Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, funded in part by a $1,000 loan from Hefner's mother. Notable for its centerfolds of nude and semi-nude models, Playboy played an important role in the sexual revolution and remains one of the world's best-known brands, having grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide; the magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Roald Dahl, Haruki Murakami, Margaret Atwood. With a regular display of full-page color cartoons, it became a showcase for notable cartoonists, including Harvey Kurtzman, Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Jules Feiffer, Shel Silverstein, Erich Sokol, Roy Raymonde, Gahan Wilson, Rowland B. Wilson.
Playboy features monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, economists, conductors, film directors, novelists, religious figures, politicians and race car drivers. The magazine reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it interviews conservative celebrities. After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine, the March–April 2017 issue brought back nudity. By spring 1953, Hugh Hefner—a 1949 University of Illinois psychology graduate who had worked in Chicago for Esquire magazine writing promotional copy, he formed HMH Publishing Corporation, recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of an unrelated men's adventure magazine, contacted Hefner and informed him it would file suit to protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. Hefner, his wife Millie, Sellers met to seek a new name, considering "Top Hat", "Gentleman", "Sir'", "Satyr", "Pan" and "Bachelor" before Sellers suggested "Playboy".
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen; the first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the "sexiest" image, a unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an upraised arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes and mouth open; the heavy promotion centered around Marilyn's nudity on the already-famous calendar, together with the teasers in marketing, made the new Playboy magazine a success. The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991; the cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002; the novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, was published in 1953 and serialized in the March and May 1954 issues of Playboy. An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979, the "P" in Playboy had stars printed around the letter.
The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and 12 indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing. From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy. During this period the magazine published fiction by Saul Bellow, Seán Ó Faoláin, John Updike, James Dickey, John Cheever, Doris Lessing, Joyce Carol Oates, Vladimir Nabokov, Michael Crichton, John le Carré, Irwin Shaw, Jean Shepherd, Arthur Koestler, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Bernard Malamud, John Irving, Anne Sexton, Nadine Gordimer, Kurt Vonnegut and J. P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included copies of Cosmopolitan magazines. One of the key pamphlets produced by the protesters was "No More Miss America!", by Robin Morgan which listed ten characteristics of the Miss America pageant that the authors believed degraded women.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy saw a decline in circulation and cultural relevance due to competition in the field it founded—first from Penthouse Oui and Gallery in the 1970s. In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 male demographic through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience—such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview". Christie Hefner, daughter of the founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988, she announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down from leading the company, effective in January 2009, said that the election of Barack Obama as the next President had inspired her to give more time to charitable work
Van Halen is a Grammy Award-winning American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California in 1972. Credited with "restoring hard rock to the forefront of the music scene", Van Halen is known for its energetic live shows and for the work of its acclaimed lead guitarist, Eddie Van Halen; the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007. From 1974 until 1985, Van Halen consisted of Eddie Van Halen. Upon its release, the band's self-titled debut album reached No. 19 on the Billboard pop music charts. By the early 1980s, Van Halen was one of the most successful rock acts of the time; the album 1984 was a hit. S. number one was internationally known. In 1985, Van Halen replaced Roth with former Montrose lead vocalist Sammy Hagar. With Hagar, the group would release four U. S. number-one albums over the course of 11 years. Hagar left the band in 1996 shortly before the release of the band's first greatest hits collection, Best Of – Volume I. Former Extreme frontman Gary Cherone replaced Hagar, remaining with the band until 1999.
The following year, the band released The Best of its second greatest hits collection. Hagar again left Van Halen in 2005. Anthony was fired from the band in 2006 and was replaced on bass guitar by Wolfgang Van Halen, Eddie's son. In 2012, the band released the commercially and critically successful A Different Kind of Truth; as of March 2019, Van Halen is 20th on the RIAA list of best-selling artists in the United States. As of 2007, Van Halen was one of only five rock bands with two studio albums that sold more than 10 million copies in the United States. Additionally, Van Halen has charted 13 number-one hits in the history of Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart. VH1 ranked the band seventh on a list of the top 100 hard rock artists of all time; the Van Halen brothers were born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Alex Van Halen in 1953 and Eddie Van Halen in 1955, sons to Dutch musician Jan Van Halen and Indonesian-born Eugenia Van Beers. The family moved to Pasadena, California, in 1962. Young Edward first began studying classical piano, became quite proficient.
The brothers started playing music together in the 1960s—Eddie on drums and Alex on guitar. While Eddie was delivering newspapers to pay for his new drum set, Alex would sneak over and play them. Eddie found out about it, out of frustration he told Alex, "OK, you play drums and I'll go play your guitar."The Van Halen brothers formed their first band, called The Broken Combs, in 1964. As they progressed and gained popularity, they started to play many backyard parties and changed the name of their band to The Trojan Rubber Co. In 1972, the Van Halen brothers formed a band called Genesis featuring Eddie as lead vocalist/guitarist, Alex on drums, Mark Stone on bass, they rented a sound system from David Lee Roth but decided to save money by letting him join as lead vocalist though his previous audition had been unsuccessful. By 1974, the band decided to replace Stone, so Michael Anthony and lead vocalist from local band Snake was auditioned. Following an all-night jam session, he was hired for backing vocals.
The band changed its name to Mammoth when they discovered the name Genesis was being used. In 1974, Mammoth changed its name to Van Halen. According to Roth, this was his brainchild, he felt. They on a flatbed truck at Hamilton Park. Van Halen played clubs in Pasadena and Hollywood to growing audiences, increasing their popularity through self-promotion: before each gig they would pass out flyers at local high schools; this sort of self-promotion soon built them a major following. That year, the band got its first break when it was hired to play at Gazzarri's, a famous but down-at-the-heels night club on the Sunset Strip which closed in 1996. Earlier, they had auditioned for the owner, Bill Gazzarri, but he claimed they were "too loud" and would not hire them. However, their new managers, Mark Algorri and Mario Miranda, who had coincidentally taken over Gazzarri's hiring, did the deal. Shortly afterwards, they recorded their first demo tape at the now-defunct Cherokee Studios in Northridge where Steely Dan had completed an album.
Van Halen became a staple of the Los Angeles music scene during the mid-1970s, playing at well-known clubs like the Whisky a Go Go. According to a January 4, 1977, L. A. Times article by Robert Hilburn, entitled "HOMEGROWN PUNK," Rodney Bingenheimer saw Van Halen at the Gazzarri club in the summer of 1976, so he took Gene Simmons of Kiss to see Van Halen. Simmons produced a Van Halen demo tape with recording beginning at the Village Recorder studios in Los Angeles and finished with overdubs at the Electric Lady Studios in New York. Simmons wanted to change the band's name to "Daddy Longlegs," but the band stuck with Van Halen. Simmons opted out of further involvement after he took the demo to Kiss management and was told that "they had no chance of making it" and that they wouldn't take them. In mid-1977, Mo Ostin and Ted Templeman of Warner Bros. Records saw Van Halen perform at the Starwood in Hollywood. Although the audience was small, the two were so impressed with Van Halen that within a week they offered the band a recording contract
Lewis Allan Reed was an American musician and songwriter. He was the lead guitarist and principal songwriter for the rock band the Velvet Underground and had a solo career that spanned five decades; the Velvet Underground were not a commercial success during their existence, but are now regarded as one of the most influential bands in the history of underground and alternative rock music. After leaving the band in 1970, Reed released twenty solo studio albums, his second, was produced by David Bowie and arranged by Mick Ronson, brought mainstream recognition. After Transformer, the less commercial Berlin reached No. 7 on the UK Albums Chart. Rock n Roll Animal sold and Sally Can't Dance peaked at No. 10 on the Billboard 200. Reed cleaned up in the early 1980s, returned to prominence with New Sensations, reaching a critical and commercial career peak with his 1989 album New York. Reed participated in the reformation of the Velvet Underground in the 1990s, made several more albums, including a collaboration album with John Cale titled Songs for Drella, a tribute to their former mentor Andy Warhol.
1992's Magic and Loss would become Reed's highest-charting album on the UK Albums Chart, peaking at No. 6. He contributed music to two theatrical interpretations of 19th century writers, one of which he developed into an album titled The Raven, he married his third wife Laurie Anderson in 2008, recorded the collaboration album Lulu with Metallica. He died in 2013 of liver disease. Reed's distinctive deadpan voice, poetic lyrics and experimental guitar playing were trademarks throughout his long career. Lewis Allan Reed was born on March 2, 1942 at Beth El Hospital in Brooklyn and grew up in Freeport, Long Island. Reed was Sidney Joseph Reed, an accountant, his family was Jewish. Reed said that although he was Jewish, his real god was roll. Reed went on to Freeport Junior High School, his sister Merrill, born Elizabeth Reed, said that as an adolescent, he suffered panic attacks, became awkward and "possessed a fragile temperament" but was focused on things that he liked music. Having learned to play the guitar from the radio, he developed an early interest in rock and roll and rhythm and blues, during high school played in several bands.
He began experimenting with drugs at the age of 16. His first recording was, his love for playing music and his desire to play gigs brought him into confrontation with his anxious and unaccommodating parents. His sister recalled that during his first year in college he was brought home one day, having had a mental breakdown, after which he remained "depressed and unresponsive" for a time, that his parents were having difficulty coping. Visiting a psychologist, Reed's parents were made to feel guilty as inadequate parents, consented to electroconvulsive therapy. Reed appeared to blame his father for the treatment, he wrote about the experience in his 1974 song, "Kill Your Sons". Reed recalled the experience as having been traumatic and leading to memory loss, he believed. After Reed's death, his sister denied the ECT treatments were intended to suppress his "homosexual urges", asserting that their parents were not homophobic but had been told by his doctors that ECT was necessary to treat Reed's mental and behavioral issues.
Upon his recovery from his illness and associated treatment, Reed resumed his education at Syracuse University in 1960, studying journalism, film directing, creative writing. He was a platoon leader in ROTC. In 1961, he began. Named after a song by pianist Cecil Taylor, the program featured doo wop and blues, jazz the free jazz developed in the mid-1950s. Reed said that when he started out he was inspired by such musicians as Ornette Coleman, who had "always been a great influence" on him. Reed's sister said that during her brother's time at Syracuse, the university authorities had tried unsuccessfully to expel him because they did not approve of his extracurricular activities. At Syracuse University, he studied under poet Delmore Schwartz, who he said was "the first great person I met", they became friends, he credited Schwartz with showing him how "with the simplest language imaginable, short, you can accomplish the most astonishing heights." One of Reed's fellow students at Syracuse in the early 1960s was the musician Garland Jeffreys.
Jeffreys recalled Reed's time at Syracuse: "At four in the afternoon we'd all meet at The Orange Grove. Me, Delmore and Lou; that would be the center of the crew. And Delmore was the leader - our quiet leader." While at Syracuse, Reed was introduced to heroin for the first time, contracted hepatitis. Sterling Morrison was not attending Syracuse at the time, but met Reed while he was visiting mutual friend Jim Tucker, the older brother of Velvet Underground drummer Moe Tucker, att
New York Dolls
The New York Dolls were an American hard rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the first bands of the early punk rock scenes. Although their original line-up fell apart the band's first two albums—New York Dolls and Too Much Too Soon —became among the most popular cult records in rock; the line-up at this time comprised vocalist David Johansen, guitarist Johnny Thunders, bassist Arthur Kane and pianist Sylvain Sylvain and drummer Jerry Nolan. On stage, they donned an androgynous wardrobe, wearing high heels, eccentric hats, satin. Nolan described the group in 1974 as "the Dead End Kids of today". According to the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, the New York Dolls predated the punk and glam metal movements and were "one of the most influential rock bands of the last 20 years", they influenced rock groups such as the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, Guns N' Roses, the Damned and the Smiths, whose frontman Morrissey organized a reunion show for the New York Dolls' surviving members in 2004.
After reuniting, they recorded and released three more albums—One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This, Cause I Sez So and Dancing Backward in High Heels. The New York Dolls have been inactive following a 2011 British tour with Alice Cooper. Sylvain Sylvain and Billy Murcia, who went to junior high school and high school together, started playing in a band called "the Pox" in 1967. After the frontman quit and Sylvain started a clothing business called Truth and Soul and Sylvain took a job at A Different Drummer, a men's boutique, across the street from the New York Doll Hospital, a doll repair shop. Sylvain said. In 1970 they formed a band again and recruited Johnny Thunders to join on bass, though Sylvain ended up teaching him to play guitar, they called themselves the Dolls. When Sylvain left the band to spend a few months in London and Murcia went their separate ways. Thunders was recruited by Kane and Rick Rivets, playing together in the Bronx. At Thunders' suggestion, Murcia replaced the original drummer.
Thunders sang for the band Actress. An October 1971 rehearsal tape recorded by Rivets was released as Dawn of the Dolls; when Thunders decided that he no longer wanted to be the front man, David Johansen joined the band. The group was composed of singer David Johansen, guitarists Johnny Thunders and Rick Rivets, bass guitarist Arthur "Killer" Kane and drummer Billy Murcia; the original lineup's first performance was on Christmas Eve 1971 at a homeless shelter, the Endicott Hotel. After getting a manager and attracting some music industry interest, the New York Dolls got a break when Rod Stewart invited them to open for him at a London concert. While on a brief tour of England in 1972, Murcia was invited to a party, where he passed out from an accidental overdose, he was put in force-fed coffee in an attempt to revive him. Instead, it resulted in asphyxiation, he was found dead on the morning of November 6, 1972, at the age of 21. Once back in New York, the Dolls auditioned drummers, including Marc Bell, Peter Criscuola, Jerry Nolan, a friend of the band.
They selected Nolan, after US Mercury Records' A&R man Paul Nelson signed them, they began sessions for their debut album. In 1972, the band took on Marty Thau as manager. New York Dolls was produced by singer-songwriter and solo artist Todd Rundgren. In an interview in Creem magazine, Rundgren says he touched the recording. Sales were sluggish in the middle US, a Stereo Review magazine reviewer in 1973 compared the Dolls' guitar playing to the sound of lawnmowers. America's mass rock audience's reaction to the Dolls was mixed. In a Creem magazine poll, they were elected both best and worst new group of 1973; the Dolls toured Europe, while appearing on UK television, host Bob Harris of the BBC's Old Grey Whistle Test derided the group as "mock rock," comparing them unfavorably to the Rolling Stones. For their next album, Too Much Too Soon, the quintet hired producer George "Shadow" Morton, whose productions for the Shangri-Las and other girl-groups in the mid-1960s had been among the band's favorites.
Mercury dropped the Dolls not long after the second album. By 1975 the Dolls were playing smaller venues. Drug and alcohol abuse by Thunders and Kane as well as artistic differences added to the tensions among members. In late February or early March Malcolm McLaren became their informal manager, he got the band red leather outfits to wear on a communist flag as backdrop. The Dolls did a 5-concert tour of New York's five boroughs, supported by Pure Hell; the Little Hippodrome show was recorded and released by Fan Club records in 1982 as Red Patent Leather. It was a bootleg album, remixed by Sylvain, with former manager Marty Thau credited as executive producer. Due to Kane being unable to play that night, roadie Peter Jordan played bass, though he was credited as having played "second bass". Jordan filled in for Kane. In March and April McLaren took the band on a tour of South Florida. Jordan replaced Kane for most of those shows
Canned Heat is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles in 1965. The group has been noted for its interpretations of blues material and for its efforts to promote interest in this type of music and its original artists, it was launched by two blues enthusiasts, Alan Wilson and Bob Hite, who took the name from Tommy Johnson's 1928 "Canned Heat Blues", a song about an alcoholic who had turned to drinking Sterno, generically called "canned heat", After appearances at the Monterey and Woodstock festivals at the end of the 1960s, the band acquired worldwide fame with a lineup consisting of Hite, Henry Vestine and Harvey Mandel, Larry Taylor, Adolfo de la Parra. The music and attitude of Canned Heat attracted a large following and established the band as one of the popular acts of the hippie era. Canned Heat appeared at most major musical events at the end of the 1960s, performing blues standards along with their own material and indulging in lengthy'psychedelic' solos. Two of their songs – "Going Up the Country" and "On the Road Again" – became international hits.
"Going Up the Country" was a remake of the Henry Thomas song "Bull Doze Blues", recorded in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1927. "On the Road Again" was a remake of the 1953 Floyd Jones song of the same name, based on the Tommy Johnson song "Big Road Blues", recorded in 1928. Since the early 1970s, numerous personnel changes have occurred, although the current lineup includes all three surviving members of the classic lineup: de la Parra and Taylor. For much of the 1990s and 2000s, de la Parra was the only member from the band's 1960s lineup, he wrote a book about the band's career, titled Living the Blues. Larry Taylor, whose presence in the band has not been steady, is the other surviving member from the earliest lineups. Mandel, Walter Trout and Junior Watson are among the guitarists who gained fame for playing in editions of the band. Canned Heat was started within the community of blues collectors. Bob Hite had been trading blues records since his early teens and his house in Topanga Canyon was a meeting place for people interested in music.
In 1965 some blues devotees there started rehearsals. The initial configuration comprised Bob Hite as vocalist, Alan Wilson on bottleneck guitar, Mike Perlowin on lead guitar, Stu Brotman on bass and Keith Sawyer on drums. Perlowin and Sawyer dropped out within a few days, so guitarist Kenny Edwards stepped in to replace Perlowin, Ron Holmes agreed to sit in on drums until they could find a permanent drummer. Another of Bob's friends, Henry Vestine, asked if he could join the band and was accepted while keeping Edwards on temporarily. Soon Edwards departed and at the same time Frank Cook came in to replace Holmes as their permanent drummer. Cook had substantial professional experience, having performed with such jazz luminaries as bassist Charlie Haden, trumpeter Chet Baker, pianist Elmo Hope and had collaborated with black soul/pop artists such as Shirley Ellis and Dobie Gray. Producer Johnny Otis recorded the band's first album in 1966 with the ensemble of Hite, Cook and Brotman. Otis ran the board for a dozen tracks, including two versions of "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Spoonful" by Willie Dixon, "Louise" by John Lee Hooker all from his studio off of Vine Street in Los Angeles.
Over a summer hiatus in 1966 Stuart Brotman left Canned Heat after he had signed a contract for a long engagement in Fresno with an Armenian belly-dance revue. Canned Heat had contacted Brotman, touting a recording contract which had to be signed the next day, but Brotman was unable to make the signing on short notice. Brotman would go on to join the world-music band Kaleidoscope with David Lindley, replacing Chris Darrow. Replacing Brotman in Canned Heat was Mark Andes, who lasted only a couple of months before he returned to his former colleagues in the Red Roosters, who adopted the new name Spirits Rebellious shortened to Spirit. After joining up with managers Skip Taylor and John Hartmann, Canned Heat found a permanent bassist in Larry Taylor, who joined in March 1967, he was a former member of The Moondogs and the brother of Ventures' drummer, Mel Taylor, had experience backing Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry in concert, recording studio sessions for The Monkees. In this format the band started recording in April 1967 for Liberty Records with Calvin Carter, the head of A&R for Vee Jay Records and had recorded such bluesmen as Jimmy Reed, John Lee Hooker.
They recorded "Rollin' and Tumblin'", backed with "Bullfrog Blues", this became Canned Heat's first single. The first official album, Canned Heat, was released three months in July 1967. All tracks were re-workings of older blues songs; the Los Angeles Free Press reported: "This group has it! They should do well, both live and with their recordings." Canned Heat fared reasonably well commercially. The first big live appearance of Canned Heat was at the Monterey Pop Festival on June 17, 1967. A picture of the band taken at the performance was featured on the cover of Down Beat Magazine where an article complimented their playing: "Technically, Vestine and Wi
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Don Van Vliet, best known by the stage name Captain Beefheart, was an American singer, multi-instrumentalist, visual artist. Sometimes collaborating with his teenage friend Frank Zappa, Van Vliet's musical work was conducted with a rotating ensemble of musicians called the Magic Band, with whom he recorded 13 studio albums between 1964 and 1982, his music blended elements of blues, free jazz and avant-garde composition with idiosyncratic rhythms, surrealist wordplay, his wide vocal range reported as five octaves. Known for his enigmatic persona, Beefheart constructed myths about his life and was known to exercise an dictatorial control over his supporting musicians. Van Vliet developed an eclectic musical taste during his teen years in Lancaster and formed "a mutually useful but volatile" friendship with Zappa, he began performing with his Captain Beefheart persona in 1964 and joined the original Magic Band line-up, initiated by Alexis Snouffer, the same year. The group released their debut album Safe as Milk in 1967 on Buddah Records.
After being dropped by two consecutive record labels they signed to Zappa's Straight Records, where they released 1969's Trout Mask Replica. In 1974, frustrated by lack of commercial success, he pursued a more conventional rock sound, but the ensuing albums were critically panned. Beefheart formed a new Magic Band with a group of younger musicians and regained critical approval through three final albums: Shiny Beast, Doc at the Radar Station and Ice Cream for Crow. Regarded as unusual and interesting, critics have had difficulty in pinning down Beefheart's musical style. Van Vliet made few public appearances after he retired from music in 1982 to devote himself to his childhood interest in art, his neo-expressionist paintings have been exhibited in several countries, have sold for up to $25,000. Van Vliet died in 2010. Van Vliet was born Don Glen Vliet in Glendale, California, on January 15, 1941, to Glen Alonzo Vliet, a service station owner of Dutch ancestry from Kansas, Willie Sue Vliet, from Arkansas.
He claimed to have a Dutch painter who knew Rembrandt. Van Vliet claimed that he was related to adventurer and author Richard Halliburton and the cowboy actor Slim Pickens, said that he remembered being born. Van Vliet began sculpting at age three, his subjects reflected his "obsession" with animals dinosaurs, African mammals and lemurs. At the age of nine, he won a children's sculpting competition organised for the Los Angeles Zoo in Griffith Park by a local tutor, Agostinho Rodrigues. Local newspaper cuttings of his junior sculpting achievements can be found reproduced in the Splinters book, included in the Riding Some Kind of Unusual Skull Sleigh boxed CD work, released in 2004; the sprawling park, with its zoo and observatory, had a strong influence on young Vliet, as it was a short distance from his home on Waverly Drive. The track "Observatory Crest" on Bluejeans & Moonbeams reflects this continued interest. A portrait photo of the school-age Vliet can be seen on the front of the lyric sheet within the first issue of the US release of Trout Mask Replica.
For some time during the 1950s, Van Vliet worked as an apprentice with Rodrigues, who considered him a child prodigy. Vliet made claim to have been a lecturer at the Barnsdall Art Institute in Los Angeles at the age of eleven, although it is he gave a form of artistic dissertation. Accounts of Van Vliet's precocious achievement in art include his statement that he sculpted on a weekly television show, he claimed that his parents discouraged his interest in sculpture, based upon their perception of artists as "queer". They declined several scholarship offers, including one from the local Knudsen Creamery to travel to Europe with six years' paid tuition to study marble sculpture. Van Vliet admitted personal hesitation to take the scholarship based upon the bitterness of his parents' discouragement. Van Vliet's artistic enthusiasm became so fervent, he claimed that his parents were forced to feed him through the door in the room where he sculpted; when he was thirteen the family moved from the Los Angeles area to the more remote farming town of Lancaster, near the Mojave Desert, where there was a growing aerospace industry and testing plant that would become Edwards Air Force Base.
It was an environment that would influence him creatively from on. Van Vliet remained interested in art. Meanwhile, he developed his taste and interest in music, listening "intensively" to the Delta blues of Son House and Robert Johnson, jazz artists such as Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane, Thelonious Monk and Cecil Taylor, the Chicago blues of Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters. During his early teenage years, Vliet would sometimes socialize with members of local bands such as the Omens and the Blackouts, although his interests