Lethal injection is the practice of injecting one or more drugs into a person for the express purpose of causing rapid death. The main application for this procedure is capital punishment, but the term may be applied in a broader sense to include euthanasia and other forms of suicide; the drugs cause the person to become unconscious, stops their breathing, causes a heart arrhythmia, in that order. First developed in the United States, it is now a legal method of execution in China, Guatemala, the Maldives and Vietnam, though Guatemala has not conducted an execution since 2000 and the Maldives has never carried out an execution since its independence. Although Taiwan permits lethal injection as an execution method, no executions have been carried out in this manner, most due to drug shortages. Lethal injection was used in the Philippines until the country re-abolished the death penalty in 2006. Lethal injection gained popularity in the late 20th century as a form of execution intended to supplant other methods, notably electrocution, gas inhalation and firing squad, that were considered to be less humane.
It is now the most common form of legal execution in the United States. Lethal injection was proposed on January 17, 1888, by Julius Mount Bleyer, a New York doctor who praised it as being cheaper than hanging. Bleyer's idea was never used, due to a series of botched executions and the eventual rise of public disapproval in electrocutions. Lethal injections were first used by Nazi Germany to execute prisoners during World War II. Nazi Germany developed the Action T4 euthanasia program as one of its methods of disposing of Lebensunwertes Leben; the British Royal Commission on Capital Punishment considered lethal injection, but ruled it out after pressure from the British Medical Association. On May 11, 1977, Oklahoma's state medical examiner Jay Chapman proposed a new, less painful method of execution, known as Chapman's protocol: "An intravenous saline drip shall be started in the prisoner's arm, into which shall be introduced a lethal injection consisting of an ultrashort-acting barbiturate in combination with a chemical paralytic."
After the procedure was approved by anesthesiologist Stanley Deutsch Head of the Department of Anaesthesiology of the Oklahoma University Medical School, the Reverend Bill Wiseman introduced the method into the Oklahoma legislature, where it passed and was adopted. Since until 2004, 37 of the 38 states using capital punishment introduced lethal injection statutes. On August 29, 1977, Texas adopted the new method of execution, switching to lethal injection from electrocution. On December 7, 1982, Texas became the first state to use lethal injection to carry out capital punishment, for the execution of Charles Brooks, Jr; the People's Republic of China began using this method in 1997, Guatemala in 1996, the Philippines in 1999, Thailand in 2003, Taiwan in 2005. Vietnam first used this method in 2013; the Philippines abolished the death penalty in 2006, with their last execution being in 2000. Guatemalan law still allows for the death penalty and lethal injection is the sole method allowed, but no penalties have been carried out since 2000 when the country experienced the live televised execution of Manuel Martínez Coronado.
The export of drugs to be used for lethal injection was banned by the European Union in 2011, together with other items under the EU Torture Regulation. Since pentobarbital followed thiopental in the European Union's ban. By early 2014, a number of botched executions involving lethal injection, a rising shortage of suitable drugs, had some U. S. states reconsidering lethal injection as a form of execution. Tennessee, which had offered inmates a choice between lethal injection and the electric chair, passed a law in May 2014 which gave the state the option to use the electric chair if lethal injection drugs are either unavailable or made unconstitutional. At the same time and Utah were considering the use of execution by firing squad in addition to other existing execution methods. In 2016, Pfizer joined over 20 American and European pharmaceutical manufacturers that had blocked the sale of their drugs for use in lethal injections closing the open market for FDA-approved manufacturers for any potential lethal execution drug.
In the execution of Carey Dean Moore on August 14, 2018, the State of Nebraska used a novel drug cocktail comprising diazepam, fentanyl and potassium chloride, over the strong objections of the German pharmaceutical company Fresenius Kabi. In the United States, the typical lethal injection begins with the condemned person being strapped onto a gurney. Only one is necessary to carry out the execution. A line leading from the IV line in an adjacent room is attached to the prisoner's IV and secured so that the line does not snap during the injections; the arm of the condemned person is swabbed with alcohol. The needles and equipment used are sterilized. Questions have been raised about why these precautions against infection are performed despite the purpose of the injection being death; the several explanations include: cannulae are sterilized and have their quality controlled during manufacture, so using sterile ones is a routine medical procedure. Secondly, the prisoner could receive a stay of execution after the cannulae have been inserted, as happened in the case of James Autry in October 1983 (he was eventuall
Jean-Alexandre-Ferdinand Poise was a French composer, author of opéra-comiques for which he wrote the librettos or participated in the writing. Born in Nimes, Poise studied at the Conservatoire de Paris under the tutelage of Adolphe Adam, himself a pupil of Boieldieu, his first opera was "Bonsoir voisin", which established his career and remains his most enduring success since it is still performed in France and Belgium. He did not follow contemporary operetta trends, but preferred to remain in line with the 18th century opéra comique. Alphonse Daudet was his librettist for Les Absents. In 1862, the cantata Nemausa was created, the libretto of, written by Alfred de Montvaillant Le Roi Don Pèdre and Le Corricolo were failures, but Poise, drawing inspiration from the works of the late 17th and 18th centuries, went on to create quality works: Les Deux billets after Florian, Les Trois Souhaits and the trilogy La Surprise de l'amour, L'Amour médecin and Joli-Gilles. Carmosine was a work, in a different style from his others.
His contemporary Arnold Mortier paints a portrait of Poise "long and funereal. Poise, who wrote such vivid and valiant scores, is, I am assured, one of the saddest men in Paris". Poise died in Paris at age 63. Bonsoir voisin, staged on 18 September 1853 at the Théâtre Lyrique Les Charmeurs, staged on 17 March 1855 at the Théâtre Lyrique de Paris Thé de Polichinelle,staged on 4 March 1856 aut the Bouffes-Parisiens Le Roi Don Pèdre, staged on 30 Septembre 1857 Le Jardinier galant, staged on 4 March 1861 at the Théâtre national de l'Opéra-Comique La Poularde de Caux, staged on 17 May 1861 aat the Palais Royal Les Absents, staged on 26 October 1864 at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique Jean Noël, performed in 1865 Les moissoneurs, 15 August 1866 Le Corricolo, staged on 28 November 1868 at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique à Paris Les Deux billets, staged on 19 February 1870 at the Théâtre de l’Athénée Les Trois souhaits, staged on 29 October 1873 at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique La Surprise de l'amour, staged on 31 October 1877 at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique La Cigale et la fourmi, performed in 1877 La Dame de compagnie, performed in 1877 L'Amour médecin, staged on 20 December 1880 at the Théâtre de l'Opéra-Comique La Reine d'une heure Joli-Gilles, performed in 1884 Le Médecin malgré lui, performed in 1887 in Paris Carmosine, performed in 1928 in Monte-Carlo After David Charlton's article in: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed Stanley Sadie,Mac Millan,1980, vol 15 Les Absents.
Lina Dachary, Janine Capderou, Gérard Friedmann, Bernard Plantey. Orch. Pierre-Michel Le Conte. Musidisc 202102 Joli-Gilles. Lina Dachary, Monique Stiot, Raymond Amade, Aimé Doniat. Orch. Pierre-Michel Le Conte. Musidisc 202102 La Surprise de l'amour. Monique Stiot, LindaFelder, Gérard Friedmann, Aimé Doniat. Orch. Jean-Claude Hartemann. Musidisc 201832 Works Werke von und über Ferdinand Poise in the German National Library catalogue Kurzbiographie Werke Free scores by Ferdinand Poise at the International Music Score Library Project
Moses Osbourne Morgan, was a Canadian academic and president of Memorial University of Newfoundland from 1973 to 1981. Born in Blaketown, Trinity Bay, Morgan was educated at Bishop Feild College and Memorial University College, he received a bachelor's degree from Dalhousie University and was elected a Rhodes Scholar for 1938. He did not attend the University of Oxford until after the Second World War. From 1940 to 1942, he taught at King's College School in Nova Scotia. In 1942, he saw service in Europe as a platoon commander, he completed a master's degree in Classics at Dalhousie before taking up his Rhodes Scholarship. Returning from his studies at Oxford, he taught at Dalhousie from 1948 until 1950 when he joined Memorial University of Newfoundland as a professor of Political science, he was president, pro tem from 1966 until 1967 and was appointed president in 1973. In 1973, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, he was awarded honorary doctoral degrees by Mount Allison University, Dalhousie University, University of King's College, St. Francis Xavier University, University of New Brunswick, Queen's University, the University of Toronto and Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Memorial University biography