SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Level crossing

A level crossing is an intersection where a railway line crosses a road or path, or in rare situations an airport runway, at the same level, as opposed to the railway line crossing over or under using an overpass or tunnel. The term applies when a light rail line with separate right-of-way or reserved track crosses a road in the same fashion. Other names include railway level crossing, grade crossing, road through railroad, railroad crossing, train crossing, RXR; the history of level crossings depends on the location, but early level crossings had a flagman in a nearby booth who would, on the approach of a train, wave a red flag or lantern to stop all traffic and clear the tracks. Gated crossings became commonplace in many areas, as they protected the railway from people trespassing and livestock, they protected the users of the crossing when closed by the signalman/gateman. In the second quarter of the 20th century, manual or electrical closable gates that barricaded the roadway started to be introduced, intended to be a complete barrier against intrusion of any road traffic onto the railway.

Automatic crossings are now commonplace in some countries as motor vehicles replaced horse-drawn vehicles and the need for animal protection diminished with time. Full, half or no barrier crossings superseded gated crossings, although crossings of older types can still be found in places. In rural regions with sparse traffic, the least expensive type of level crossing to operate is one without flagmen or gates, with only a warning sign posted; this type has been common in many developing countries. Some international rules have helped to harmonize level crossing. For instance, the 1968 Vienna Convention states that: "one or two blinking red light indicates a car should stop. Article 27 suggests stop lines at level crossings. Article 33, 34, 35 and 36 are specific to level crossing, because level crossing are recognized as dangerous. Article 35 indicates a cross should exist when there is lights; this has been implemented in many countries, including countries which are not part of the Vienna Convention.

Trains have a much larger mass relative to their braking capability, thus a far longer braking distance than road vehicles. With rare exceptions, trains do not stop at level crossings and rely on vehicles and pedestrians to clear the tracks in advance. Level crossings constitute a significant safety concern internationally. On average, each year around 400 people in the European Union and over 300 in the United States are killed in level crossing accidents. Collisions can occur with vehicles as well as pedestrians. Among pedestrians, young people, older people and males are considered to be high risk users; as far as warning systems for road users are concerned, level crossings either have "passive" protection, in the form of various types of warning signs, or "active" protection, using automatic warning devices such as flashing lights, warning sounds, barriers or gates. In the 19th century and for much of the 20th, a written sign warning "Stop and listen" was the sole protection at most level crossings.

Today, active protection is available, fewer collisions take place at level crossings with active warning systems. Modern radar sensor systems can detect if level crossings are free of obstructions as trains approach; these improve safety by not lowering crossing barriers that may trap vehicles or pedestrians on the tracks, while signalling trains to brake until the obstruction clears. At railway stations, a pedestrian level crossing is sometimes provided to allow passengers to reach other platforms in the absence of an underpass or bridge, or for disabled access. Where third rail systems have level crossings, there is a gap in the third rail over the level crossing, but this does not interrupt the power supply to trains since they have current collectors on multiple cars. Source: US Department Of Transport. Source: Eurostat: The rail accident data are provided to Eurostat by the European Railway Agency; the ERA is responsible for the entire data collection. The Eurostat data constitute a part of the data collected by ERA and are part of the so-called Common Safety Indicators.

Note: Since 2010, use of national definitions is no longer permitted: 2010 CSI data represent the first harmonized set of figures Source: Eurostat: Annual number of victims by type of accident Last update: 09-02-2017 Source, Federal Railroad Administration Traffic signal-controlled intersections next to level crossings on at least one of the roads in the intersection feature traffic signal preemption. Approaching trains activate a routine where, before the train signals and gates are activated, all traffic signal phases go to red, except for the signal after the train crossing, which turns green to allow traffic on the tracks to clear. After enough time to clear the crossing, the signal will turn; the crossing lights may begin flashing and the gates lower or this might be delayed until after the traffic light turns red. The operation of a traffic signal, while a train is present, may differ from municipality to municipality. In some areas, all direction

Van Ornam & Murdock Block

Van Ornam & Murdock Block known as Lee House Block, is a historic commercial block located at Port Henry in Essex County, New York. The block consists of four attached structures in the Italianate style built between 1874 and about 1880, it is the focal point of the Port Henry business district. The Van Ornam Block was built in 1874 and is a ​3 1⁄2-story brick building with an ornately bracketed wood cornice; the 4-story Lee House Hotel was built in 1874 and is a 4-story brick structure. The next building was built about 1880 and is a 2-story wood-frame building with a stamped metal facade; the Harlan building is last on the block and it was built about 1880. It is a flat-roofed brick structure, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982

Bodil Hellfach

Bodil Cathrine Hansine Hellfach was a pioneering Danish nurse, vice-chair of the Danish Nurses' Organization from 1899 to 1907. She represented the organization at meetings and congresses at home and abroad, establishing the reputation of early Danish nursing. Born in the village of Hyllinge, west of Næstved, on 21 October 1856, Hellfach was the daughter of Johannes Mikael Hellfach and his wife Birgitte Kirstine Bech, her father owned Petersdal Estate near Sorø. When he died in 1886, she began to gain her living as a nurse, despite the fact that the profession was not yet recognized as suitable for women from the middle and upper classes, she moved to Copenhagen to work as a nurse at the Municipal Hospital under Dorthea Secher who been employed there since 1878. By 1892, thanks to Secher's instruction and support, she was appointed nursing supervisor with responsibilities for new apprentices, she represented her staff, pressing for improved training, including theory, which had not been included in her own training.

Hellfach was one of the leading proponents of the Danish Nurses' Organization, founded in 1899 to provide closer contacts between Danish nurses. She acted as deputy chair until 1907 during a difficult period when she was required to sort out conflicts and rally support. From her contributions to the journal Tidsskrift for Sygepleje, published by the DSR, it can be seen that she always had a positive approach ready to support the need for improvements in working conditions for nurses after her retirement in 1913. In life, she became an active board member of DSR's recreational home in Vedbæk. By speaking at conferences and conventions, she became an effective communicator, enhancing respect for Danish nursing at home and abroad. Bodil Hellfach died in Copenhagen on 26 August 1941