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Leopold Stokowski

Leopold Anthony Stokowski was an English conductor of Polish descent. One of the leading conductors of the early and mid-20th century, he is best known for his long association with the Philadelphia Orchestra and his appearance in the Disney film Fantasia, he was noted for his free-hand conducting style that spurned the traditional baton and for obtaining a characteristically sumptuous sound from the orchestras he directed. Stokowski was music director of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Symphony of the Air and many others, he was the founder of the All-American Youth Orchestra, the New York City Symphony, the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra and the American Symphony Orchestra. Stokowski conducted the music for and appeared in several Hollywood films, most notably Disney's Fantasia, was a lifelong champion of contemporary composers, giving many premieres of new music during his 60-year conducting career.

Stokowski, who made his official conducting debut in 1909, appeared in public for the last time in 1975 but continued making recordings until June 1977, a few months before his death at the age of 95. The son of an English-born cabinet-maker of Polish heritage, Kopernik Joseph Boleslaw Stokowski, his Northampton-born wife Annie-Marion, Stokowski was born Leopold Anthony Stokowski, although on occasion in life he altered his middle name to Antoni, per the Polish spelling. There is some mystery surrounding his early life. For example, he spoke with an non-British accent, though he was born and raised in London. On occasion, Stokowski gave his year of birth as 1887 instead of 1882, as in a letter to the Hugo Riemann Musiklexicon in 1950, which incorrectly gave his birthplace as Kraków, Poland. Nicolas Slonimsky, editor of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, received a letter from a Finnish encyclopaedia editor that said, "The Maestro himself told me that he was born in Pomerania, Germany, in 1889."

In Germany there was a corresponding rumour that his original name was "Stock". However, Stokowski's birth certificate gives his birth on 18 April 1882, at 13 Upper Marylebone Street, in the Marylebone District of London. Stokowski was named after his Polish-born grandfather Leopold, who died in the English county of Surrey on 13 January 1879, at the age of 49; the "mystery" surrounding his origins and accent is clarified in Oliver Daniel's 1000-page biography Stokowski – A Counterpoint of View, in which Daniel reveals Stokowski came under the influence of his first wife, pianist Olga Samaroff. Samaroff, born Lucy Mary Agnes Hickenlooper, was from Galveston and adopted a more exotic-sounding name to further her career. For professional and career reasons, she "urged him to emphasize only the Polish part of his background" once he became a resident of the United States, he studied at the Royal College of Music, where he first enrolled in 1896 at the age of thirteen, making him one of the youngest students to do so.

In his life in the United States, Stokowski would perform six of the nine symphonies composed by his fellow organ student Ralph Vaughan Williams. Stokowski sang in the choir of the St Marylebone Parish Church, he became the assistant organist to Sir Walford Davies at The Temple Church. By age 16, Stokowski was elected to a membership in the Royal College of Organists. In 1900, he formed the choir of St. Mary's Church, Charing Cross Road, where he trained the choirboys and played the organ. In 1902, he was appointed the choir director of St. James's Church, Piccadilly, he attended The Queen's College, where he earned a Bachelor of Music degree in 1903. In 1905, Stokowski began work in New York City as the organist and choir director of St. Bartholomew's Church, he was popular among the parishioners, who included members of the Vanderbilt family, but in the course of time, he resigned this position in order to pursue a career as an orchestra conductor. Stokowski moved to Paris for additional study in conducting.

There he heard that the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra would be needing a new conductor when it returned from a long sabbatical. In 1908, Stokowski began a campaign to win this position, writing letters to Mrs. Christian R. Holmes, the orchestra's president, travelling all the way to Cincinnati, for a personal interview. Stokowski was selected over the other applicants, took up his conducting duties in late 1909; that was the year of his official conducting debut in Paris with the Colonne Orchestra on 12 May 1909, when Stokowski accompanied his bride to be, the pianist Olga Samaroff, in Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1. Stokowski's conducting debut in London took place the following week on 18 May with the New Symphony Orchestra at Queen's Hall, his engagement as new permanent conductor in Cincinnati was a great success. He introduced the concept of "pops concerts" and, starting with his first season, he began championing the work of living composers, his concerts included performances of music by Richard Strauss, Rachmaninoff, Glazunov, Saint-Saëns and many others.

He conducted the American premieres of new works by such composers as Elgar, whose 2nd Symphony was first presented there on 24 November 1911. He was to maintain his advocacy of contemporary music to the end of his career. However, in early 1912, Stokowski became frustrated with the politics of the orchestra's Board of Directors, submitted his resignation. There was some dispute over w

Auras, Uttar Pradesh

Auras is a township and a nagar panchayat in Unnao district in the state of utter pradesh, India. The area, nearby was part of Awadh Kingdom in the 17th century; the Nawabs use to rule the place. The British Rule was there in the 19th and 20th centuries, it was part of Lucknow District and Unnao was carved from it of which it became a small township to be developed since 2011. The township is located near the Sai River at the Agra-Lucknow Expressway; the area is covered with evergreen vegetation and is having fertile land for agriculture. The average elevation is 214 mts above sea level and is south-east sloping; as of the 2011 Census of India, Auras had a population of 5653. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Auras has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national average of 74%. 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The township is developed in sectors with some being north to Agra-Lucknow Expressway and some being south of it; the commercial and banking settlement is in north and the south has residential lands.

The township is developed by KDA combined. The IT and knowledge park along with heavy machinery industry like Aero-Turbine and Casing Pumps that are set by Haliburton are creating jobs here

Charleville War Memorial

Charleville War Memorial is a heritage-listed war memorial at Edward Street, Shire of Murweh, Australia. It was built in 1924 by R C Ziegler and Son, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. The Charleville War Memorial was unveiled on 9 October 1924 by the Queensland Governor Sir Matthew Nathan, it is thought to have been designed by George Brockwell Gill and cost £1000. The predominantly marble memorial honours the 310 local men who served in the First World War, including the 40 fallen; the memorial was:"Erected by the citizens of Charleville and district, Charleville sub-branch of the Returned Services League". The cast iron fence was subsequently erected some time between 1925 and 1933. In 1864, the Queensland Government Gazette proclaimed the boundaries of the Warrego Pastoral District; this followed the arrival of farmers from New South Wales in search of sheep runs on the Upper Warrego River district. The town of Charleville was gazetted in 1868 and laid out by government surveyor William Alcock Tully in the usual grid form, allowing for the roads to be wide enough for large bullock trains to turn in.

By 1880 the area had developed into a small town which continued to prosper as a resting point on the stock routes. Development was further encouraged by the Western railway which reached Charleville in 1888 and the establishment of Cobb and Co in 1890. Other businesses were established to support the growing infrastructure. Australia, Queensland in particular, had few civic monuments before the First World War; the memorials erected in its wake became our first national monuments, recording the devastating impact of the war on a young nation. Australia lost 60,000 from a population of about 4 million, representing one in five of those who served. No previous or subsequent war has made such an impact on the nation. Before the end of the war, memorials became a spontaneous and visible expression of national grief. To those who erected them, they were as sacred as grave sites, substitute graves for the Australians whose bodies lay in battlefield cemeteries in Europe and the Middle East. British policy decreed that the Empire war dead were to be buried.

The word "cenotaph" applied to war memorials at the time means "empty tomb". Australian war memorials are distinctive in. Australians were proud that their first great national army, unlike other belligerent armies, was composed of volunteers, men worthy of honour whether or not they made the supreme sacrifice. Many memorials honour all who served from a locality, not just the dead, providing valuable evidence of community involvement in the war; such evidence is not obtainable from military records, or from state or national listings, where names are categorised alphabetically or by military unit. Australian war memorials are valuable evidence of imperial and national loyalties, at the time, not seen as conflicting. In Queensland, the digger statue was the popular choice of memorial, whereas the obelisk predominated in the southern states a reflection of Queensland's larger working-class population and a lesser involvement of architects. Many of the First World War monuments have been updated to record local involvement in conflicts, some have fallen victim to unsympathetic re-location and repair.

Although many different memorials were constructed throughout Queensland, the only other known one of this design is the Esk War Memorial. The Charleville memorial is attributed to Ipswich architect George Brockwell Gill due to design similarities with the Esk Memorial, known to be designed by Gill. George Brockwell Gill was born in England and emigrated to Australia in 1886 and was soon employed by Ipswich architect Samuel Shenton; when Shenton retired in 1889, Gill took over the practice. He designed many substantial buildings in Ipswich including Ipswich Girls' Grammar School and the Ipswich Technical College, he was active in public and church affairs and became president of the Queensland Institute of Architects in 1918. When he retired in 1943, his practice was taken over by Brisbane firm and Gargett; the memorial was constructed in Toowoomba by well known masonry firm, R C Ziegler and Son and transported to Charleville. The firm of R C Ziegler and Son was established in Toowoomba in c. 1902 and produced many memorials throughout south western Queensland.

The family company moved to Bundaberg. The First World War Memorial is situated in a park in Charleville. Within the park are two guns or war trophies and a flagstaff; the memorial itself is surrounded by a cast iron picket fence with fleur-de-lis finials and a centrally placed gate. The Italian marble monument stands 23 feet from the ground, it sits on a terrazzo base step, the top of, laid with light and dark tiles in a chequerboard pattern. Above this is the sandstone base of the monument; this is square in plan with corner buttresses and a moulded skirting and cornice. The base displays plaques on all faces, commemorating conflicts, and one earlier one – the Boer War. Projecting from the centre of the base is a square pillar with engaged columns at each corner; the pillar is of Italian marble and bears leaded names of those who served in the First World War, including the fallen for whom the front panel is reserved. At the top of each face are carved shields bearing the stylised letters AIF; the columns are ma