownwood and traveled southwest to San Angelo designated on March 20, 1918, replacing part of SH 7, rerouted. On December 20, 1917, an intercounty highway was designated from San Angelo to Fort Stockton. On February 19, 1919, it extended to Fort Stockton over this intercounty highway, it was transferred to portions of SH 23 and SH 30 on August 21, 1923, with the section from San Angelo to Fort Stockton cancelled. SH 7B was a spur route of SH 7 designated on January 23, 1922 that split off at Lufkin and traveled southwest through Groveton to Trinity. On August 21, 1923, it was cancelled. SH 7 begins at an intersection with Interstate 35 and FM 107 in extreme southern McLennan County in Central Texas; the highway travels east until it reaches an intersection with US Route 77. It travels south with US 77 around the western side of Chilton before turn east again through town.
The highway continues east through sparsely populated farmland before reaching Interstate 45 at Centerville. The highway continues east, passing through Crockett before turning northeast and passing through the center of the city of Nacogdoches; the highway continues to its final location, ending at US 84 in extreme northeast Shelby County, just short of the Louisiana State Line. Media related to Texas State Highway 7 at Wikimedia Commons
Texas's 17th congressional district
Texas District 17 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a strip of central Texas stretching from Waco to Bryan-College Station, including former President George W. Bush's McLennan County ranch; the district is represented by Republican Bill Flores. From 2002 to 2013, it was an oblong district stretching from south of Tarrant County to Grimes County in the southeast; the 2012 redistricting made its area more square, removing the northern and southeastern portions, adding areas southwest into the northern Austin suburbs and east into Freestone and Leon counties. The district includes two major universities, Texas A&M University in College Station and Baylor University in Waco. Before 2002, TX-17 was a West Texas district in the Abilene area. After the 2003 Texas redistricting, engineered by former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, TX-17 was the most Republican district in the nation represented by a Democrat, according to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, which rated it R+20.
The district was drawn to make it Republican-dominated and unseat its longtime then-incumbent, conservative Democrat Chet Edwards. While several of his colleagues went down to defeat, Edwards held on to the seat in the 2004, 2006 and 2008 elections. However, in the 2010 Congressional elections, the district elected Republican Bill Flores over Edwards by a margin of 61.8% to 36.6%. Flores is the only Republican elected to represent the district since its creation in 1919. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
U.S. Route 190
U. S. Route 190 is an east -- west United States Highway in Texas. Segments of US 190 will be upgraded to Interstate 14, the first 24.8-mile segment was opened on January 26, 2017. The western terminus is at a point where US 190 intersects with I-10, a few miles east of Bakersfield and 20 mi west of the town of Iraan, in the middle of Pecos County, it runs east through Texas Hill Country speckled with sage brush, intersecting with State Highway 305, crossing into Schleicher County, intersecting with US 277 in Eldorado. Just outside Eldorado was. US 190 continues east into Menard County, intersecting State Highway 864, passing a few miles north of Fort McKavett State Historic Site, entering Menard and intersecting with US 83 north a short distance. Continuing on a northeastward route US 190 enters McCulloch County and into Brady; as the closest city to the geographical center of Texas, the city proclaims itself the "True Heart of Texas", "where five major highways meet, making it a major gateway to all regions of the state".
US 190 enters Brady from the south merging and running concurrently with north US 377 and US 87 through town, intersecting Farm to Market Road 2028, FM 2309 splitting with US 87 and US 377, before exiting the city heading east. US 190 goes through Rochelle, enters San Saba County, through Richland Springs where it intersects FM 45, the communities Algerita, Harkeyville, into San Saba, the birthplace of actor Tommy Lee Jones, an intersection with SH 16. Continuing east US 190 enters Lampasas County, entering Lometa and running concurrently with US 183 south into the city of Lampasas. Splitting from US 183 and continuing east, US 190 runs through Kempner and into the extreme southern corner of Coryell County and Copperas Cove, located on the southwestern edge of Fort Hood. On the east side of Copperas Cove, a concurrency with I-14 begins. US 190 traverses through part of Fort Hood, into Bell County and Killeen. Being directly adjacent to the main cantonment of Fort Hood, both Killeen and Copperas Cove depend on the fort and those stationed there.
US enters Temple, where I-14 ends. The highway merges and runs concurrently with SH 36 south. Continuing east and south, US 190 passes through Rogers and enters Milam County Cameron and merges with US 77 south for a distance. A few miles south of Cameron, US 190 runs concurrently with US 79 north. In Hearne, US 190 splits with US 79 and merges to run concurrently with SH 6 south, entering Brazos County, through Benchley, into Bryan, considered the heart of the Brazos Valley, is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area. US 190 splits with SH 6, turning northeast and merging with SH 21 north, entering Kurten, entering Madison County passing through North Zulch and into Madisonville, before merging with I-45 south and into Walker County entering Huntsville, where US 190 splits heading into Eastern Texas. Continuing east, US 190 enters San Jacinto County, passing north of Oakhurst and Point Blank, crossing Lake Livingston, entering Polk County and into Onalaska. US 190 from the west makes a semi-loop up over Lake Livingston and down to Livingston, intersecting US 59 and Business US 59 and through Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, entering Tyler County, merging with FM 256 and into Woodville.
East of Woodville, FM 256 splits north and US 190 crosses BA Steinhagen Lake, into Jasper County, intersecting with SH 63 east, in the center of Jasper intersecting with US 96. Continuing east, US 190 travels through Holly Springs and enters Newton County, proceeding into Newton. In Newton, US 190 turns south through Bon Wier, crosses the Louisiana line. In Newton County, US 190 has been designated one of the routes on the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail. US 190 crosses the Sabine River and enters the western portion of Louisiana in swampy bayou terrain three miles west of Merryville, Louisiana. Merryville is the location of the old Coushatta Indian village. From Merryville the highway heads north by northeast to the community of Junction, Louisiana referred to as "The Junction". Junction is where Louisiana Highway 111 and US 190 intersect and is the site of a roadside marker and the joining of two Indian trails. From Junction, US 190 heads east to DeRidder, where it runs concurrently with US 171 south and passes several sites on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Beauregard Parish Jail, Beauregard Parish Courthouse, the DeRidder Commercial Historic District.
US 190 runs concurrently with US 171 to Ragley. From Ragley, the two-lane highway heads nearly due east parallel to I-10 until Opelousas. US 190 crosses the northern reach of the Atchafalaya Basin near the Morganza Spillway en route to Baton Rouge. From Baton Rouge, US 190 passes, in places divided, through Denham Springs, Hammond, Goodbee, Mandeville, before reaching the eastern terminus at Slidell; the stretch between I-12 south of Covington and the intersection with LA 22 at Mandeville is multilane divided with controlled access. The highway's eastern terminus is in the bayous near Slidell, at an intersection with US 90; this junction was once known as the "White Kitchen" after a restaurant, once located there. Acadiana Trail / Evangeline Highway — US 190 in Louisiana Earl Rudder Freeway and Central Texas Expressway — US 190 in Texas In the original 1926 plan, US 190 served the purpose of modern-day I-12, as the road around the north side of Lake Pontchartrain
Franklin is a city and county seat of Robertson County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,564. Franklin lies near the geographic center of the county, on an upland prairie, drained by the branches of three creeks. Touchstone Branch, to the north, runs westward into Mud Creek. Franklin is located at 31°1′34″N 96°29′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.9 square miles, all of it land. Franklin is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,470 people, 533 households, 351 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,594.4 people per square mile. There were 626 housing units at an average density of 679.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.51% White, 19.52% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.93% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.84% of the population.
There were 533 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,400, the median income for a family was $33,889. Males had a median income of $31,818 versus $20,441 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,490. About 15.4% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 25.0% of those age 65 or over.
Pridgeon Community Center and Visitor Center Robertson County Courthouse - National Register of Historic Places Franklin Ranch - Community/Sports Park Franklin Carnegie Library Franklin Cemetery Franklin is a Type A general law city governed by a mayor and five city council members. The mayor and city council are elected at large to serve for a two-year term. Members may serve an unlimited number of terms; the city council meets on the third Monday of each month at 6:00 pm at City Hall. Request to be placed on the agenda should be approved by the mayor. All members must be residents within the city limits of Franklin. Franklin is served by the Franklin Independent School District; the district website is located at Franklin ISD. It consists of three schools: Roland Reynolds Elementary: Pre-K-4th Franklin Middle School: 5th-8th Franklin High School: 9th-12thThe school district has 1100 students and is classified as 3A according to the University Interscholastic League. Franklin High School has 300-350 students.
Fred C. Cole and historian Official website