Neuilly-sur-Seine is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine. A suburb of Paris, Neuilly is adjacent to the city and directly extends it; the area is composed of wealthy, select residential neighbourhoods, many corporate headquarters are located there. It is most expensive suburb of Paris, it is often recognised as one of the safest and most child-friendly Parisian suburbs. Neuilly was a small hamlet under the jurisdiction of Villiers, a larger settlement mentioned in medieval sources as early as 832 and now absorbed by the commune of Levallois-Perret, it was not until 1222 that the little settlement of Neuilly, established on the banks of the Seine, was mentioned for the first time in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Denis: the name was recorded in Medieval Latin as Portus de Lulliaco, meaning "Port of Lulliacum". In 1224 another charter of Saint-Denis recorded the name as Lugniacum. In a sales contract dated 1266, the name was recorded as Luingni. In 1316, however, in a ruling of the parlement of Paris, the name was recorded as Nully, a different name from those recorded before.
In a document dated 1376 the name was again recorded as Nulliacum. In the following centuries the name recorded alternated between Luny and Nully, it is only after 1648 that the name was set as Nully; the name spelt Neuilly after the French Academy standard of pronunciation of the ill as a y. Various explanations and etymologies have been proposed to explain these discrepancies in the names of Neuilly recorded over the centuries; the original name of Neuilly may have been Lulliacum or Lugniacum, that it was only corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully. Some interpret Lulliacum or Lugniacum as meaning "estate of Lullius" a Gallo-Roman landowner; this interpretation is based on the many placenames of France made up of the names of Gallo-Roman landowners and suffixed with the traditional placename suffix "-acum". However, other researchers object that it is unlikely that Neuilly owes its name to a Gallo-Roman patronym, because during the Roman occupation of Gaul the area of Neuilly was inside the large Forest of Rouvray, of which the Bois de Boulogne is all that remains today, was not a settlement.
These researchers contend that it is only after the fall of the Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions that the area of Neuilly was deforested and settled. Thus, they think that the name Lulliacum or Lugniacum comes from the ancient Germanic word lund meaning "forest", akin to Old Norse lundr meaning "grove", to which the placename suffix "-acum" was added; the Old Norse word lundr has indeed left many placenames across Europe, such as the city of Lund in Sweden, the Forest of the Londe in Normandy, or the many English placenames containing "lound", "lownde", or "lund" in their name, or ending in "-land". However, this interesting theory fails to explain why the "d" of lund is missing in Lulliacum or Lugniacum. Concerning the discrepancy in names over the centuries, the most probable explanation is that the original name Lulliacum or Lugniacum was corrupted into Nulliacum / Nully by inversion of the consonants under the influence of an old Celtic word meaning "swampy land, boggy land", found in the name of many French places anciently covered with water, such as Noue, Noë, Nohant, etc.
Or the consonants were inverted under the influence of the many settlements of France called Neuilly. Until the French Revolution, the settlement was referred to as Port-Neuilly, but at the creation of French communes in 1790 the "Port" was dropped and the newly born commune was named Neuilly. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, a part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was annexed by the city of Paris, forms now the neighbourhood of Ternes, in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. On 11 January 1867, part of the territory of Neuilly-sur-Seine was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Clichy to create the commune of Levallois-Perret. On 2 May 1897, the commune name became Neuilly-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from the many communes of France called Neuilly. However, most people continue to refer to Neuilly-sur-Seine as "Neuilly". During the 1900 Summer Olympics, it hosted the basque pelota events; the American Hospital of Paris was founded in 1906.
In 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly was signed with Bulgaria in Neuilly-sur-Seine to conclude its role in World War I. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Boulogne-Billancourt, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris, it was the site of an important royal residence during the July Monarchy. Neuilly-sur-Seine is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 1: Porte Maillot, Les Sablons and Pont de Neuilly. RATP Bus service includes the lines 43, 73, 82, 93, 157, 158, 163, 164, 174 Night Bus lines include N11 and N24. Located near France's main business district La Défense, Neuilly-sur-Seine hosts several corporate headquarters: Bureau Veritas, Marathon Media, JCDecaux, Thales Group, M6 Group, PricewaterhouseCoopers France, Parfums Christian Dior, Orangina France, Grant Thornton International France. Public schools in Neuilly: Eight écoles maternelles: Achille Peretti, Dulud, Gorce-Franklin, Miche
The Renault Frégate is an executive saloon car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1951 and 1960. Estate variants, the Renault Domaine and the Renault Manoir, were introduced in 1956 and 1958 respectively; the Frégate was conceived in the years following World War II. Renault, brought under control of the French state, needed a new modern, upmarket model both to improve its image and to cater to the needs of middle class consumers in the hoped for economic recovery. Several prototypes were produced; the car was to have had a rear-engined layout as in the launched 4CV, but Renault abandoned the rear-engined "Project 108" and in 1949, although it was late in the design process, decided to go with an engine mounted ahead of the driver. The engineering was rushed because of the switch to a front-engined configuration; the Frégate was unveiled at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, but the first model was not delivered until November 1951. The assembly plant at Flins where the car was assembled, to be renamed after Pierre Lefaucheux after his death, was formally opened in October 1952.
Production built up only slowly. In 1953 it was reported that the Frégate, with 25,000 units sold on the French market, was comfortably outpaced by the standard wheelbase versions of Citroën's'11 Normale' model, with 35,000 sold that year, despite the Citroën being little changed since its unveiling fifteen years earlier and, since the war, available from the manufacturer's French factory only in black. From its appearance late in 1950 until 1953 the car was branded as the Frégate, but the nomenclature became more complicated at the Paris Motor Show in October 1952, from early 1953 the Frégate was available in two trim levels, as the "Frégate Affaires" and the "Frégate Amiral", advertised at 799,300 francs and 899,000 francs respectively; the "Frégate Amiral" was little changed from the previous year's Frégate, although the interior was reworked and it did feature twin fog lights at the front whereas the previous year's model came with just a single fog light. Further minor external modifications for the October 1953 Motor Show included updated door handles and a change to the badge on the car's nose.
The motif on the little shield was still diamond-shaped, but within the diamond the image of a three-masted frigate had been replaced by a tiny outline map of mainland France containing the inscription "RNUR-France". The "Frégate Affaires" offered a price saving of 100,000 francs in return for a reduced specification that involved a simplified dashboard, reduced interior trim, the removal of exterior chrome over-riders from the bumpers as well as the loss of the twin fog lights and windscreen washer which remained a standard feature on the "Frégate Amiral" The launch of a cut-price Frégate was part of the same strategy, behind the launch of the cut-price 4CV Service. Neither of these stripped down versions were well received by customers: in the Frégate's case, this was one of several attempts to make the model more competitive that failed to shake Citroen's dominance of the French market for large family cars. Renault addressed the complaints about the lack of power from the 2 litre engine by introducing in 1956 the new 2141 cc Etendard engine, which produced 77 hp.
A new, luxurious Grand Pavois trim package was launched the same year. In 1957 a three-speed'Transfluide' semi-automatic transmission, incorporating a fluid coupling, became an option along with a more powerful version of the 2141 cc engine producing 80 bhp due to a compression ratio increase from 7.0:1 to 7,5:1. The 1958 models saw another modified front grille; the prominent wide chrome oval and horizontal bars were removed to leave only the row of thin bars over which, since 1955, they had been placed. An estate variant, the Renault Domaine was launched in 1956 and was powered by the 2141 cc Etendard engine. A luxury estate, the Renault Manoir was introduced in October 1958, featuring "Transfluide" automatic transmission included in the price. Citroën reinforced their domination of the market for larger saloon cars in 1955 with the introduction of the futuristic DS, followed in 1957 by its more aggressively priced ID variant. Sales of the Frégate peaked in 1955 with 37,717 cars sold before slumping to 24,608 in 1956 and collapsing to 9,772 in 1957: volumes failed to recover as competition from Simca and Citroën intensified in the large car sector through the 1950s.
On 18 April 1960 the final Frégate emerged from the plant, after just 1,158 cars had been built during that year to date. In total, 163,383 Frégates were made in the Flins-sur-Seine factory; the sales performance of the car was regarded as disappointing. Some were content to blame the excessive number of teething troubles in the early models, the car's lack of power and during the second half of the decade, the superior attractions of the Citroën offerings: but some commentators draw attention to a French political dimension; the manufacturer was nationalised directly after the war and the death in 1944 of Louis Renault took place under circumstances which were and have remained controversial. Many members of the haute-bourgeoisie class able to afford such a car were more comfortable buying from a private manufacturer after the Peugeot 403 was added to the Frégate's competitors. At the end of the decade Charles de Gaulle returned to power as president in 1958, he was an unapologetically partisan fan of the Citroën DS, as newsreels of the period attest.
Only a single long wheel base "presidential special" Renault Frégate exists. Under an agreement concluded wi
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
Duesenberg Motors Company was an American manufacturer of race cars and luxury automobiles. It was founded by brothers August and Frederick Duesenberg in 1913 in Saint Paul, where they built engines and race cars; the brothers moved their operations to Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1916 to manufacture engines for World War I. In 1919, when their government contracts were cancelled, they moved to Indianapolis, home of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, established the Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company, Inc.. In late 1926, E. L. Cord added Duesenberg to his Auburn Automobile Company. With the market for expensive luxury cars undercut by the Depression, Duesenberg folded in 1937. In 1913, brothers Fred and Augie Duesenberg founded Duesenberg Motors Company, Inc. on University Avenue in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build engines and race cars; the brothers built many experimental cars. Duesenberg cars were considered some of the best cars of the time, were built by hand. In 1914, Eddie Rickenbacker drove a "Duesy" to finish in 10th place at the Indianapolis 500, Duesenberg won the race in 1924, 1925, 1927.
The fledgling company sidestepped into aviation engine manufacturing when Colonel R. C. Bolling and his commission acquired a license to produce the Bugatti U-16 for the U. S. Army Air Service; the end of World War I stopped this project before it could mature. In 1921, Duesenberg provided the pace car for the Indy 500, driven by Fred Duesenberg. In 1921, Jimmy Murphy became the first American to win the French Grand Prix when he drove a Duesenberg to victory at Le Mans. According to archives of The Des Moines Register, the first Duesenbergs were built at 915 Grand Ave in Des Moines, Iowa. At the end of World War I, they ceased building aviation and marine engines in Elizabeth, New Jersey at the corner of Newark Avenue and North Avenue. In 1919 the Duesenberg brothers sold their Minnesota and New Jersey factories to John Willys and moved to a new headquarters and factory in Indianapolis, where the "Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company, Inc." was established in 1920 to begin production of passenger cars.
The plant was located on a 17-acre site on West Washington street at Harding street until 1937, adjacent to the Overland Automobile factory. Although the Duesenberg brothers were world-class engineers, they were neither good businessmen nor administrators; this had the Duesenberg Straight-8 engine, the first "mass-produced" straight eight engine in the U. S, it was an advanced and expensive automobile, offering features such as single overhead camshafts, four-valve cylinder heads, the first four-wheel hydraulic brakes offered on a passenger car anywhere. The Model A was a smaller vehicle than the competition, it was among the the fastest cars of its time. Among the celebrities who purchased this model were Rudolph Valentino; the model experienced various delays going from prototype to production. Deliveries to dealers did not start until December 1921. Sales lagged and the goal of building 100 Duesenbergs each month proved far too high, as the Indianapolis plant struggled to roll out one a day. In 1922 no more than 150 cars were manufactured, only 650 Model As were sold over a period of six years.
1922 Model A specifications Winning races did not translate into financial success either, although that winning reputation would attract new investors, who supplied the cash flow to prop up the production facility. The brothers continued to create excellent engines for cars, a few planes but only as employees of various capitalist investors who bought the rights to their famous family name; the firm had acquired a considerable aura of prestige when in October 1919, Fred signed over the rights to his name and drawings for a passenger car to a pair of promoters, Newton E. Van Zandt and Luther M. Rankin. On March 8, 1920, these men became president and vice president of the "Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Corporation of Indianapolis". Fred was chief engineer and Augie his assistant, both were salaried as employees. Van Zandt quit after a year, business went from bad to worse in 1923. In 1924 the company went into receivership. In 1925, the firm's name was changed to "Duesenberg Motors Corporation" and Fred assumed the title of president.
Fred and August struggled to keep the company, but to no avail, as they weren't able to raise enough capital. Model X Duesenbergs are rare, it was a sportier version of the model A with a heavier and longer chassis and 100 hp engine that enabled it to reach 100 mph. The most notable differences between the A and X were that the latter had hypoid differentials and all its valves were on one side; this braking system could have earned him a fortune. According to Randy Ema, the top Duesenberg authority in the United States, only 13 were built, they fit in between the Duesenberg Model A and the famous J. E. L. Cord bought the company on October 26, 1925, for the brothers' engineering skills and the brand name in order to produce luxury cars, he challenged Fred Duesenberg to design an automobile. Indeed, Cord wanted
Bugatti Type 57
The Bugatti Type 57 and variants was an new design created by Jean Bugatti, son of founder Ettore. Type 57s were built from 1934 with a total of 710 examples produced. Type 57s used a twin-cam 3,257 cc engine based on that of the Type 49 but modified by Jean Bugatti, unlike the single cam engines of the Type 49 and earlier models; the engines of the Type 50, 51 used bevel gears at the front of the engine to transmit power from the crankshaft, whereas the Type 57 used a train of spur gears at the rear of the engine, with fiber gear wheels on the camshafts to achieve more silence in operation. There were two basic variants of the Type 57 car: The original Type 57 The lowered Type 57S/SCThe Type 57 chassis and engine was revived in 1951 as the Bugatti Type 101. A rediscovered Type 57 sold for 3.4 million euros at auction on 7 February 2009 at a motor show in Paris. The original Type 57 was a touring car model produced from 1934 through 1940, it used the 3.3 L engine from the Type 59 Grand Prix cars.
Top speed was 153 km/h. It had a 1,349 mm wide track. Road-going versions weighed about 950 kg. Hydraulic brakes replaced the cable-operated units in 1938, a modification Ettore Bugatti hotly contested. 630 examples were produced. The original road-going Type 57 included a smaller version of the Royale's square-bottom horseshoe grille; the sides of the engine compartment were covered with thermostatically-controlled shutters. It was a tall car, contrary to the tastes of the time. Dimensions: Wheelbase: 3,302 mm Track: 1,349 mm Weight: 950 kg The "tuned" Type 57T pushed the performance of the basic Type 57, it was capable of reaching 185 kilometres per hour. A Type 57C racing car was built from 1937 with about 96 produced, it shared the 3.3 L engine from the road-going Type 57 but produced 160 hp with a Roots-type supercharger fitted. The 2nd incarnation Tank, this time based on the Type 57C, won Le Mans again in 1939. Shortly afterwards, Jean Bugatti took the winning car for a test on the Molsheim-Strasbourg road.
Swerving to avoid a drunken bicyclist on the closed road, Bugatti crashed the car and died at age 30. The Type 57S/SC variants are some of the most iconic Bugatti cars; the "S" stood for "Surbaissé" and the "C" for "Compresseur". It included a V-shaped dip at the bottom of the radiator and mesh grilles on either side of the engine compartment. Lowering the car was a major undertaking; the rear axle now passed through the rear frame rather than riding under it, a dry-sump lubrication system was required to fit the engine under the new low hood. The 57S had a nearly-independent suspension in front. Just 43 "Surbaissé" cars and only two supercharged Type 57SC's were manufactured, but most 57S owners wanted the additional power afforded by the blower. Therefore, most of the original Type 57S cars returned to Molsheim for the installation of a supercharger, pushing output from 175 hp to 200 hp and 190 km/h. In 2013 Ralph Lauren's version, valued at $40 million, was unveiled. Dimensions: Wheelbase: 2,979 mm Track: 1,349 mm Weight: 950 kg The Type 57 Atlantic body featured flowing coupé lines with a pronounced dorsal seam running from the front to the back end of the vehicle.
It was based on the 1935 Aérolithe concept car designed by Jean Bugatti. Like the Type 59 Grand Prix car, the Aérolithe used Elektron composite for its body panels, known for being a lightweight and durable material, but for being flammable when exposed to high temperatures. Therefore, being unable to weld the body panels, Bugatti engineers riveted them externally, technique used in the aviation industry, thus creating the signature seam. However, the production Atlantics, just four built, used plain aluminum, but the dorsal seams were retained for style and have led to the car's present fame; the model was named in honor of Jean Bugatti's friend, French pilot Jean Mermoz, one of the pioneers in aviation and the first to cross the South Atlantic by air. In December 1936, he and his crew crashed into the Atlantic Ocean after a supposed engine failure; the first two Atlantics were named "Aéro Coupés", after their predecessor, the Type 57S Aérolithe. However, after hearing the tragic news, Jean Bugatti commissioned to change the name of the model to "Atlantic Coupé".
Three of the original four Atlantic units are known to survive and each has been restored to its former glory. Two of them have been honored with "Best of Show" awards at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance in 1990 and 2003, respectively. ● 1935 Bugatti Type 57S Aérolithe No. 57331 prototype Code-named the "Elektron Coupé" or "Coupé Special" at launch, this Bugatti prototype had a short existence. It was finished in July, 1935 and only four months it made its first public appearance at the 1935 Paris Motor Show; the car was a faithful recreation of Jean Bugatti's stunning "SuperProfile coupé" design, but due to its bizarre shape, the vehicle has brought attention to a limited audience, thus there were only four Atlantics built the years after. A few people, drove the vehicle and were surprised by its performance and looks, so they called it "La Aérolithe" after the phrase "Rapide comme une aérolithe", a name, adopted by Bugatti. A few w
Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world"; the First World War brought them into manufacturing aero engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production. Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft. In the late 1960s Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by its mismanagement of development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it proved a great success. In 1971 the owners were obliged to liquidate their business; the useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited.
This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977; the Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc. A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more known brand than Rolls-Royce. In 1884 Henry Royce started an mechanical business, he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, in a subsequent agreement on 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make. There would be four models: a 10 hp, two-cylinder model selling at £395, a 15 hp three-cylinder at £500, a 20 hp four-cylinder at £650, a 30 hp six-cylinder model priced at £890,All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, be sold by Rolls.
The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester, it was an offer from Derby's council of cheap electricity that resulted in the decision to acquire a 12.7 acres site on the southern edge of that city. The new factory was designed by Royce, production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu; the investment in the new company required further capital to be raised, on 6 December 1906 £100,000 of new shares were offered to the public. In 1907, Rolls-Royce bought out C. S. Rolls & Co. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp. Designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royce's first all-new model. In March 1908 Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce, succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate on the new model, all the earlier models were duly discontinued.
Johnson had an early example named, as if it were a yacht, Silver Ghost. Unofficially the press and public picked up and used Silver Ghost for all the 40/50 cars made until the introduction of the 40/50 Phantom in 1925; the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royce's early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars. Aero-engine manufacture began in 1914. Rolls-Royce's Eagle, the first example was made in 1915, was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when in June 1919 two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown. In 1921 Rolls-Royce opened a new factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States where a further 1,701 "Springfield Ghosts" were built; this factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931. It was located at the former American Wire Wheel factory on Hendee Street, with the administration offices at 54 Waltham Ave.
Springfield was the earlier location for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the location where the first American gasoline-powered vehicle was built. Their first chassis was completed in 1921. Bodies were supplied by Rolls-Royce Custom Coachwork and by Brewster & Co. in Long Island City, New York. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Silver Ghost in short-lived but deep postwar slumps Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922 ending the one-model policy followed since 1908; the new 40/50 hp Phantom replaced the Silver Ghost in 1925. The Phantom III introduced in 1936 was the last large pre-war model. A limited production of Phantoms for heads of state recommenced in 1950 and continued until the Phantom VI ended production in the late 1980s. In 1931 Rolls-Royce acquired
The Citroën DS is a front-engine, front-wheel-drive executive car, manufactured and marketed by the French company Citroën from 1955 to 1975 in sedan, wagon/estate and convertible body configurations across three series, or generations. Noted for its aerodynamic, futuristic body design and innovative technology, the DS set new standards in ride quality and braking — the latter as the first mass production car equipped with disc brakes.). Italian sculptor and industrial designer Flaminio Bertoni and the French aeronautical engineer André Lefèbvre styled and engineered the car, Paul Magès developed the hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension. Citroën sold 1,455,746 examples, including 1,330,755 manufactured at the manufacturer's Paris Quai André-Citroën production plant; the DS placed third in the 1999 Car of the Century poll recognizing the world's most influential auto designs and was named the most beautiful car of all time by Classic & Sports Car magazine. After 18 years of secret development as the successor to the Traction Avant, the DS 19 was introduced on 5 October 1955 at the Paris Motor Show.
In the first 15 minutes of the show, 743 orders were taken, orders for the first day totalled 12,000. During the 10 days of the show, the DS took in 80,000 deposits. Contemporary journalists said the DS pushed the envelope in the ride vs. handling compromise possible in a motor vehicle. To a France still deep in reconstruction after the devastation of World War II, building its identity in the post-colonial world, the DS was a symbol of French ingenuity; the DS was distributed to many territories throughout the world. It posited the nation's relevance in the Space Age, during the global race for technology of the Cold War. Structuralist philosopher Roland Barthes, in an essay about the car, said that it looked as if it had "fallen from the sky". An American advertisement summarised this selling point: "It takes a special person to drive a special car"; because they were owned by the technologically aggressive tire manufacturer Michelin, Citroën had designed their cars around the technically superior radial tire since 1948, the DS was no exception.
The car featured a novel hydropneumatic suspension including an automatic leveling system and variable ground clearance, developed in-house by Paul Magès. This suspension allowed the DS to travel on the poor road surfaces common in France. In addition, the vehicle had power steering and a semi-automatic transmission, though the shift lever controlled a powered hydraulic shift mechanism in place of a mechanical linkage, a fibreglass roof which lowered the centre of gravity and so reduced weight transfer. Inboard front brakes reduced unsprung weight. Different front and rear track widths and tyre sizes reduced the unequal tyre loading, well known to promote understeer, typical of front-engined and front-wheel drive cars; as with all French cars, the DS design was affected by the tax horsepower system, which mandated small engines. Unlike the Traction Avant predecessor, there was no top-of-range model with a powerful six-cylinder engine. Citroën had planned an air-cooled flat-6 engine for the car, but did not have the funds to put the prototype engine into production.
The DS placed third in the 1999 Car of the Century competition, fifth on Automobile Magazine's "100 Coolest Cars" listing in 2005. It was named the most beautiful car of all time by Classic & Sports Car magazine after a poll of 20 world-renowned car designers, including Giorgetto Giugiaro, Ian Callum, Roy Axe, Paul Bracq, Leonardo Fioravanti. Both the DS and its simpler sibling, the ID, used a punning name. "DS" is pronounced in French as "Déesse". An intermediate model was called the DW; the DS was successful in motorsports like rallying, where sustained speeds on poor surfaces are paramount, won the Monte Carlo Rally in 1959. In the 1000 Lakes Rally, Pauli Toivonen drove a DS19 to victory in 1962. In 1966, the DS won the Monte Carlo Rally again, with some controversy as the competitive BMC Mini-Cooper team was disqualified due to rule infractions. Mini was involved with DS competition again two years when a drunk driver in a Mini in Sydney Australia crashed into the DS, leading the 1968 London–Sydney Marathon, 98 miles from the finish line.
The DS was still competitive in the grueling 1974 London-Sahara-Munich World Cup Rally, where it won over 70 other cars, only 5 of which completed the entire event. In conventional cars, hydraulics are only used in brakes and power steering. In the DS they were used for the suspension and transmission; the cheaper 1957 ID19 did have a simplified power-braking system. An engine driven pump pressurizes the closed system to 2,400 pounds per square inch. At a time when few passenger vehicles had independent suspension on all wheels, the application of the hydraulic system to the car's suspension system to provide a self-levelling system was an innovative move; this suspension allowed the car to achieve sharp handling combined with high ride quality compared to a "magic carpet". The hydropneumatic suspension used was pioneered the year before, on the rear of another car from Citroën, the top of range Traction Avant 15CV-H; the 1955 DS cemented the Citroën brand name as an automotive innovator, building on the success of the Traction Avant, the world's first mass-produced unitary body front-wheel-drive car in 1934.