Lesser Sunda Islands

The Lesser Sunda Islands are a group of islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands; the islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Sunda Trench in the Java Sea. The main Lesser Sunda Islands are, from west to east: Bali, Sumbawa, Sumba, Alor archipelago, Barat Daya Islands, Tanimbar Islands; the Lesser Sundas comprise many islands, most of which are part of Indonesia and are administered as the provinces of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara and the southern part of Maluku. The eastern half of Timor is the separate nation of East Timor; the Lesser Sunda Islands consist of two geologically distinct archipelagos. The northern archipelago, which includes Bali, Sumbawa and Wetar, is volcanic in origin. A number of these volcanoes, like Mount Rinjani on Lombok, are still active while others, such as Kelimutu on Flores with its three multi-coloured crater lakes, are extinct.

The northern archipelago began to be formed during the Pliocene, about 15 million years ago, as a result of the collision between the Australian and the Asian plates. The islands of the southern archipelago, including Sumba and Babar, are non-volcanic and appear to belong to the Australian plate; the geology and ecology of the northern archipelago share similar history and processes with the southern Maluku Islands, which continue the same island arc to the east. There is a long history of geological study of these regions since Indonesian colonial times. Lying at the collision of two tectonic plates, the Lesser Sunda Islands comprise some of the most geologically complex and active regions in the world. There are a number of volcanoes located on the Lesser Sunda Islands; the Lesser Sunda Islands differ from the large islands of Java or Sumatra in consisting of many small islands, sometimes divided by deep oceanic trenches. Movement of flora and fauna between islands is limited, leading to the evolution of a high rate of localized species, most famously the Komodo dragon.

As described by Alfred Wallace in The Malay Archipelago, the Wallace Line passes between Bali and Lombok, along the deep waters of the Lombok Strait which formed a water barrier when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side. The islands east of the Lombok Strait are part of Wallacea, are thus characterised by a blend of wildlife of Asian and Australasian origin in this region. Asian species predominate in the Lesser Sundas: Weber's Line, which marks the boundary between the parts of Wallacea with Asian and Australasian species runs to the east of the group; these islands have the driest climate in Indonesia. A number of the islands east of the Wallace line, from Lombok and Sumbawa east to Flores and Alor, having original vegetation of dry forest rather than the rain forest that covers much of the Indonesian region, have been designated by the World Wildlife Fund as the Lesser Sundas deciduous forests ecoregion; the higher slopes of the islands contain forests of tall Podocarpus conifers and Engelhardias with an undergrowth of lianas and orchids such as Corybas and Malaxis, while the coastal plains were savanna grasses such as the savanna with Borassus flabellifer palm trees on the coasts of Komodo and Flores.

Although most of the vegetation on these islands is dry forest there are patches of rainforest on these islands too in lowland areas and riverbanks on Komodo, there is a particular area of dry thorny forest on the southeast coast of Lombok. Thorn trees used to be more common in coastal areas of the islands but have been cleared; these islands are home to unique species including seventeen endemic birds. The endemic mammals are the endangered Flores shrew, the vulnerable Komodo rat, Lombok flying fox, Sunda long-eared bat while the carnivorous Komodo dragon, which at three metres long and ninety kilograms in weight is the world's largest lizard, is found on Komodo, Gili Motang, the coast of northwestern Flores. More than half of the original vegetation of the islands has been cleared for planting of rice and other crops, for settlement and by consequent forest fires. Only Sumbawa now contains a large area of intact natural forest, while Komodo and Padar are now protected as Komodo National Park.

While many ecological problems affect both small islands and large landmasses, small islands suffer their particular problems and are exposed to external forces. Development pressures on small islands are increasing, although their effects are not always anticipated. Although Indonesia is richly endowed with natural resources, the resources of the small islands of Nusa Tenggara are limited and specialised. General observations about small islands that can be applied to Nusa Tenggara include: A higher proportion of the landmass will be affected by volcanic activity, earthquakes and cyclone damage.

EX-TRTC United Workers Front v Premier, Eastern Cape Province

EX-TRTC United Workers Front v Premier, Eastern Cape Province is an important case in South African law and decided in the Eastern Cape High Court, Bhisho, on 25 February – 4 June 2009, respectively. T Delport appeared for the plaintiffs, SM Mbenenge SC for the defendants; the case has important implications for civil procedure in South Africa, with its determination that, although a voluntary association may, under the Uniform Rules of Court, sue or be sued in own name, this does not confer locus standi on the association where locus standi is otherwise lacking. The court held that whether or not an association amounts to a universitas is to be determined with reference to its nature and object and activities. A written constitution is in this regard desirable but not essential. Where the association is formed for a limited purpose, would cease to exist once that purpose has been achieved, it lacks the object to have perpetual succession and to hold property separate from its members. In an action in the High Court for damages for breach of contract, after a separation of issues, the court was asked to determine the question of the locus standi of the first plaintiff, described in the particulars as a voluntary association whose objective was "to represent its members in regard to their rights and interests emanating from their employment by and the closure of the Transkei Road Transport Corporation and to jointly institute legal proceedings to achieve" that objective.

The plaintiff had no written constitution. The defendant argued. Conversely, the plaintiffs argued that the first plaintiff was able to sue in its own name by virtue of the provisions of rule 14 of the Uniform Rules of Court; the court held that rule 14 was nothing more than a procedural aid, in that it assisted a plaintiff to cite certain legal entities that did not have any existence separate from their members or owners. It did not turn a partnership, a firm or an unincorporated association into a different entity that existed separate from its members. There was no merit, the court found, in the submission that the first plaintiff could not be a universitas because it did not possess a written constitution. Although advisable, it was not essential for a universitas to have a constitution. Accordingly, the mere fact that the first plaintiff had no written constitution was not determinative of the question of whether or not it had locus standi. Whether or not the first plaintiff was a universitas, had to be decided with regard to its nature, its object and it activities.

From a reading of the particulars of claim, it was clear to the court that the rights and interests referred to were those arising from a contract entered into between the defendant and a labour union representing persons who were employed by the said corporation prior to its dissolution. The conclusion was inescapable: The first plaintiff was formed for a limited purpose; the object of the association negated an intention that it would have perpetual succession and hold property separate from its members. It was unnecessary for the achievement of its purpose to possess those characteristics; the first plaintiff lacked the requisites for a universitas. The court held that an association could sue on behalf of its members under rule 14 only if there existed a sufficient nexus between the individual members, in their capacities as members of the association, the right that formed the subject-matter of the litigation. Applied to the present matter, the first plaintiff did not institute the present proceedings to protect or enforce an interest which it had as a body or organisation.

The right to claim damages from the defendant for the alleged breach of contract was a personal right. The plaintiffs, in deciding jointly to pursue their claims against the defendant, were not an "association" of persons within the meaning of that word, their intention was rather, having regard to the purpose of the first plaintiff and the nature of the relief claimed, to use the first plaintiff as a convenient vehicle to bring a representative action. Such an action did not exist in South African civil procedure; the court concluded that it had not been shown on the pleadings that the first plaintiff had locus standi. The defendant's objection in that regard had to be upheld; the defendant's objection to the locus standi of the first plaintiff was upheld and the first plaintiff's claims dismissed. Civil procedure in South Africa South African law of partnerships and trusts EX-TRTC United Workers Front and Others v Premier, Eastern Cape Province 2010 SA 114

Henrik Dalsgaard

Henrik Dalsgaard is a Danish professional footballer who plays as a right back for English club Brentford. He began his professional career in his homeland with AaB, before moving to Belgium to join Zulte Waregem in 2015, he is a current Denmark international. Dalsgaard began his career as a forward with Danish lower-league clubs BMK 90, FK Viborg, Hersom/Bjerregrav IF and Møldrup/Tostrup IF. After scoring prolifically for Møldrup/Tostrup IF, he signed a two-year contract with Danish Superliga club AaB on a free transfer in December 2008 and compensation was paid to his previous clubs, he made the first professional appearances of his career late in the 2008–09 season and scored his first professional goal in a 2–2 draw with FC Nordsjælland on 31 May 2009. Dalsgaard became a regular in the team over the following two seasons and was moved from his forward position onto the wing and to right back by the 2011–12 season, he made 21 appearances and scored two goals during the 2013–14 season, in which AaB won the Danish Superliga and Danish Cup double.

Dalsgaard remained with the club until December 2015. He scored 10 goals during eight seasons at the Nordjyske Arena. In December 2015, Dalsgaard moved to Belgium to join Pro League club Zulte Waregem on a ​2 1⁄2-year contract, with an option for a further year. In an 18-month spell affected by a hip injury, he made 38 appearances, scored 9 goals and helped the club to win the 2016–17 Belgian Cup. Dalsgaard left the club on 23 May 2017. On 23 May 2017, Dalsgaard moved to England to join Championship club Brentford on a three-year contract for an undisclosed fee, effective 1 July 2017, he displaced previous first-choice right back Maxime Colin and made the position his own after Colin's departure at the end of the summer transfer window. Dalsgaard continued as a regular in the team, despite suffering with a concussion and a heel injury during the opening months of the season. A heel injury suffered during a 2–0 victory over Birmingham City on 1 November 2017 saw Dalsgaard miss three months of the season.

He regained his place in early February 2018 and his scored his first goal for the club with the only goal for the game versus Nottingham Forest on 10 April. Dalsgaard finished the 2017 -- 18 season with one goal. Dalsgaard was the team's regular starting right back through the first half of the 2018–19 season. In February 2019, head coach Thomas Frank reported that Dalsgaard had stepped up into a leadership role within the squad and in the month, a lack of available centre backs at the club saw him pressed into service on the right side of a three-man central defence, he finished the season with two goals. After beginning the 2019–20 season as an ever-present at right back, Dalsgaard signed a one-year contract extension on 29 November 2019, he scored his first goal of the season in a 1–1 draw with West Bromwich Albion on 21 December 2019. Dalsgaard won 12 caps for the U20 and U21 teams, he made one appearance for the Denmark League XI in 2013. Dalsgaard's form for Zulte Waregem during the 2015–16 season saw him win four caps for the senior team during the second half of the campaign.

In recognition of his contribution to Denmark's qualification for the 2018 World Cup, Dalsgaard was named in the 2017 Denmark Team of the Year. At the World Cup, he started in each of the four matches of Denmark's run to the last-16. Dalsgaard scored his first international goal at any level with an injury time equaliser in a 3–3 Euro 2020 qualifying draw with Switzerland on 26 March 2019. Dalsgaard worked for Skals Elektronik; as of match played 21 December 2019 As of match played 18 November 2019 Scores and results list Denmark's goal tally first. AaB Danish Superliga: 2013–14 Danish Cup: 2013–14Zulte Waregem Belgian Cup: 2016–17Individual Denmark Team of the Year: 2017 Henrik Dalsgaard at Soccerbase Henrik Dalsgaard – UEFA competition record Henrik Dalsgaard – FIFA competition record Henrik Dalsgaard at Henrik Dalsgaard at Henrik Dalsgaard at