Lewis Hine

Lewis Wickes Hine was an American sociologist and photographer. Hine used his camera as a tool for social reform, his photographs were instrumental in changing child labor laws in the United States. Hine was born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, on September 26, 1874. After his father was killed in an accident, Hine began working and saved his money for a college education, he studied sociology at the University of Columbia University and New York University. He became a teacher in New York City at the Ethical Culture School, where he encouraged his students to use photography as an educational medium. Hine led his sociology classes to Ellis Island in New York Harbor, photographing the thousands of immigrants who arrived each day. Between 1904 and 1909, Hine took over 200 plates and came to the realization that documentary photography could be employed as a tool for social change and reform. In 1907, Hine became the staff photographer of the Russell Sage Foundation. In 1908 Hine became the photographer for the National Child Labor Committee, leaving his teaching position.

Over the next decade, Hine documented child labor, with focus on the use of child labor in the Carolina Piedmont, to aid the NCLC's lobbying efforts to end the practice. In 1913, he documented child laborers among cotton mill workers with a series of Francis Galton's composite portraits. Hine's work for the NCLC was dangerous; as a photographer, he was threatened with violence or death by factory police and foremen. At the time, the immorality of child labor was meant to be hidden from the public. Photography was not only prohibited but posed a serious threat to the industry. To gain entry to the mills and factories, Hine was forced to assume many guises. At times he was a fire inspector, postcard vendor, bible salesman, or an industrial photographer making a record of factory machinery. During and after World War I, he photographed American Red Cross relief work in Europe. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Hine made a series of "work portraits," which emphasized the human contribution to modern industry.

In 1930, Hine was commissioned to document the construction of the Empire State Building. He photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the steel framework of the structure, taking many of the same risks that the workers endured. To obtain the best vantage points, Hine was swung out in a specially-designed basket 1,000 ft above Fifth Avenue. At times, he remembered, he hung above the city with nothing below but "a sheer drop of nearly a quarter-mile." During the Great Depression Hine again worked for the Red Cross, photographing drought relief in the American South, for the Tennessee Valley Authority, documenting life in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. He served as chief photographer for the Works Progress Administration's National Research Project, which studied changes in industry and their effect on employment. Hine was a faculty member of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School. In 1936, Hine was selected as the photographer for the National Research Project of the Works Projects Administration, but his work there was not completed.

The last years of his life were filled with professional struggles by loss of government and corporate patronage. Hine hoped to join the Farm Security Administration photography project, but despite writing to Roy Stryker, Stryker always refused. Few people were interested in his work, past or present, Hine lost his house and applied for welfare, he died on November 1940 at Dobbs Ferry Hospital in Dobbs Ferry, New York, after an operation. He was 66 years old. Hine's photographs supported the NCLC's lobbying to end child labor and in 1912 the Children's Bureau was created; the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 brought child labour in the US to an end. After Hine's death, his son Corydon donated his prints and negatives to the Photo League, dismantled in 1951; the Museum of Modern Art was offered his pictures and did not accept them, but the George Eastman House did. In 2006, author Elizabeth Winthrop Alsop's historical fiction middle-grade novel, Counting on Grace was published by Wendy Lamb Books.

The latter chapters center on 12-year-old Grace and her life-changing encounter with Hine, during his 1910 visit to a Vermont cotton mill known to have many child laborers. On the cover is the iconic photo of Grace's real-life counterpart, Addie Card, taken during Hine's undercover visit to the Pownal Cotton Mill. In 2016, Time published colorized versions of several of Hine's photographs of child labor in the US. Hine's work is held in the following public collections: Albin O. Kuhn Library & Gallery of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County – five thousand NCLC photographs George Eastman House – nearly ten thousand photographs and negatives Library of Congress – over 5,000 photographs, including examples of Hine's child labor and Red Cross photographs, his work portraits, his WPA and TVA images. New York Public Library, New York International Photography Hall of Fame, St. Louis, MO Child Labor: Girls in Factory Breaker Boys Young Doffers in the Elk Cotton Mills Steam Fitter Workers, Empire State Building House Calls, a documentary about physician and photographer Mark Nowaczynski, inspired by Hine to photograph elderly patients.

Lewis Wickes Hine | University of Illinois Lewsin Hine photographs |'Lewis Wickes Hine, 1874-1940: A Biographical Essay, with Photographs by Lewis Wickes Hine: Courage to Love and Reform via Documentary Photography,' researched & written by Dav

Lapwing (1743 EIC packet)

Lapwing was one of four fast-sailing packet ships that Thomas Bronsdon, of Deptford, built for the British East India COmpany. She was launched in 1743 and made five trips for the company before the EIC sold her in 1751. Captain Henry Watts sailed from Plymouth on 16 November 1743, bound for Benkulen. Lapwing reached the Cape on 14 February 1744, Madras on 26 April. On 25 May she arrived at a section of the Hooghly River. On 24 October she was at Calcutta. Outward bound, she was at Rogues River again on 17 November, reaching Benkulen on 9 January 1745. Homeward bound, she reached St Helena on 5 April and Galway on 17 September, before arriving at The Downs on 20 December. Captain Francis Cheyne sailed Lapwing to Holland and return between 18 March 1745 and September 1746. Captain Cheyne sailed Lapwing to Madras and back between 9 November 1746 and 21 November 1747. Lapwing was carrying 25 tons of lead, 50 chests of "treasure" and "a recruit of soldiers". Around 15 May 1747 Lapwing was to sail from Madras via Sumatra, where she was to deliver 200 bales, pick up a full cargo of pepper.

Madras and Bengal. Captain Cheyne sailed from Portsmouth on 24 February 1748, bound for Bengal. Lapwing reached Fort St. David on 21 June, she delayed her departure for Bengal because of a report of there being a French squadron of eight vessels in the area. On 26 August she returned to Fort St David on 3 October, she arrived at Calcutta on 27 November. Homeward bound, she was at a point on the west side of the Hooghli Estuary, on 30 December, she reached Fort St David on 9 January 1749 Fort St David, St Helena on 18 March, before arriving at The Downs on 1 June. Captain Cheyne left The Downs 6 September 1749, bound for Bengal. Lapwing reached Fort St David on 17 January 1750; when she arrived she had lost 16 men on the voyage, the rest of the crew was weak from scurvy. She left on 30 January with 80 chests of her silver, coined into rupees. However, it turned out that at Fort St David the 80 chests of bullion had been coined into 90 chests of "Arcot rupees", but only 80 chests were forwarded to Bengal, ten being improperly retained at Fort St David.

Lapwing arrived at Calcutta on 5 March. Homeward bound, she was at Culpee, an anchorage towards Calcutta, just below Diamond Harbour, on 17 August, she reached Fort St David on 19 September and St Helena on 5 January 1751, before arriving at The Downs on 7 March. The EIC sold Lapwing on 17 April 1751 as being unfit for further service. Citations References Dodwell, Henry, ed. Calendar of the Madras Dispatches: 1744-1755.. Hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company.. ISBN 0-905617-96-7 Hardy, Horatio Charles A register of ships, employed in the service of the Honorable the United East India Company, from the year 1707 to 1760: Specifying the Number of Voyages, Tonnage and Stations. To, Added, from the Latter Period to the Present Time, the Managing Owners, Principal Officers and Pursers.


Chamilo is a free software e-learning and content management system, aimed at improving access to education and knowledge globally. It is backed up by the Chamilo Association, which has goals including the promotion of the software, the maintenance of a clear communication channel and the building of a network of services providers and software contributors; the Chamilo project aims at ensuring the availability and quality of education at a reduced cost, through the distribution of its software free of charge, the improvement of its interface for 3rd world countries devices portability and the provision of a free access public e-learning campus. The Chamilo project was launched on 18 January 2010 by a considerable part of the contributing community of the Dokeos software, after growing discontent on the communication policy inside the Dokeos community and a series of choices that were making parts of the community insecure about the future of developments; as such, it is considered a fork of Dokeos.

The reaction to the fork was immediate, with more than 500 active users registering on the Chamilo forums in the first fortnight and more contributions collected in one month than in the previous whole year. The origins of Chamilo's code date back to 2000, with the start of the Claroline project, forked in 2004 to launch the Dokeos project. In 2010, it was forked again with the publication of Chamilo Chamilo used to come in two versions; the LMS version directly builds on Dokeos. Chamilo LCMS is a new software platform for e-learning and collaboration. However, due to frequent structural changes, the lack of migration workflow from LMS, the complexity of its interface and a certain lack of leadership, support for the project was abandoned by the association in 2015 to focus on improved LMS development. Due to Chamilo's educational purpose, most of the community is related to the educational or the human resources sectors; the community itself works together to offer an easy to use e-learning system.

Community members are considered active. In 2009, members of the Dokeos community started working on the One Laptop Per Child project together with a primary school in the Salto city in Uruguay. One of the founding members of the Chamilo Association registered as a contributing project for the OLPC in which his company would make efforts to ensure the portability of the platform to the XO laptop; the effort has been, since continued as part of the Chamilo project. The community is considered passive when they do not contribute directly to it; as of February 2016, the passive community was estimated to be more than 11,000,000 users around the world. Since June 2010, the Chamilo Association has been a registered non-profit association under Belgian law; the association was created to serve the general goal of improving the Chamilo project's organization and to avoid a conflict of interest between the organization controlling the software project decision process and the best interests of the community using the software.

Its founding members its first board of directors, were 7, of which 3 are from the private e-learning sector and 4 were from the public educational sector. The current board of directors is composed of 5 members. Courses and training cycles social network for learning SCORM 1.2 compatibility and authoring tool LTI 1.1 support multi-institutions mode time-controlled exams international characters automated generation of certificates tracking of users progress competence based training integrated with Mozilla Open Badges multiple timezones proven support for more than 700,000 users Chamilo is developed in PHP and relies on a LAMP or WAMP system on the server side. On the client side, it only requires a modern web browser and optionally requires the Flash plugin to make use of advanced features; the Chamilo LMS series benefits from third party implementations that allows easy connexion to Joomla, OpenID and Oracle. Chamilo offers a connector to videoconferencing systems as well as a presentations to learning paths converter, which require advanced system administration skills to install.

You can get more information on releases from the original website. Chamilo LMS and Chamilo LCMS are two separate products of the Chamilo Association, why the releases history is split below. 2019-05 - LMS v1.11.10: Maintenance version on top of 1.11.8 2018-08 - LMS v1.11.8: Maintenance version on top of 1.11.6, introducing GDPR features 2018-01 - LMS v1.11.6: Maintenance version on top of 1.11.4 2017-05 - LMS v1.11.4: Maintenance version for 1.11.2 introducing Google Maps connector to help communities of learners find close-by students, maintenance mode, SEPE standards integration, ODF online editor 2016-11 - LMS v1.11.2: Maintenance version for 1.11.0 2016-05 - LMS v1.11.0: This version introduces a basic course importer from Moodle, the management of skills levels, beta IMS/LTI support and the vChamilo plugin 2016-07 - LMS v1.10.8: Maintenance version for 1.10.6 2016-05 - LMS v1.10.6: Maintenance version for 1.10.4 2016-05 - LMS v1.9.10.4: Maintenance version for 2016-03 - LMS v1.10.4: Maintenance version for 1.10.2 2015-12 - LMS v1.10.2: Maintenance version for 1.10 2015-10 - LMS v1.10: First version to introdu