Joannes Stobaeus, from Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. The work was divided into two volumes containing two books each; the two volumes became separated in the manuscript tradition, the first volume became known as the Extracts and the second volume became known as the Anthology. Modern editions now refer to both volumes as the Anthology; the Anthology contains extracts from hundreds of writers poets, orators and physicians. The subjects covered range from natural philosophy and ethics, to politics and maxims of practical wisdom; the work preserves fragments of many works who otherwise might be unknown today. Of his life nothing is known, he derived his surname from being a native of Stobi in Macedonia Salutaris. The age in which he lived cannot be fixed with accuracy, he quotes no writer than the early 5th century, he lived around this time. From his silence in regard to Christian authors, it has been inferred, his name, would rather indicate a Christian, or at least the son of Christian parents.
His anthology is a valuable collection of extracts from earlier Greek writers, which he collected and arranged, in the order of subjects, as a repertory of valuable and instructive sayings. In most of the manuscripts there is a division into three books; the extracts were intended by Stobaeus for his son Septimius, were preceded by a letter explaining the purpose of the work and giving a summary of the contents. It is evident from this summary, preserved in Photius's Bibliotheca, that the work was divided into four books and two volumes, that surviving manuscripts of the third book consist of two books which have been merged; as each of the four books is sometimes called Anthologion, it is probable that this name belonged to the entire work. The full title, according to Photius, was Four Books of Extracts and Precepts. At some time subsequent to Photius the two volumes were separated, the two volumes became known to Latin Europe as the Eclogae and the Florilegium respectively. Modern editions have dropped these two titles and have reverted to calling the entire work the Anthology.
The introduction to the whole work, treating of the value of philosophy and of philosophical sects, is lost, with the exception of the concluding portion. Each chapter of the four books is headed by a title describing its matter. Stobaeus quoted more than five hundred writers beginning with the poets, proceeding to the historians, orators and physicians; the works of the greater part of these have perished. It is to him, he has quoted over 500 passages from Euripides, 150 from Sophocles, over 200 from Menander. The first two books consist for the most part of extracts conveying the views of earlier poets and prose writers on points of physics and ethics. We learn from Photius that the first book was preceded by a dissertation on the advantages of philosophy, an account of the different schools of philosophy, a collection of the opinions of ancient writers on geometry and arithmetic; the greater part of this introduction is lost. The close of it only, where arithmetic is spoken of, is still extant.
The first book was divided into sixty chapters, the second into forty-six, of which the manuscripts preserve only the first nine. Some of the missing parts of the second book have, been recovered from a 14th-century gnomology, his knowledge of physics — in the wide sense which the Greeks assigned to this term — is untrustworthy. Stobaeus betrays a tendency to confound the dogmas of the early Ionian philosophers, he mixes up Platonism with Pythagoreanism. For part of the first book and much of the second, it is clear that he depended on the works of the Peripatetic philosopher Aetius and the Stoic philosopher Arius Didymus; the third and fourth books are devoted to subjects of a moral and economic kind, maxims of practical wisdom. The third book consisted of forty-two chapters, the fourth of fifty-eight; these two books, like the larger part of the second, treat of ethics. The first edition of books 1 and 2 was that by G. Canter. There were subsequent editions made by A. H. L. Heeren, Thomas Gaisford.
The first edition of books 3 and 4 was that edited by Trincavelli. Three editions were published by Conrad Gessner, another by Gaisford; the first edition of the whole of Stobaeus together was one published at Geneva in 1609. The next major edition of the whole corpus was that by Augustus Meineke; the modern edition is
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions. In Idealism and consciousness are first-order realities to which matter is subject and secondary. In philosophical materialism the converse is true. Here mind and consciousness are by-products or epiphenomena of material processes without which they cannot exist. According to this doctrine the material determines consciousness, not vice versa. Materialist theories are divided into three groups. Naive materialism identifies the material world with specific elements. Metaphysical materialism examines separated parts of the world in a isolated environment. Dialectical materialism adapts the Hegelian dialectic for materialism, examining parts of the world in relation to each other within a dynamic environment. Materialism is related to physicalism, the view that all that exists is physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime, physical energies and forces, dark matter, so on.
Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous. Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism, pluralism and other forms of monism. Materialism belongs to the class of monist ontology; as such, it is different from ontological theories based on pluralism. For singular explanations of the phenomenal reality, materialism would be in contrast to idealism, neutral monism, spiritualism. Despite the large number of philosophical schools and subtle nuances between many, all philosophies are said to fall into one of two primary categories, which are defined in contrast to each other: idealism and materialism; the basic proposition of these two categories pertains to the nature of reality, the primary distinction between them is the way they answer two fundamental questions: "what does reality consist of?" and "how does it originate?" To idealists, spirit or mind or the objects of mind are primary, matter secondary.
To materialists, matter is primary, mind or spirit or ideas are secondary, the product of matter acting upon matter. The materialist view is best understood in its opposition to the doctrines of immaterial substance applied to the mind famously by René Descartes. However, by itself materialism says nothing about. In practice, it is assimilated to one variety of physicalism or another. Materialism is associated with reductionism, according to which the objects or phenomena individuated at one level of description, if they are genuine, must be explicable in terms of the objects or phenomena at some other level of description—typically, at a more reduced level. Non-reductive materialism explicitly rejects this notion, taking the material constitution of all particulars to be consistent with the existence of real objects, properties, or phenomena not explicable in the terms canonically used for the basic material constituents. Jerry Fodor influentially argues this view, according to which empirical laws and explanations in "special sciences" like psychology or geology are invisible from the perspective of basic physics.
A lot of vigorous literature has grown up around the relation between these views. Modern philosophical materialists extend the definition of other scientifically observable entities such as energy and the curvature of space; however philosophers such as Mary Midgley suggest that the concept of "matter" is elusive and poorly defined. Materialism contrasts with dualism, idealism and dual-aspect monism, its materiality can, in some ways, be linked to the concept of determinism, as espoused by Enlightenment thinkers. During the 19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels extended the concept of materialism to elaborate a materialist conception of history centered on the empirical world of human activity and the institutions created, reproduced, or destroyed by that activity, they developed dialectical materialism, through taking Hegelian dialectics, stripping them of their idealist aspects, fusing them with materialism. Materialism developed independently, in several geographically separated regions of Eurasia during what Karl Jaspers termed the Axial Age.
In ancient Indian philosophy, materialism developed around 600 BC with the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi and the proponents of the Cārvāka school of philosophy. Kanada became one of the early proponents of atomism; the Nyaya–Vaisesika school developed one of the earliest forms of atomism, though their proofs of God and their positing that consciousness was not material precludes labelling them as materialists. Buddhist atomism and the Jaina school continued the atomic tradition. Ancient Greek atomists like Leucippus and Epicurus prefigure materialists; the Latin poem De Rerum Natura by Lucretius reflects the mechanistic philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus. According to this view, all that exists is matter and void, all phenomena result from different motions and conglomerations of base material particles called "atoms". De R
Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogonic theory of the four classical elements, he proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix and separate the elements, respectively. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles challenged the practice of animal sacrifice and killing animals for food, he developed a distinctive doctrine of reincarnation. He is considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse; some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, has been the subject of a number of literary treatments. Empedocles was born, at Akragas in Sicily to a distinguished family. Little is known about his life, his father Meton seems to have been instrumental in overthrowing the tyrant of Akragas Thrasydaeus in 470 BC.
Empedocles continued this tradition by helping to overthrow the succeeding oligarchic government. He is said to have been magnanimous in his support of the poor, his brilliant oratory, his penetrating knowledge of nature, the reputation of his marvellous powers, including the curing of diseases, averting epidemics, produced many myths and stories surrounding his name. In his poem Purifications he claimed miraculous powers, including the destruction of evil, the curing of old age, the controlling of wind and rain. Empedocles was acquainted or connected by friendship with the physicians Acron; the only pupil of Empedocles, mentioned is the sophist and rhetorician Gorgias. Timaeus and Dicaearchus spoke of the journey of Empedocles to the Peloponnese, of the admiration, paid to him there. According to Aristotle, he died at the age of sixty though other writers have him living up to the age of one hundred and nine. There are myths concerning his death: a tradition, traced to Heraclides Ponticus, represented him as having been removed from the Earth.
The contemporary Life of Empedocles by Xanthus has been lost. Empedocles is considered the last Greek philosopher to write in verse. There is a debate about whether the surviving fragments of his teaching should be attributed to two separate poems, Purifications and On Nature, with different subject matter, or whether they may all derive from one poem with two titles, or whether one title refers to part of the whole poem; some scholars argue that the title Purifications refers to the first part of a larger work called On Nature. There is a debate about which fragments should be attributed to each of the poems, if there are two poems, or if part of it is called "Purifications". Empedocles was undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of Xenophanes and Parmenides—allusions to the latter can be found in the fragments—but he seems to have surpassed them in the animation and richness of his style, in the clearness of his descriptions and diction. Aristotle called him the father of rhetoric, although he acknowledged only the meter as a point of comparison between the poems of Empedocles and the epics of Homer, he described Empedocles as Homeric and powerful in his diction.
Lucretius speaks of him with enthusiasm, evidently viewed him as his model. The two poems together comprised 5000 lines. About 550 lines of his poetry survive. In the old editions of Empedocles, only about 100 lines were ascribed to his Purifications, taken to be a poem about ritual purification, or the poem that contained all his religious and ethical thought. Early editors supposed that it was a poem that offered a mythical account of the world which may have been part of Empedocles' philosophical system. According to Diogenes Laërtius it began with the following verses: In the older editions, it is to this work that editors attributed the story about souls, where we are told that there were once spirits who lived in a state of bliss, but having committed a crime they were punished by being forced to become mortal beings, reincarnated from body to body. Humans and plants are such spirits; the moral conduct recommended in the poem may allow us to become like gods again. If, as is now held, this title "Purifications" refers to the poem On Nature, or to a part of that poem, this story will have been at the beginning of the main work on nature and the cosmic cycle.
The relevant verses are sometimes attributed to the proem of On Nature by those who think that there was a separate poem called "Purifications". There are about 450 lines of his poem On Nature extant, including 70 lines which have been reconstructed from some papyrus scraps known as the Strasbourg Papyrus; the poem consisted of 2000 lines of hexameter verse, was addressed to Pausanias. It was this poem. In it, Empedocles explains not on
Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.
In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.
These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.
In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" and
Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta is a senior research scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information, he received his PhD in philosophy from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1980. Zalta has taught courses at Stanford University, Rice University, the University of Salzburg, the University of Auckland. Zalta is the Principal Editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Zalta's most notable philosophical position is descended from the position of Alexius Meinong and Ernst Mally, who suggested that there are many non-existent objects. On Zalta's account, some objects "exemplify" properties, while others "encode" them. While the objects that exemplify properties are discovered through traditional empirical means, a simple set of axioms allows us to know about objects that encode properties. For every set of properties, there is one object that encodes that set of properties and no others; this allows for a formalized ontology. Media related to Edward N. Zalta at Wikimedia Commons Official website CV
Magna Graecia was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Basilicata and Sicily. The settlers who began arriving in the 8th century BC brought with them their Hellenic civilization, to leave a lasting imprint on Italy, such as in the culture of ancient Rome. Most notably the Roman poet Ovid referred to the south of Italy as Magna Graecia in his poem Fasti. According to Strabo, Magna Graecia's colonization had begun by the time of the Trojan War and lasted for several centuries. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, because of demographic crises, the search for new commercial outlets and ports, expulsion from their homeland after wars, Greeks began to settle in southern Italy. Colonies were established all over the Mediterranean and Black Seas, including in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula; the Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of Italy Magna Graecia since it was so densely inhabited by the Greeks.
The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or Apulia and Calabria, Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. With colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed interacting with the native Italic civilisations; the most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, adopted by the Etruscans. These Hellenic colonies became rich and powerful, some still stand today, like Neapolis, Akragas, Rhegion, or Kroton; the first Greek city to be absorbed into the Roman Republic was Neapolis in 327 BC. The other Greek cities in Italy followed during the Pyrrhic War. Sicily was conquered by Rome during the First Punic War. Only Syracuse remained independent until 212, because its king Hiero II was a devoted ally of the Romans, his grandson Hieronymous however made an alliance with Hannibal, which prompted the Romans to besiege the city, which fell in 212, despite the machines of Archimedes.
This is a list of the 22 poleis in Italy, according to Mogens Herman Hansen. It does not list all the Hellenic settlements, only those organised around a polis structure. During the Early Middle Ages, following the disastrous Gothic War, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks may have come to Southern Italy from Greece and Asia Minor, as Southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire. Although possible, the archaeological evidence shows no trace of new arrivals of Greek peoples, only a division between barbarian newcomers, Greco-Roman locals; the iconoclast emperor Leo III appropriated lands, granted to the Papacy in southern Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire continued to govern the area in the form of the Catapanate of Italy through the Middle Ages, well after northern Italy fell to the Lombards. At the time of the Normans' late medieval conquest of southern Italy and Sicily, the Salento peninsula and up to one third of Sicily was still Greek speaking. At this time the language had evolved into medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek, its speakers were known as Byzantine Greeks.
The resultant fusion of local Byzantine Greek culture with Norman and Arab culture gave rise to Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture on Sicily. A remnant of this influence can be found in the survival of the Greek language in some villages of the above mentioned Salento peninsula; this living dialact of Greek, known locally as Griko, is found in the Italian regions of Calabria and Apulia. Griko is considered by linguistics to be a descendant of Byzantine Greek, the majority language of Salento through the Middle Ages, combining some ancient Doric and modern Italian elements. There is a rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now but once numerous, to around 30,000 people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element; some scholars, such as Gerhard Rohlfs, argue that the origins of Griko may be traced to the colonies of Magna Graecia. Although many of the Greek inhabitants of Southern Italy were Latinized during the Middle Ages, pockets of Greek culture and language remained and survived into modernity because of continuous migration between southern Italy and the Greek mainland.
One example is the Griko people, some of whom still maintain customs. Greeks re-entered the region in the 16th and 17th century in reaction to the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Ottoman Empire. After the end of the Siege of Coron, large numbers of Greeks took refuge in the areas of Calabria and Sicily. Greeks from Coroni, the so-called Coronians, were nobles, who brought with them substantial movable property, they were granted special privileges and tax exempt
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth. It was a helmet made of bronze which in its styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck. Out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort; this practice gave rise to a series of variant forms in Italy, where the slits were closed, since the helmet was no longer pulled over the face but worn cap-like. Although the classical Corinthian helmet fell out of use among the Greeks in favour of more open types, the Italo-Corinthian types remained in use until the 1st century AD, being used, among others, by the Roman army; the most popular helmet during the Archaic and early Classical periods, the style gave way to the more open Thracian helmet, Chalcidian helmet and the much simpler pilos type, less expensive to manufacture and did not obstruct the wearer's critical senses of vision and hearing as the Corinthian helmet did.
Numerous examples of Corinthian helmets have been excavated, they are depicted on pottery. The Corinthian helmet was depicted on more sculpture than any other helmet; the Romans revered it, from copies of Greek originals to sculpture of their own. Based on the sparse pictorial evidence of the republican Roman army, in Italy the Corinthian helmet evolved into a jockey-cap style helmet called the Italo-Corinthian, Etrusco-Corinthian or Apulo-Corinthian helmet, with the characteristic nose guard and eye slits becoming mere decorations on its face. Given many Roman appropriations of ancient Greek ideas, this change was inspired by the "over the forehead" position common in Greek art; this helmet remained in use well into the 1st century AD. Herodotus mentions the Corinthian helmet in his Histories when writing of the Machlyes and Auseans, two tribes living along the River Triton in ancient Libya; the tribes chose annually two teams of the fairest maidens who fought each other ceremonially with sticks and stones.
They were dressed in the finest Greek panoply topped off with a Corinthian helmet. The ritual fight was part of a festival honoring the virgin goddess Athena. Young women who succumbed to their wounds during the ordeal were thought to have been punished by the goddess for lying about their virginity. An earlier version of the Corinthian helmet is habitually worn by the Marvel Comics supervillain Magneto; the Star Wars character, Boba Fett wears a helmet with a T-shaped visor that vaguely resembles the Corinthian helmet, as do most other Mandalorians and Phase I Clonetroopers within the franchise. The Corinthian helmet appears on both the Trojan Records and the Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice’s logo. Lendon, J. E. Soldiers and Ghosts, A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity Herodotus's account of the Libyan female warriors in Corinthian helmets - via the Perseus Project Collection of Corinthian helmets from around the world