Aaron Copland was an American composer, composition teacher, a conductor of his own and other American music. Copland was referred to by his peers and critics as "the Dean of American Composers"; the open changing harmonies in much of his music are typical of what many people consider to be the sound of American music, evoking the vast American landscape and pioneer spirit. He is best known for the works he wrote in the 1930s and 1940s in a deliberately accessible style referred to as "populist" and which the composer labeled his "vernacular" style. Works in this vein include the ballets Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kid and Rodeo, his Fanfare for the Common Man and Third Symphony. In addition to his ballets and orchestral works, he produced music in many other genres, including chamber music, vocal works and film scores. After some initial studies with composer Rubin Goldmark, Copland traveled to Paris, where he first studied with Isidor Philipp and Paul Vidal with noted pedagogue Nadia Boulanger.
He studied three years with Boulanger, whose eclectic approach to music inspired his own broad taste. Determined upon his return to the U. S. to make his way as a full-time composer, Copland gave lecture-recitals, wrote works on commission and did some teaching and writing. He found composing orchestral music in the modernist style he had adapted abroad a financially contradictory approach in light of the Great Depression, he shifted in the mid-1930s to a more accessible musical style which mirrored the German idea of Gebrauchsmusik, music that could serve utilitarian and artistic purposes. During the Depression years, he traveled extensively to Europe and Mexico, formed an important friendship with Mexican composer Carlos Chávez and began composing his signature works. During the late 1940s, Copland became aware that Stravinsky and other fellow composers had begun to study Arnold Schoenberg's use of twelve-tone techniques. After he had been exposed to the works of French composer Pierre Boulez, he incorporated serial techniques into his Piano Quartet, Piano Fantasy, Connotations for orchestra and Inscape for orchestra.
Unlike Schoenberg, Copland used his tone rows in much the same fashion as his tonal material—as sources for melodies and harmonies, rather than as complete statements in their own right, except for crucial events from a structural point of view. From the 1960s onward, Copland's activities turned more from composing to conducting, he became a frequent guest conductor of orchestras in the U. S. and the UK and made a series of recordings of his music for Columbia Records. Aaron Copland was born in Brooklyn, New York, on November 14, 1900, he was the youngest of five children in a Conservative Jewish family of Lithuanian origins. While emigrating from Russia to the United States, Copland's father, Harris Morris Copland and worked in Scotland for two to three years to pay for his boat fare to the US, it was there that Copland's father may have Anglicized his surname "Kaplan" to "Copland", though Copland himself believed for many years that the change had been due to an Ellis Island immigration official when his father entered the country.
Copland was however unaware until late in his life that the family name had been Kaplan, his parents never told him this. Throughout his childhood and his family lived above his parents' Brooklyn shop, H. M. Copland's, at 628 Washington Avenue, on the corner of Dean Street and Washington Avenue, most of the children helped out in the store, his father was a staunch Democrat. The family members were active in Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes, where Aaron celebrated his Bar Mitzvah. Not athletic, the sensitive young man became an avid reader and read Horatio Alger stories on his front steps. Copland's father had no musical interest, his mother, Sarah Mittenthal Copland, played the piano, arranged for music lessons for her children. Of his siblings, oldest brother Ralph was the most advanced musically, proficient on the violin, his sister Laurine had the strongest connection with Aaron. A student at the Metropolitan Opera School and a frequent opera-goer, Laurine brought home libretti for Aaron to study.
Copland in the summer went to various camps. Most of his early exposure to music was at Jewish weddings and ceremonies, occasional family musicales. Copland began writing songs at the age of eight and a half, his earliest notated music, about seven bars he wrote when age 11, was for an opera scenario he created and called Zenatello. From 1913 to 1917 he took piano lessons with Leopold Wolfsohn, who taught him the standard classical fare. Copland's first public music performance was at a Wanamaker's recital. By the age of 15, after attending a concert by composer-pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Copland decided to become a composer. After attempts to further his music study from a correspondence course, Copland took formal lessons in harmony and composition from Rubin Goldmark, a noted teacher and composer of American music. Goldmark, with whom Copland studied between 1917 and 1921, gave the young Copland a solid foundation in the Germanic tradition; as Copland stated later: "This was a stroke of luck for me.
I was spared the floundering that so many musicians have suffered through incompetent teaching." But Copland commented that the maestro had "little sympathy for the advanced musical idioms of the day" and his "approved" composers ended with
Roger Huntington Sessions was an American composer and writer on music. Sessions was born in Brooklyn, New York, to a family that could trace its roots back to the American revolution, his mother, Ruth Huntington Sessions, was a direct descendent of Samuel Huntington, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Roger studied music at Harvard University from the age of 14. There he subsequently edited the Harvard Musical Review. Graduating at age 18, he went on to study at Yale University under Horatio Parker and Ernest Bloch before teaching at Smith College. With the exception of his incidental music to the play The Black Maskers, composed in part in Cleveland in 1923, his first major compositions came while he was traveling Europe with his wife in his mid-twenties and early thirties. Returning to the United States in 1933, he taught first at Princeton University, moved to the University of California, where he taught from 1945 to 1953, returned to Princeton until retiring in 1965, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1961.
He was appointed Bloch Professor at Berkeley, gave the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard University in 1968–69. He continued to teach on a part-time basis at the Juilliard School from 1966 until 1983. For a list of his notable students, See: List of music students by teacher: R to S#Roger Sessions. In 1968 Sessions was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal for outstanding contribution to the arts by the MacDowell Colony. Sessions won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1974 citing "his life's work as a distinguished American composer." In 1982 he won the annual Pulitzer Prize for Music for his Concerto for Orchestra, first performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 23, 1981. He died at the age of 88 in New Jersey, his works written up to 1930 or so are less neoclassical in style. Those written between 1930 and 1940 are harmonically complex; the works from 1946 on are atonal, beginning with the Solo Violin Sonata of 1953, serial—though not employing Viennese twelve-tone technique. Only the first movement and the trio of the scherzo of the Violin Sonata, for example, employ a twelve-tone row the rest employing a scalar-constructed dissonant style.
Sessions's usual method was to use a row to control the full chromaticism and motivic-intervallic cohesion that marks his music from before 1953. He treats his rows with great freedom, however using pairs of unordered complementary hexachords to provide “harmonic” aspects without determining note-by-note melodic succession, or conversely using the row to supply melodic thematic material while composing the subsidiary parts. 3 Chorale Preludes for Organ Symphony No. 1 The Black Maskers Orchestral Suite Piano Sonata No. 1 Violin Concerto String Quartet No. 1 From My Diary Duo for Violin and Piano Piano Sonata No. 2 Symphony No. 2 The Trial of Lucullus, one-act opera String Quartet No. 2 Sonata for Solo Violin Idyll of Theocritus Mass, for unison chorus and organ Piano Concerto Symphony No. 3 String Quintet Symphony No. 4 Divertimento for orchestra Montezuma, opera in three acts Symphony No. 5 Piano Sonata No. 3 Symphony No. 6 Six Pieces for Violoncello Symphony No. 7 Symphony No. 8 Rhapsody for Orchestra Concerto for Violin and Orchestra When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d Three Choruses on Biblical Texts Concertino for Chamber Orchestra Five Pieces for Piano Symphony No. 9 Concerto for Orchestra Duo for Violin and Violoncello, incompleteSome works received their first professional performance many years after completion.
The Sixth Symphony was given its first complete performance on March 4, 1977 by the Juilliard Orchestra in New York City. The Ninth Symphony, commissioned by the Syracuse Symphony Orchestra and Frederik Prausnitz, was premiered on January 17, 1980 by the same orchestra conducted by Christopher Keene. Sessions, Roger. Harmonic Practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace. 1951. LCCN 51008476. Sessions, Roger. Reflections on the Music Life in the United States. New York: Merlin Press. 1956. LCCN 56012976. Sessions, Roger; the Musical Experience of Composer, Listener. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1950, republished 1958. Sessions, Roger. Questions About Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1970, reprinted New York: Norton, 1971. ISBN 0-674-74350-4. Sessions, Roger. Roger Sessions on Music: Collected Essays, edited by Edward T. Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-691-09126-9 ISBN 0-691-10074-8 Anon. "News Section". Tempo, new series, no. 121: 47–50. ISSN 0040-2982 JSTOR 944497 Cone, Edward, ed. Roger Sessions on Music: Collected Essays.
Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-691-09126-9 and ISBN 0-691-10074-8. Davis, Peter G. "Montezuma's Revenge". New York Magazine: 89–90. Henahan, Donal. "Julliard Gives Sessions'Montezuma'" New York Times. Imbrie, Andrew. "The Symphonies of Roger Sessions". Tempo. Cambridge University Press. New Ser.: 24–32. ISSN 0040-2982. JSTOR 943951. Laufer, Edward C. "Roger Sessions: Montezuma". Perspectives of New Music 4, no. 1: 95–108. Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music. New York
Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg was an Austrian, American, music theorist, teacher and painter. He was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, leader of the Second Viennese School. With the rise of the Nazi Party, Schoenberg's works were labeled degenerate music, because they were modernist and atonal, he immigrated to the United States in 1934. Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it. Schoenberg was known early in his career for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale.
He coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea. Schoenberg was an influential teacher of composition. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his habit of inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century, his polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen, Carl Dahlhaus, as well as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann, Glenn Gould. Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna. Arnold Schoenberg was born into a lower middle-class Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, at "Obere Donaustraße 5", his father Samuel, a native of Pressburg, was a shoe-shopkeeper, his mother Pauline Schoenberg, a native of Prague, was a piano teacher.
Arnold was self-taught. He took only counterpoint lessons with the composer Alexander Zemlinsky, to become his first brother-in-law. In his twenties, Schoenberg earned a living by orchestrating operettas, while composing his own works, such as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht, he made an orchestral version of this, which became one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance as a composer. Strauss turned to a more conservative idiom in his own work after 1909, at that point dismissed Schoenberg. Mahler adopted him as a protégé and continued to support him after Schoenberg's style reached a point Mahler could no longer understand. Mahler worried about. Schoenberg, who had despised and mocked Mahler's music, was converted by the "thunderbolt" of Mahler's Third Symphony, which he considered a work of genius. Afterward he "spoke of Mahler as a saint". In 1898 Schoenberg converted to Christianity in the Lutheran church. According to MacDonald this was to strengthen his attachment to Western European cultural traditions, as a means of self-defence "in a time of resurgent anti-Semitism".
In 1933, after long meditation, he returned to Judaism, because he realised that "his racial and religious heritage was inescapable", to take up an unmistakable position on the side opposing Nazism. He would self-identify as a member of the Jewish religion in life. In October 1901, he married Mathilde Zemlinsky, the sister of the conductor and composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, with whom Schoenberg had been studying since about 1894, he and Mathilde had two children and Georg. Gertrud would marry Schoenberg's pupil Felix Greissle in 1921. During the summer of 1908, his wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl; this period marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow", the thirteenth song in the cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten, Op. 15, based on the collection of the same name by the German mystical poet Stefan George. This was the first composition without any reference at all to a key.
In this year, he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2, whose first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures, yet whose final two movements settings of George, daringly weaken the links with traditional tonality. Both movements end on tonic chords, the work is not non-tonal. Breaking with previous string-quartet practice, it incorporates a soprano vocal line. During the summer of 1910, Schoenberg wrote his Harmonielehre, which remains one of the most influential music-theory
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
Ernst Toch was an Austrian composer of classical music and film scores. He sought throughout his life to introduce new approaches to music. Toch was born in Leopoldstadt, into the family of a humble Jewish leather dealer when the city was at its 19th-century cultural zenith, he studied philosophy at the University of Vienna, medicine at Heidelberg and music at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. His main instrument was the piano, he was a pianist of real stature, performing to acclaim throughout much of western Europe. Much of his writing was intended for the piano. Toch continued to grow as an artist and composer throughout his adult life, in America came to influence whole new generations of composers, his first compositions were pastiches in the style of Mozart. His first quartet was performed in Leipzig in 1908, his sixth in the year 1909. In 1909, his Chamber Symphony in F major won the Frankfurt/Main Mozart prize. From this time onwards, Toch dedicated himself to being a full-time composer.
He won the Mendelssohn prize for composition in 1910. In 1913, he was appointed lecturer of both piano and composition at the College of Music in Mannheim. After winning a further five major prizes for his works, he served four years in the army on the Italian Front during World War I. In 1916, he married the daughter of a banker. After World War I, he returned to Mannheim to compose, he received his Ph. D. degree from Heidelberg University in 1921. He taught on the faculty of the Mannheim Conservatory where one of his pupils was Hugo Chaim Adler. Following Hitler's seizure of power in 1933, Toch went into exile, first to Paris and London, where he wrote film scores. In 1935, he accepted an invitation from the New School for Social Research to go to New York City, he could, only secure his living in California by composing film music for Hollywood. Unlike his colleague Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Toch never got much attention in the industry and was top-billed, his score for the chase scene in Shirley Temple's 1937 Heidi remains his best-known piece of film music.
During his residence in California, he was a professor at the University of Southern California, where he taught both music and philosophy. He was a guest lecturer at Harvard University, he wrote a book on The Shaping Forces in Music. From 1950 on, he composed seven symphonies, the third of which received the Pulitzer Prize three years later. In these works, he returned to the late Romantic style of his early years. In 1958, he received the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, he died in Santa Monica and was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. He is the grandfather of authors Lawrence Toni Weschler, his works exhibit a humorous aspect. In 1930 he invented "Gesprochene Musik," the idiom of the "spoken chorus", his most performed work is the Geographical Fugue or Fuge aus der Geographie, which he himself regarded as an unimportant diversion. He wrote music for films, chamber music, chamber operas, he wrote books dealing with musical theory: Melodielehre and The Shaping Forces in Music.
Toch was considered one of the great avant-garde composers in the pre-Nazi era. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1956 for his Third Symphony. For his notable students, See: List of music students by teacher: T to Z#Ernst Toch. Symphony No. 1, Op. 72 Symphony No. 2, Op. 73 Symphony No. 3, Op. 75 Symphony No. 4, for speaker, Op. 80 Symphony No. 5 ` Jephtha, Rhapsodic Poem', Op. 89 Symphony No. 6, Op. 93 Symphony No. 7, Op. 95 Concerto for Cello and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 35 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 38 Symphony for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 61 Scherzo in B minor, orchestral version, Op. 11 Phantastishche Nachtmusik, for orchestra, Op. 27 Five Pieces for Chamber Orchestra, Op. 33 Komödie für Orchester in Einem Satz, Op. 42 Vorspiel zu einem Märchen, for orchestra, Op. 43a Fanal for Organ and Orchestra, Op. 45 Bunte Suite, for orchestra, Op. 48 Kleine Ouvertüre zu der Fächer, for orchestra, Op. 51 Kleine Theater-Suite, for orchestra, Op. 54 Big Ben: Variation-Fantasy on the Westminster Chimes, for orchestra, Op. 62 Pinocchio: A Merry Overture for Orchestra The Idle Stroller Suite, for orchestra The Covenant, for orchestra and narrator Hyperion: A Dramatic Prelude for Orchestra, Op. 71 Circus: An Overture, for orchestra Notturno, for orchestra, Op. 77 Peter Pan, for orchestra, Op. 76 Intermezzo for orchestra Epilogue for orchestra Short Story for orchestra The Enamour
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
Samuel Osborne Barber II was an American composer of orchestral, opera and piano music. He is one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music twice: for his opera Vanessa and for the Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. Performed is his Knoxville: Summer of 1915, a setting for soprano and orchestra of a prose text by James Agee. At the time of Barber's death, nearly all of his compositions had been recorded. Barber was born in West Chester, the son of Marguerite McLeod and Samuel Le Roy Barber, he was born into a comfortable, educated and distinguished American family. His father was a physician, his maternal aunt, Louise Homer, was a leading contralto at the Metropolitan Opera. Louise Homer is known to have influenced Barber's interest in voice. Through his aunt, Barber was introduced to songs. At a early age, Barber became profoundly interested in music, it was apparent that he had great musical talent and ability, he began studying the piano at the age of 6 and at age 7 composed his first work, Sadness, a 23-measure solo piano piece in C minor.
Despite Barber's interest in music, his family wanted him to become a typical extroverted, athletic American boy. This meant. However, Barber was in no way a typical boy, at the age of nine he wrote to his mother: Dear Mother: I have written this to tell you my worrying secret. Now don't cry when you read it because it is my fault. I suppose. To begin with I was not meant to be an athlet. I was meant to be a composer, will be I'm sure. I'll ask you one more thing.—Don't ask me to try to forget this unpleasant thing and go play football.—Please—Sometimes I've been worrying about this so much that it makes me mad. Barber attempted to write his first opera, entitled The Rose Tree, at the age of 10. At the age of 12, he became an organist at a local church; when he was 14, he entered the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where he studied piano with Isabelle Vengerova, composition with Rosario Scalero and George Frederick Boyle, voice with Emilio de Gogorza. He began composing in his late teenage years.
Around the same time, he met fellow Curtis schoolmate Gian Carlo Menotti, who became his partner in life as well as in their shared profession. At the Curtis Institute, Barber was a triple prodigy in composition and piano, he soon became a favorite of Mary Louise Curtis Bok. It was through Mrs. Bok that Barber was introduced to the Schirmer family. At the age of 18, Barber won the Joseph H. Bearns Prize from Columbia University for his violin sonata. From his early to late twenties, Barber wrote a flurry of successful compositions, launching him into the spotlight of the classical music world, his first orchestral work, an overture to The School for Scandal, was composed in 1931 when he was 21 years old. It premiered two years in a performance given by the Philadelphia Orchestra under conductor Alexander Smallens. Many of his compositions were commissioned or first performed by such noted artists as Vladimir Horowitz, Eleanor Steber, Raya Garbousova, John Browning, Leontyne Price, Pierre Bernac, Francis Poulenc, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau.
In 1935, at the age of 25, he was awarded the American Prix de Rome. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1946. In 1938, when Barber was 28, his Adagio for Strings was performed by the NBC Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Arturo Toscanini, along with his first Essay for Orchestra; the Adagio had been arranged from the slow movement of Barber's String Quartet, Op. 11. Toscanini had performed music by American composers before. At the end of the first rehearsal of the piece, Toscanini remarked, "Semplice e bella". In 1942, after the US entered World War II, Barber joined the Army Air Corps. Composed in 1943, the symphony was titled Symphony Dedicated to the Air Forces and was premiered in early 1944 by Serge Koussevitsky and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Barber revised the symphony in 1947 and it was published by G. Schirmer. and recorded the following year by the New Symphony Orchestra of London conducted by the composer,In 1964 Barber destroyed the score. It has been reconstructed from the instrumental parts.
According to another source, however, it was the parts to the symphony that Barber had torn up. Hans Heinsheimer was an eyewitness, reported that he accompanied Barber to the publisher's office where they collected all the music from the library, Barber "tore up all these beautifully and expensively copied materials with his own hands." Doubt has been cast on this story, however, on grounds that H