The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge across the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, it is a replacement for an older truss bridge constructed in the 1950s. Of ten lanes, using the harp-style system of nearly-parallel cable layout, coupled with the use of "cradles" through each pylon for the cables, the main portion of the Zakim Bridge carries four lanes each way of the Interstate 93 and U. S. Route 1 concurrency between the Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill Jr. Tunnel and the elevated highway to the north. Two additional lanes are cantilevered outside the cables, which carry northbound traffic from the Sumner Tunnel and North End on-ramp; these lanes merge with the main highway north of the bridge. I-93 heads toward New Hampshire as the "Northern Expressway", US 1 splits from the Interstate and travels northeast toward Massachusetts' North Shore communities, crossing the Mystic River via the Tobin Bridge; the bridge and connecting tunnel were built as part of the Big Dig, the largest highway construction project in the United States.
The northbound lanes were finished in March 2003, the southbound lanes in December. The bridge's unique styling became an icon for Boston featured in the backdrop of national news channels, to establish location, included on tourist souvenirs; the bridge is referred to as the "Zakim Bridge" or "Bunker Hill Bridge" by residents of nearby Charlestown. The Leverett Circle Connector Bridge was constructed in conjunction with the Zakim Bridge, allowing some traffic to bypass it. In a cable-stayed bridge, the cables run directly between the towers. In contrast, a suspension bridge hangs the roadbed from cables slung between towers. Although cable-stayed bridges have been common in Europe since World War II, they are new to North America; the bridge concept was developed by Swiss civil engineer Christian Menn in collaboration with bridge designer Miguel Rosales and its design was engineered by American civil engineer Ruchu Hsu with Parsons Brinckerhoff. Wallace Floyd Associates, sub-consultants to Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, was the lead architect/urban designer and facilitated community participation during the design process.
The engineer of record is HNTB/FIGG. The lead designers were Sajal Banerjee and W. Denney Pate; the bridge follows a new design in which, besides having its eight primary lanes running through the towers, a pair of northbound lanes are cantilevered outside of the cable-stays. It has a striking, graceful appearance, meant to echo the tower of the Bunker Hill Monument, within view of the bridge, the white cables evoke imagery of the rigging of the USS Constitution, docked nearby; the 1975-built MBTA Orange Line's Haymarket North Extension tunnel lies beneath the bridge. The bridge's full name commemorates Boston area leader and civil rights activist Leonard P. Zakim who championed "building bridges between peoples", the Battle of Bunker Hill. Massachusetts Governor A. Paul Cellucci sought to name it the "Freedom Bridge". In 2000, local clergy and religious leaders, including Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, requested the Zakim name shortly after Zakim's death from myeloma. Although Cellucci agreed to the naming, community leaders from Charlestown objected to the name as they felt that since the design reflected the nearby Bunker Hill memorial, it should be named the "Bunker Hill Freedom bridge".
Allegations of antisemitism were leveled against members of the white, Irish Catholic community as reasons for resistance to the Zakim name, based on some comments quoted in the Boston Globe. Several local neo-Nazis complained about the honor for Zakim and launched an unsuccessful petition drive to drop his name from the Bunker Hill one. In response, several community leaders spoke out against the allegations in a press conference, stating that the claims, made by Professor Jonathan Sarna, were his alone and did not reflect the community's historical basis of favoring the "Bunker Hill" name, though they dodged questions about the false claim that no Jews had fought in the battle of Bunker Hill. A compromise between the Boston City Council, the Massachusetts State Legislature and community activists brought about the current name; as with the Hoover Dam, different communities call the bridge by different colloquial names. Whether you call it the Bunker Hill Bridge, The Zakim, or The Bridge, everyone agrees on its beauty and being a wonderful addition to Boston.
Placement of footings for the Zakim Bridge required environmental permits to relocate areas of open water surface, changing the contour of the Charles River shoreline. The process of landscape design and environmental mitigation under the bridge deck and around the bridge supports allowed for the creation of a new and accessible public landscape designed by Carol R. Johnson Associates; this under bridge landscape contains a series of perforated stainless steel lighting-based public artworks, Five Beacons for the Lost Half Mile. Pedestrians and cyclists are able to travel from Charlestown toward Cambridge over the adjacent North Bank Pedestrian Bridge to North Point Park; this bridge is a link in the Charles River Bike Path. The bridge was dedicated on October 2002, in a ceremony held on the new span; the dedication speakers included members of Zakim's family, government officials, a performance of the song "Thunder Road" by Bruce Springsteen. Introducing the song, Springsteen said about Zakim, "...
I knew him a little bit during the last year of his life, he was one of those peo
Alberto Salazar is an American track coach, former world-class long-distance runner and a doping offender. Born in Cuba, Salazar immigrated to the United States as a child with his family, they moved to Manchester, Connecticut and to Wayland, where Salazar competed in track and field in high school. Salazar is best known for his performances in the New York City Marathon in the early 1980s and his 1982 Boston Marathon victory known as the "Duel in the Sun." He held American track records of 13:11.93 for 5,000 m on July 6, 1982 in Stockholm, Sweden and 27:25.61 for 10,000 m on June 26, 1982 in Oslo, Norway. Salazar was the head coach of the Nike Oregon Project in Oregon, he won the IAAF Coaching Achievement Award in 2013 during a ceremony hosted by the International Athletics Foundation in Monaco. In June 2015, Salazar was named in a joint BBC Panorama and ProPublica investigation into doping allegations. In 2019 Salazar was banned for 4 years from athletics for doping offenses; the Nike Oregon Project was shut down in the wake of the controversy.
He was further mired in controversy after the New York Times published a video op-ed from his former athlete Mary Cain. Born in Cuba, Salazar grew up in Massachusetts, his father Jose was a close friend of Fidel Castro and fellow Cuban revolutionary, who became an opponent of the Communist government and member of the anti-Castro movement. The younger Salazar was an outstanding high school runner, state cross country champion in 1975, he trained wıth the well known Greater Boston Track Club where he was given the nickname of "the rookie". From Massachusetts he went to the University of Oregon where he won numerous All American honors, was a member of the 1977 NCAA cross country championship team, won the individual NCAA cross country championship in 1978. Salazar won the 1978 NCAA national cross country championship in cold, snowy conditions, handing Track & Field News Athlete of the Year Henry Rono one of his few losses of the year, he finished 2nd to Rono in a memorable duel at the 1979 NCAA national cross country championships at Lehigh University, in which Rono and Salazar ran the 3rd and 5th fastest 10,000 meter cross country times in NCAA championship history.
Neither time has been matched in over three decades of NCAA cross country competition since then. After that, he finished third in the Olympic Trials 10,000 meter race in 28:10.42 to make the 1980 Olympic team and received one of 461 Congressional Gold Medals created for the spurned athletes. He broke the American indoor 5,000 meter record in February 1981 at the Millrose Games in New York. Salazar and Rodgers had a legendary duel at the Gurnet Classic Beach Run in Duxbury during the 1970s. At the 1978 Falmouth Road Race after fading to 10th place, he collapsed at the finish with a temperature of 107 degrees Fahrenheit and was read his last rites prematurely. From 1980 through 1982, Salazar won three consecutive New York City Marathons, his first-ever marathon, the 1980 New York City race, resulted in a 2:09:41 win, at the time the fastest American debut and the second-fastest time recorded by a U. S. runner. He was on that week's cover of Sports Illustrated after the victory. In 1981, Salazar set an apparent world record at the New York City Marathon of 2:08:13, surpassing the 12-year-old mark of 2:08:33 set by Australian Derek Clayton in 1969 in Antwerp, Belgium.
However, the course was found on re-measurement to be about 148 meters short of the 42.195 kilometre distance. This is equivalent to about 27 seconds. In 1982 he won his first and only Boston Marathon after the famous "Duel in the Sun" with Dick Beardsley. Salazar won the race in an exciting sprint finish and collapsed at the end before being taken to an emergency room and given six liters of saline solution intravenously because he had not drunk during the race. Salazar ended the year ranked #1 in the world in the marathon by Track & Field News magazine for his wins in Boston and New York, #1 in their North American Road Rankings for his American 10K road record win of 28:04 at the Orange Bowl 10K and his course record of 31:53 at the competitive Falmouth 7.1-mile road race, #8 in the world in the 5,000 meters, #2 in the world in the 10,000 meters, with three second-place finishes at Eugene, at Oslo in an American Record of 27:25.61, at Paris. Salazar enjoyed success in cross country competition, earning several All American honors in collegiate and post-collegiate national championships.
Salazar was the U. S. national cross country champion in 1979. He fared well at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, finishing second in 1982 and fourth in 1983, his silver medal in 1982 marks the last time an American male reached the podium in World Cross Country. In addition to a fourth-place finish at the 1983 world cross country championships, Salazar twice broke the American 10 km road record in 1983 with efforts of 28:02 and 28:01 at the Americas 10 km and Continental Homes 10 km respectively, he finished as the top ranker in Track & Field News magazine's North American Road Rankings for 1983. He was the 10,000 meter national track champion in 1983, pulling away from Craig Virgin in the last straightaway at the U. S. championships in Indiana in June to win his second s
The May Queen or Queen of May is a personification of the May Day holiday, of springtime and summer. The May Queen is a girl who walks at the front of a parade for May Day celebrations, she wears a white gown to symbolise purity and a tiara or crown. Her duty is to begin the May Day celebrations, she is crowned by flowers and makes a speech before the dancing begins. Certain age-groups dance around a Maypole celebrating youth and springtime. James George Frazer speculated. In the High Middle Ages in England the May Queen was known as the "Summer Queen". George C. Homans points out: "The time from Hocktide, after Easter Week, to Lammas was summer."In 1557, a London diarist called Henry Machyn wrote: "The xxx day of May was a goly May-gam in Fanch-chyrchestrett with drumes and gunes and pykes, ix wordes dyd ryd. Modern English: On the 30 May was a jolly May-game in Fenchurch Street with drums and guns and pikes, The Nine Worthies did ride. Many areas keep this tradition alive today; the oldest unbroken tradition is Hayfield, based on a much older May Fair.
Another notable event includes the one in the Brentham Garden Suburb, which hosts it annually. It has the second oldest unbroken tradition although the May Queen of All London Festival at Hayes Common in Bromley is a close contender having been in existence for 105 years as of 2017. A May Day festival is held on the village green at Aldborough, North Yorkshire on a site that dates back to Roman times and the settlement of Isurium Brigantum. A May queen is selected from a group of 13 upward girls by the young dancers, she stays in the procession. The largest event in this tradition in modern Britain is the Beltane Fire Festival in Edinburgh, Scotland. A May Day celebration held annually since 1870 in New Westminster, British Columbia, has the distinction of being the longest running May Day celebration of its kind in the British Commonwealth. May crowning The Green Man A translation of Grimm's Saga No. 365 about Hertha, Mother Earth, a web essay on how she became the May Queen Freya, May Queen with references and customs