Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Prince Albert Raiders
The Prince Albert Raiders are a major junior ice hockey team in the Western Hockey League. The Raiders play in the East Division of the Eastern Conference, they are based in the city of Prince Albert, Canada. The team plays its home games at the Art Hauser Centre; the Raiders started in 1971 as one of the most successful Tier II franchises in Canada, playing in the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League. Prince Albert won the Tier II national championship, the Manitoba Centennial Trophy, a record 4 times in a six-year span from 1977 to 1982. While competing for the Manitoba Centennial Trophy, the Raiders competed against a few future OHL teams, the Guelph Platers and the Belleville Bulls; the Raiders won 7 straight Anavet Cups between 1976 until 1982 against various champions of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League. Terry Simpson was the team's coach for those 6 years in the SJHL, he stayed with the team for its first 4 years when it moved up to the WHL. The City of Prince Albert was granted a WHL expansion franchise for the 1982–83 season.
Three years the Raiders were the best team in the WHL. Led by team captain Dan Hodgson, the team achieved the best regular season record in the WHL of 58 wins, 11 losses and 3 ties; the Raiders defeated the Calgary Wranglers, Medicine Hat Tigers and the Kamloops Blazers in the WHL playoffs to win the WHL championship. Other notable members of the 1984–1985 team were; the Raiders went on to compete for the 1985 Memorial Cup versus the Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds, Verdun Junior Canadiens and the Shawinigan Cataractes. In a game that featured 108 minutes in penalties called, Prince Albert lost 6–2 to Shawinigan; the second game saw. In their third game, the Raiders defeated the Sault Ste. Marie 8 to 6, Dan Hodgson had 5 assists in the match; the Raiders and Greyhounds would play each other again in the semi-finals and Prince Albert would prevail again by a score of 8 to 3. The Raiders won the Memorial Cup and became CHL champions by defeating the Shawinigan Cataractes 6–1 in the final. Updated January 10, 2019.
Listed below are alumni from Prince Albert Raiders of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League and the Western Hockey League who went on to play in the National Hockey League. Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties OTL = Overtime losses Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against 1984-85: Win, 4-0 vs Kamloops SJHL Years 1972 Lost Semi-finalPrince Albert Raiders defeated Weyburn Red Wings 4-games-to-2 Melville Millionaires defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-21973 Lost Semi-finalPrince Albert Raiders defeated Yorkton Terriers 4-games-to-1 Humboldt Broncos defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-none1974 Won League, Lost Anavet CupPrince Albert Raiders defeated Humboldt Broncos 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Saskatoon Olympics 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Estevan Bruins 4-games-to-1 SJHL CHAMPIONS Selkirk Steelers defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-21975 Lost FinalPrince Albert Raiders defeated Saskatoon Olympics 4-games-to-1 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Battleford Barons 4-games-to-none Swift Current Broncos defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-21976 Won League, Won Anavet Cup, Lost Abbott CupPrince Albert Raiders defeated Battleford Barons 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Swift Current Broncos 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Weyburn Red Wings 4-games-to-none SJHL CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Selkirk Steelers 4-games-to-1 ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Spruce Grove Mets defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-11977 Won League, Won Anavet Cup, Won Abbott Cup, Won 1977 Centennial CupPrince Albert Raiders defeated Humboldt Broncos 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Swift Current Broncos 4-games-to-1 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Melville Millionaires 4-games-to-2 SJHL CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Dauphin Kings 4-games-to-1 ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Calgary Canucks 4-games-to-1 ABBOTT CUP CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Pembroke Lumber Kings 4-games-to-none CENTENNIAL CUP CHAMPIONS1978 Won League, Won Anavet Cup, Won Abbott Cup, Lost 1978 Centennial CupPrince Albert Raiders defeated Battleford Barons 4-games-to-none Prince Albert Raiders defeated Swift Current Broncos 4-games-to-3 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Moose Jaw Canucks 4-games-to-1 SJHL CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Kildonan North Stars 4-games-to-none ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Merritt Centennials 4-games-to-1 ABBOTT CUP CHAMPIONS Guelph Platers defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-none1979 Won League, Won Anavet Cup, Won Abbott Cup, Won 1979 Centennial Cup finalPrince Albert Raiders defeated Battleford Barons 4-games-to-1 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Swift Current Broncos 4-games-to-3 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Moose Jaw Canucks 4-games-to-2 SJHL CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Selkirk Steelers 4-games-to-1 ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Fort Saskatchewan Traders 4-games-to-2 ABBOTT CUP CHAMPIONS First in 1979 Centennial Cup round robin Prince Albert Raiders defeated Sherwood-Parkdale Metros 5-4 OT in final CENTENNIAL CUP CHAMPIONS1980 Won League, Won Anavet Cup, Lost Abbott CupPrince Albert Raiders defeated Weyburn Red Wings 4-games-to-1 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Swift Current Broncos 4-games-to-2 Prince Albert Raiders defeated Moose Jaw Canucks 4-games-to-2 SJHL CHAMPIONS Prince Albert Raiders defeated Selkirk Steelers 4-games-to-2 ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Red Deer Rustlers defeated Prince Albert Raiders 4-games-to-21981 Won Leagu
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitutes the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada. Teams play for the Ed Chynoweth Cup, with the winner moving on to play for the Memorial Cup, Canada's national junior championship. WHL teams have won the Memorial Cup 19 times since the league became eligible to compete for the trophy. Many players have been drafted from WHL teams, have found success at various levels of professional hockey, including the National Hockey League; the league was founded in 1966, as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League, with seven western Canadian teams in Saskatchewan and Alberta. From 1967, the league was renamed the Western Canada Hockey League, before the admission of American based teams in the league and renaming as the Western Hockey League commencing in 1978, up to present day; the league was the brainchild of Bill Hunter, who intended to build a western league capable of competing with the top leagues in Ontario and Quebec.
Considered an "outlaw league" by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, the WCHL was sanctioned as the top junior league in Western Canada when junior hockey was reorganized in 1970. Today, the WHL comprises 22 teams, divided into two conferences of two divisions; the Eastern Conference comprises 12 teams from Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, while the Western Conference comprises ten teams from British Columbia, the US states of Washington and Oregon. Despite winning the 1966 Memorial Cup, the Edmonton Oil Kings' owner, Bill Hunter, was growing concerned about the state of junior hockey in western Canada; each of the West's four provinces had its own junior league, Hunter felt that this put them at a disadvantage when competing nationally against the powerful leagues in Ontario and Quebec. Desiring stronger competition, Hunter's Oil Kings competed in the Alberta Senior Hockey League rather than the Alberta Junior Hockey League; the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association informed the Oil Kings that they were required to play in a junior hockey league for the 1966–67 season or would be held ineligible to compete for the Memorial Cup.
This led Hunter to form a new league with five former members of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League, the Estevan Bruins, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades, Moose Jaw Canucks, Weyburn Red Wings, to leave the SJHL and join the Oil Kings and the Calgary Buffaloes in a new league known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. Despite concerns that this new league would see the demise of the Alberta and Saskatchewan leagues, the governing bodies in both provinces sanctioned the new league; the CAHA did not, declaring the CMJHL to be an "outlaw league" and suspending all teams and players from participation in CAHA sanctioned events. The new league accused the CAHA of overstepping its boundaries and with the support of the players and their families, chose to play the season regardless; the new league deliberately avoided including the term "Western" in its moniker, as some of its founders wanted to keep open the possibility of inviting top Eastern junior clubs to join in a national elite junior league in case negotiations with the CAHA reached a complete impasse.
The CMJHL renamed itself the Western Canada Hockey League in 1967, adding four new teams to total 11 as the league stretched east into Manitoba. Concerns over the WCHL's relationship with the CAHA led the Pats and Red Wings to withdraw before the 1968–69 season, returning to the SJHL; when the CAHA reorganized junior hockey in 1971, it named the WCHL one of three Tier I Major-Junior leagues, along with the Ontario Hockey Association's Tier I division and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The first decade of the WCHL saw constant expansion and franchise movement as the league spread throughout the West; the Flin Flon Bombers became the league's first powerhouse team, led by future NHL stars Bobby Clarke and Reggie Leach. The Brandon Wheat Kings and Swift Current Broncos joined in 1967, the Medicine Hat Tigers in 1970; the WCHL became a western league in 1971 when Estevan moved to B. C. to become the New Westminster Bruins, joined by expansion franchises the Victoria Cougars and Vancouver Nats.
In the mid 1970s, the New Westminster Bruins became the WCHL's first true dynasty, capturing four consecutive championships between 1975 and 1978. The Bruins won back-to-back Memorial Cups in 1977 and 1978. In 1976, the Oil Kings succumbed to the competing Edmonton Oilers of the World Hockey Association and relocated to Portland to become the Winter Hawks, the WCHL's first American franchise. With the addition of American teams in Seattle and Billings a year the WCHL shortened its name to the Western Hockey League; the 1980s were marked by several brawls that involved police intervention, one of the most bizarre trades in hockey history, the tragic deaths of four players in a bus crash. Early in the 1980–81 WHL season, Medicine Hat Tigers GM/Coach Pat Ginnell traded blows with a linesman during a bench clearing brawl against the Lethbridge Broncos. Ginnell was found guilty of assault, fined $360, suspended for 36 games by the WHL. In March 1982 a violent brawl between the Regina Pats and Calgary Wranglers saw the two teams collectively fined $2250 and players suspended for 73 games combined.
Pats coach Bill LaForge would end up in a courtroom that season when he got into an altercation with a fan. LaForge was acquitted when the judge noted that it was hard to convict a man for assault when faced with "an obnoxious person trying to get into the coach's area." LaForge resigned following the sea
The Calgary Hitmen are a major junior ice hockey team based in Calgary, Canada. The Hitmen play in the Central Division of the Western Hockey League, they play their home games at the Scotiabank Saddledome. Bret "The Hitman" Hart, a local-born professional wrestler, was a founding owner as well as the inspiration for the team's name. Established in 1994, the team has been owned by the Calgary Flames hockey club since 1997, they are the third WHL team to represent Calgary, preceded by the Wranglers. The Hitmen have finished with the best record in the WHL four times, qualified for the playoffs for thirteen consecutive seasons between 1998 and 2010. In 1999, they became the first Calgary team to win the President's Cup as league champions, the first to represent the city in the Memorial Cup since the Calgary Canadians won the national junior title in 1926; the Hitmen hold numerous WHL attendance records, in 2004–05 became the first team in Canadian Hockey League history to average 10,000 fans per game.
Thirty-nine former Hitmen players have gone on to play in the National Hockey League. Graham James left his position as coach and general manager of the Swift Current Broncos to found the Hitmen in 1994, he organized a group of eighteen investors in the club, including star National Hockey League players Theoren Fleury and Joe Sakic, along with Bret Hart, famous for his exploits in the World Wrestling Federation. The Calgary Flames, who had just assumed control of the Saddledome and were looking to fill extra dates in the building, were receptive to the new team. Calgary had been without a WHL team since the Wranglers moved south to become the Lethbridge Hurricanes in 1987; the league's expansion into Calgary was met with scepticism, as the league had failed in Western Canada's largest markets of Vancouver, Edmonton and Winnipeg, when in competition with the NHL. The Stampede Corral has served as a second home for the odd home game when the Saddledome is unavailable, they used the Corral for regular season home games in 1995–1996 and playoff games in 1998 and 2016.
The club selected its logo as an homage to Bret "The Hitman" Hart. The team's distinctive pink and black jerseys were modelled after Hart's ring attire; the logo proved immensely popular and Hitmen merchandise sold well at many local retailers. However, the name and logo were subject to heavy criticism from segments of the public and the business community, who panned both as negative stereotypes of violence within the sport. Among the chief critics of the new logo was the Flames organization, they had shared that sentiment. Struggling to attract corporate sponsors, the Hitmen chose to scrap the "Jason Voorhees"-style logo in favour of an alternate "starburst" logo just two months after it was unveiled; the club went back to the original logo in 1996. The Hitmen entered their first season playing in the newly formed Central Division, were predicted to finish as high as third in the five-team division. Instead, they finished as the second-worst regular season team in the league, posting an 18–51–3 record.
The Hitmen lost CAD$250,000 in their first season and saw their season ticket base halved to 700 for the 1996–97 season. The losses led to questions about the viability of the club. Citing personal reasons, James stunned the organization when he resigned as coach and general manager on September 5, 1996. Two days the Calgary Police Service revealed that James was being investigated on allegations he sexually abused two former players while he was with the Swift Current Broncos. James was charged, in January 1997 pleaded guilty to two counts of sexual assault. Upon James' conviction, sentencing to 3½ years in prison, the Hitmen attempted to distance themselves from their former coach; the Hitmen struggled on the ice as well, again missing the playoffs after falling to a record of 15–53–4. The spectre of the Graham James scandal hurt the franchise; the original investors, many of whom played for or were otherwise associated with James, sold the team to the Flames for $1.5 million in June 1997. It was speculated that the new owners would change the team name to the Junior Flames, however they chose to retain the name although they adopted a new colour scheme and updated the logo.
Dean Clark took over as head coach shortly after James' resignation, led the 1997–98 Hitmen to a remarkable turnaround. The team improved to a 40–28–4 record and first-place finish in the Central Division, qualifying for the playoffs for the first time in franchise history, they defeated the Saskatoon Blades and Swift Current Broncos to reach the Eastern Conference final before falling to the Brandon Wheat Kings. Clark was awarded the Dunc McCallum Memorial Trophy as the WHL's top coach, won the Canadian Hockey League's Brian Kilrea Coach of the Year Award. Calgary improved to 51–13–8 in 1998–99, finishing one point ahead of the Kamloops Blazers for the regular season title. Led by Brad Moran, Pavel Brendl and goaltender Alexandre Fomitchev, the Hitmen lost just five games in the playoffs en route to their first league championship, they won the title at home before a WHL playoff record crowd of 17,139. They became the first Calgary-based team to qualify for the Memorial Cup since the Calgary Canadians won the 1926 title.
In the 1999 Memorial Cup, the Hitmen opened their tournament with a 5–3 victory over the Ontario Hockey League's Belleville Bulls, followed by a 4–3 loss to the host Ottawa 67's. They followed with a 3–1 win over the Acadie-Bathurst Titan of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. Finishing atop the round robin standings, the Hitmen earned a bye into the championship game, a rematch against the 67's; the championship game was
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Alberta's fourth-largest city by population after Calgary and Red Deer, the third-largest by land area after Calgary and Edmonton; the nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the city's warm summers, mild winters, windy climate. Lethbridge lies southeast of Calgary on the Oldman River. Lethbridge is the commercial, financial and industrial centre of southern Alberta; the city's economy developed from drift mining for coal in the late 19th century and agriculture in the early 20th century. Half of the workforce is employed in the health, education and hospitality sectors, the top five employers are government-based; the only university in Alberta south of Calgary is in Lethbridge, two of the three colleges in southern Alberta have campuses in the city. Cultural venues in the city include performing art theatres and sports centres. Before the 19th century, the Lethbridge area was populated by several First Nations at various times.
The Blackfoot referred to the area as Mek-kio-towaghs, Assini-etomochi and Sik-ooh-kotok. The Sarcee referred to it as Chadish-kashi, the Cree as Kuskusukisay-guni, the Nakoda as Ipubin-saba-akabin; the Kutenai people referred to it as ʔa•kwum. After the US Army stopped alcohol trading with the Blackfeet Nation in Montana in 1869, traders John J. Healy and Alfred B. Hamilton started a whiskey trading post at Fort Hamilton, near the future site of Lethbridge; the post's nickname became Fort Whoop-Up. The whiskey trade led to the Cypress Hills Massacre of many native Assiniboine in 1873; the North-West Mounted Police, sent to stop the trade and establish order, arrived at Fort Whoop-Up on 9 October 1874. They managed the post for the next 12 years. Lethbridge's economy developed from drift mines opened by Nicholas Sheran in 1874 and the North Western Coal and Navigation Company in 1882. North Western's president was William Lethbridge. By the turn of the century, the mines employed about 150 men and producing 300 tonnes of coal each day.
In 1896, local collieries were the largest coal producers in the Northwest Territories, with production peaking during World War I. An internment camp was set up at the Exhibition Building in Lethbridge from September 1914 to November 1916. After the war, increasing oil and natural gas production replaced coal production, the last mine in Lethbridge closed in 1957; the first rail line in Lethbridge was opened on August 28, 1885 by the Alberta Railway and Coal Company, which bought the North Western Coal and Navigation Company five years later. The rail industry's dependence on coal and the Canadian Pacific Railway's efforts to settle southern Alberta with immigrants boosted Lethbridge's economy. After the Canadian Pacific Railway moved the divisional point of its Crowsnest Line from Fort Macleod to Lethbridge in 1905, the city became the regional centre for Southern Alberta. In the mid-1980s, the CPR moved its rail yards in downtown Lethbridge to nearby Kipp, Lethbridge ceased being a rail hub.
Between 1907 and 1913, a development boom occurred in Lethbridge, making it the main marketing and service centre in southern Alberta. Such municipal projects as a water treatment plant, a power plant, a streetcar system, exhibition buildings—as well as a construction boom and rising real estate prices—transformed the mining town into a significant city. Between World War I and World War II, the city experienced an economic slump. Development slowed, drought drove farmers from their farms, coal mining declined from its peak. After World War II, irrigation of farmland near Lethbridge led to growth in the city's population and economy. Lethbridge College opened in April 1957 and the University of Lethbridge in 1967; the city of Lethbridge is located at 49.7° north latitude and 112.833° west longitude and covers an area of 127.19 square kilometres. The city is divided by the Oldman River; the city is Alberta's fourth largest by population after Calgary and Red Deer. It is the third largest in area after Calgary and Edmonton and is near the Canadian Rockies, 210 kilometres southeast of Calgary.
Lethbridge is split into three geographical areas: north and west. The Oldman River separates West Lethbridge from the other two while Crowsnest Trail and the Canadian Pacific Railway rail line separate North and South Lethbridge; the newest of the three areas, West Lethbridge is home to the University of Lethbridge, opened at that site in 1971, but the first housing was not completed until 1974 and the prime Whoop-Up Drive access opened only in 1975. Much of the city's recent growth has been on the west side, it has the youngest median age of the three; the north side was populated by workers from local coal mines. It has the oldest population of the three areas, is home to multiple industrial parks and includes the former Hamlet of Hardieville, annexed by Lethbridge in 1978. South Lethbridge is the commercial heart of the city, it contains the downtown core, the bulk of retail and hospitality establishments, the Lethbridge College. Lethbridge has a semi-arid climate with an average maximum temperature of 12.3 °C and an average minimum temperature of −1.1 °C.
With precipitation averaging 365 mm
Swift Current is the fifth largest city in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is situated along the Trans Canada Highway 170 kilometres west from Moose Jaw, 218 kilometres east from Medicine Hat, Alberta. Swift Current grew 6.8 % between 2016, ending up at 16,604 residents. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Swift Current No. 137. Swift Current's history began with Swift Current Creek which originates at Cypress Hills and traverses 100 miles of prairie and empties into the South Saskatchewan River; the creek was a camp for First Nations for centuries. The name of the creek comes from the Cree, who called the South Saskatchewan River Kisiskâciwan, meaning "it flows swiftly". Fur traders found the creek on their westward treks in the 1800s, called it "rivière au Courant". Henri Julien, an artist travelling with the North-West Mounted Police expedition in 1874, referred to it as "Du Courant", Commissioner George French used "Strong Current Creek" in his diary. While it took another decade before being recorded, the area has always been known as "Swift Current".
The settlement of Swift Current was established in 1883, after the CPR surveyed a railway line as far as Swift Current Creek. In 1882, initial grading and track preparation commenced, with the first settlers arriving in the spring of 1883. During the early part of its settlement, the economy was based exclusively on serving the new railway buildings and employees. There was a significant ranching operation known as the "76" ranches, it stretched from Swift Current to Calgary. The ranch located at Swift Current dealt with sheep. At one point there were upwards of 20,000 sheep grazing on the present day Kinetic Grounds; the head shepherd was John Oman from Scotland. He donated land to build Oman School in 1913. Other early industries included gathering bison bones for use in fertilizer manufacturing, the making of bone china and sugar refining. Métis residents ran a successful Red River ox cart "freighting" business to Battleford until the late 1880s. During the Riel Rebellion of 1885, Swift Current became a major military base and troop mustering area due to its proximity to Battleford but this was only for a short time.
On February 4, 1904, the hamlet became a village and a town on March 15, 1907, when a census indicated a population of 550. Swift Current became incorporated as a city on January 15, 1914, with Frank E. West being the mayor at the time; the Swift Current Airport was taken over by the city of Swift Current from Transport Canada in 1996. Airport services were contracted out. There have been recent plans to expand and revitalize the airport alongside the rural municipalities surrounding Swift Current. Swift Current is sometimes known as "Speedy Creek", "Swift", or "Swifty". Swift Current's official slogan is "Where Life Makes Sense". Swift Current is home to Saskatchewan's oldest operating theatre: the Lyric Theatre, built in 1912 at a cost of $50,000 is the "crown jewel" of Swift Current's historical downtown buildings, with recognizable advertisements painted on the north and south sides of the building dating back to the early 1920s; the building has served many functions over the years: at first it housed glamorous vaudeville performances by traveling companies, was converted into a movie theatre and, in the mid-1980s, a bar and nightclub.
A volunteer non-profit group purchased the facility in 2005 and is raising money for its preservation while staging cultural events, such as a mock Chautauqua annually in July, since 2008, open mic nights throughout the year, administering rentals of the building. The current musician in residence is Al Hudec. Swift Current's tallest commercial building is the EI Wood Building, located downtown; the longest running business in Swift Current is the Imperial Hotel known as "The Big Eye" due to the large eye painted on the side. It was used as evidence that Swift Current should be granted village status; the owner, R. H. Corbett of Medicine Hat, needed the designation to obtain a liquor licence; the Swift Current railway station has been designated a historic railway station in 1991. The Court House is a designated historical building. Swift Current experiences a humid continental climate that does not fall far from being classified as semi-arid. Winters are long and cold, while summers are short and wet.
The coldest month is January, with a mean temperature of −10.1 °C, while the warmest month is July, with a mean temperature of 18.2 °C. The driest month is February, with an average of 11.8 mm of precipitation, while the wettest month is June, with an average of 77 mm. Annual precipitation is low, with an average of 392.5 mm. Its location in southwest Saskatchewan gives it milder winters than the provincial capital, Regina though it is higher in elevation. Chinook winds happen several times a year allowing residents to enjoy unseasonably warm weather for short periods of time; the highest temperature recorded in Swift Current was 41.7 °C on 12 July 1886. The coldest temperature recorded was −47.8 °C on 16 February 1936. The city is home to the Swift Current Museum, the Art Gallery of Swift Current, the Lyric Theatre and the Swift Current Library; the city is host to the Windscape Kite Festival, the largest festival of its kind in Western Canada. In 2016, Swift Current became the first city in Saskatchewan to install a permanent rainbow crosswalk.
Patrick Marleau - current NHL player for Toronto Maple Leafs Reggi
Scotiabank Saddledome is a multi-use indoor arena in Calgary, Canada. Located in Stampede Park in the southeast end of downtown Calgary, the Saddledome was built in 1983 to replace the Stampede Corral as the home of the Calgary Flames of the National Hockey League, to host ice hockey and figure skating at the 1988 Winter Olympics; the facility hosts concerts and other sporting championships, events for the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede. It underwent a major renovation in 1994–95 and sold its naming rights, during which its original name of Olympic Saddledome was changed to Canadian Airlines Saddledome; the facility was given the name Pengrowth Saddledome in 2000, after Pengrowth Management Ltd. signed a ten-year agreement. It adopted its current name in October 2010 as Scotiabank signed on as title sponsor; the Saddledome is owned by the City of Calgary, who leases it to the Saddledome Foundation, a non-profit organization, to oversee its operation. Since 1996, it has been managed by the Flames.
The Saddledome was damaged during the 2013 Alberta floods but was repaired and reopened in time for the 2013–14 NHL season. The arena's roof is shaped like a saddle, thus earning the name "Saddledome". Calgary had been served for 30 years by the Stampede Corral when the Calgary Flames arrived in 1980. With a total capacity of 8,700, the Corral was the largest arena in Canada west of Toronto in 1950, but had fallen below major league standards by the 1970s; the Corral was deemed insufficient for the National Hockey League in 1977, leading the World Hockey Association's Calgary Cowboys to fold rather than hope to be a team selected to merge with the NHL. Calgary's bid to host the 1988 Winter Olympics, coupled with the arrival of the Flames, drove the need to build a new arena. City Council debated the merits of several locations for the city's new Olympic Coliseum, narrowed their choices down to two areas in the Victoria Park neighbourhood on the east end of downtown. Two other sites, one on the west end of downtown, a late bid by several businessmen pushing to build the arena in the northern suburb of Airdrie were considered.
The Victoria Park Community Association fought the bid to build the arena in their neighborhood, threatening to oppose the city's Olympic bid if necessary. City Council voted on March 3, 1981 to build the proposed 20,000 seat arena on the Stampede grounds east of the Corral and south of Victoria Park; the community continued to fight the city over rezoning the land to allow for the new arena amidst fears of traffic congestion in their neighbourhood which resulted in numerous costly delays to the start of construction. In a bid to end the battle, Mayor Ralph Klein asked the provincial government in July 1981 to take over the land designated for the arena to bypass the appeals process and force approval; the province supported the city amidst protests by community associations and invoked used powers to overrule planning regulations, allowing construction to begin. The following day, on July 1981, builders began construction of the arena; the International Olympic Committee was impressed that the project was underway, as noted in the XV Olympic Winter Games official report which stated "The fact that this facility was being built added credibility to bid and proved to be a positive factor in demonstrating Calgary's commitment to hosting the Games".
The facility was designed by Graham McCourt Architects. While they set out to design a unique building, the idea of a western theme never occurred to Barry Graham or his team; the roof of the building was designed to be a reverse hyperbolic paraboloid, allowing for a pillar free view from all seats and reducing the interior volume by up to one-third when compared to traditional arenas, resulting in reduced heating and maintenance costs, plus the floating roof can flex to compensate for the city's frequent temperature fluctuations. When the design was unveiled, the roof was referred to as being saddle-shaped. Of 1,270 entries submitted in a contest to name the arena, 735 involved the word Saddle; the winning name in the contest, Olympic Saddledome, was drawn from a hat filled with several similar saddle-themed names. At the time the name received a tepid reception from some, including the chairman of Calgary's Olympic Organizing Committee, Frank King, quoted as saying "It is neither Olympic nor western, it's not dome".
The designers won several architectural and engineering awards for their work on the Saddledome, were honoured by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada at its millennium celebration of architecture in 2000. As of 2008, the Saddledome was still reported as the world record holder for the longest spanning hyperbolic paraboloid concrete shell; the Saddledome was featured on the cover of Time magazine on September 27, 1987, for an article discussing the city of Calgary and the upcoming 1988 Olympics. The location of the Saddledome within Stampede Park allows for easy access to Calgary's CTrain light rail transit system via the Victoria Park/Stampede station that stands parallel to Macleod Trail; the CTrain station, BMO Centre, Stampede Corral and Saddledome are all connected via a Plus 15 pedestrian skyway. Direct vehicle access is gained from the north via 5th Street Olympic Way; the arena was projected to cost $60 million to build, revised to over $80 million. Attempts to fast track construction resulted in a $16 million cost overrun, resulting in a final cost of $97.7 million and an eight-month delay in its completion.
Builders faced delays while building the roof as numerous adjustments were required to fit the giant concrete slabs between the array of cables that held them in place. Upset with the excess cost, opposition politicians i