Rock of Monaco
The Rock of Monaco is a 62-metre tall monolith on the Mediterranean coast of the Principality of Monaco. It overlooks the port; the Rock has been a coveted possession from the beginning of the ancient Massilian colony of Monoïkos, named for the Ligurian tribes who occupied the area and vied for control of it. The Rock of Monaco was the first conquest of the Grimaldi dynasty, the rulers of the country for more than 700 years, founded when the Guelf Francesco Grimaldi disguised himself as a Franciscan friar in order to gain entry to the city and open the gates for his soldiers. Today, the Rock is in the oldest of Monaco's four quarters, Monaco-Ville, the location of Old Town, the oldest part of the city; this is not far from the Prince's Palace, home of the current monarch Albert II and the princely family, the Cathedral and the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. The Rock of Monaco is a popular attraction where tourists view the palace and the changing of the guards
Law enforcement in Monaco
Law enforcement in Monaco is provided by an armed national police force consisting of 515 men and women. With 515 police officers for 35,000 people in 1.98 km², Monaco has the largest police force and police presence in the world on both a per-capita and per-area basis. Its police includes a specialist unit which operates surveillance boats. There is a militarised bodyguard unit for the Prince and his palace called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince which numbers 116 officers and men, is equipped with modern weapons including M16 rifles and 9mm pistols, an armed and well-trained Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers, which provides an extensive civil defense service in support of law enforcement, in addition to its fire and rescue services. In 2006 the assault rate was 407.2 per 100,000 and the rape rate 5.8 per 100,000. The murder rate was 2.91 per 100,000 in 2006. The Monaco police force comes under the administration of the Direction of Public Safety, created on June 23, 1902 under the Department of the Interior.
The police force. The Criminal Police Division has three main departments, Criminal Investigations, Criminal Identity and Resources; the Urban Police Division co-ordinates the activities of the uniformed police officers and employs a number of units, including a General Police Brigade, Specialised Intervention Unit, Operational Command Centre and a Secretariat to the Police Court. The Administrative Police Division is responsible for the movement of foreign nationals through Monaco's borders, while the Division of the Administration and the Formation handles administration matters for the police force; the Maritime and Airport Police Divisions police the skies of Monaco. The latter divisions both employ departments pertaining to air and sea rescue, water surveillance and the co-ordination of trans-border police operations with Monaco's neighbours; the Division of the Maritime and Airport Police itself was created on 16 August 1960 when security issues in the air and on the water were transferred to the control of the Director of Public Safety, since 1961 the division has grown to consist of 8 officers and 27 civil servants.
The Maritime Section controls and registers passengers in transit, is in charge of national waters surveillance, including submarine natural resources, sea-rescue. The Trans-border and Heliport Control Section oversees border police missions, they possess 3 patrol boats, which they share with the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince, the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers
Fontvieille is the southernmost ward in the Principality of Monaco. It was developed by Manfredi Nicoletti, between the 1970s and the 1990s. In contrast to the other city districts Monaco-Ville, Monte Carlo and La Condamine, Fontvieille was constructed, after Italian engineer Gianfranco Gilardini's design entirely on artificially reclaimed land and thus represents one of the younger parts of the principality. In order to combat the chronic land shortage in the densely populated principality, the work was begun in 1966 to create new land in the Mediterranean Sea southwest of le rocher. In 1981, the Crown Prince Albert laid the cornerstone for the new city quarter; the existence of Fontvieille, its many public works projects, relates to former Prince of Monaco, Prince Rainier III's reputation as the Builder Prince. Plans announced in late 2009 to extend Fontvieille by the Department of Urban Development are being overseen by Prince Albert; the plan is to build a small 0.05 km² or 5.3 ha aura on the west side of the rock planned to be finished by 2015.
The new area will include 3 to 4 new hotels, corporate businesses and apartments for between 600-800 newcomers. Despite not being the highest priced part of Monaco, flats are very expensive. For example, 65 m² 1 bedroom apartment with 1 bathroom and 1 car parking space, was offered at €3,200,000 in May 2015. Fontvieille represents the southwestern portion of the city-state, an area of 0.33 km2 or 33 ha. It accommodates 3,602.4 hectares of Fontvieille are given over to the Fontvieille Park and Princess Grace Rose Garden. Fontvieille contains Stade Louis II, which serves as the home ground of AS Monaco FC, a Monaco football club, one of the most successful in the French national league; the ground hosted the European Super Cup, an annual event pitting the winners of the top UEFA club competitions, the Champions League and Europa League, between 1998 and 2012. The district contains the Monaco Heliport, which provides frequent links to Nice Airport in neighboring France, with connections to direct flights to New York, Dubai and other important European destinations.
Monaco's automobile museum, the Monaco Top Cars Collection, is located on the Terrasses de Fontvieille. The Museum of Stamps and Coins contains a display of Monegasque money dating to 1640, which illustrates the postal history of the principality. Columbus Hotel Monaco, owned by former racing driver David Coulthard, is located in Fontvieille. Venturi and its subsidiary Voxan are headquartered on the northern side of Fontvieille. Geography of Monaco with suburbs and features Media related to Fontvieille at Wikimedia Commons Fontvieille, Monaco
The grade of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction in which run is the horizontal distance and rise is the vertical distance; the grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides and river banks and beds are described. Grades are specified for new linear constructions; the grade may refer to the perpendicular cross slope. There are several ways to express slope: as an angle of inclination to the horizontal; as a percentage, the formula for, 100 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 100. In the U. S. this percentage "grade" is the most used unit for communicating slopes in transportation, surveying and civil engineering. As a per mille figure, the formula for, 1000 rise run which could be expressed as the tangent of the angle of inclination times 1000.
This is used in Europe to denote the incline of a railway. As a ratio of one part rise to so many parts run. For example, a slope that has a rise of 5 feet for every 100 feet of run would have a slope ratio of 1 in 20.. This is the method used to describe railway grades in Australia and the UK, it is used for roads in Hong Kong, was used for roads in the UK until the 1970s. As a ratio of many parts run to one part rise, the inverse of the previous expression. For example, "slopes are expressed as ratios such as 4:1; this means that for every 4 units of horizontal distance there is a 1-unit vertical change either up or down."Any of these may be used. Grade is expressed as a percentage, but this is converted to the angle α from horizontal or the other expressions. Slope may still be expressed when the horizontal run is not known: the rise can be divided by the hypotenuse; this is not the usual way to specify slope. But in practice the usual way to calculate slope is to measure the distance along the slope and the vertical rise, calculate the horizontal run from that.
When the angle of inclination is small, using the slope length rather than the horizontal displacement makes only an insignificant difference. Railway gradients are expressed in terms of the rise in relation to the distance along the track as a practical measure. In cases where the difference between sin and tan is significant, the tangent is used. In any case, the following identity holds for all inclinations up to 90 degrees: tan α = sin α 1 − sin 2 α. In Europe, road gradients are signed as a percentage. Grades are related using the following equations with symbols from the figure at top. Tan α = Δ h d This ratio can be expressed as a percentage by multiplying by 100. Α = arctan Δ h d If the tangent is expressed as a percentage, the angle can be determined as: α = arctan % slope 100 If the angle is expressed as a ratio then: α = arctan 1 n In vehicular engineering, various land-based designs are rated for their ability to ascend terrain. Trains rate much lower than automobiles.
The highest grade a vehicle can ascend while maintaining a particular speed is sometimes termed that vehicle's "gradeability". The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them. In the United States, maximum grade for Federally funded highways is specified in a design table based on terrain and design speeds, with up to 6% allowed in mountainous areas and hilly urban areas with exceptions for up to 7% grades on mountainous roads with speed limits below 60 mph; the steepest roads in the world are Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech and Canton Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Guinness World R
Cap-d'Ail, Italian: Capodaglio or Capo d'Aglio, Occitan: Caup d'Alh) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. It borders the district of La Colle in the Principality of Monaco. Modern Cap d'Ail is a modern seaside resort with a lively shopping district on the Basse Corniche and quiet, fashionable residential quarters. Many people who work in Monaco live here. Plage la Mala is prized by many day trippers from Nice. Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department INSEE
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other