Leyton is a district of east London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest, located 6.2 miles north-east of Charing Cross in the United Kingdom. It borders Walthamstow and Leytonstone in Waltham Forest, Stratford in the London Borough of Newham and Homerton and Lower Clapton in the London Borough of Hackney; the district includes part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, which hosted the 2012 Olympic Games, as well as Leyton Orient Football Club, although it is predominantly residential. It consists of terraced houses built between 1870 and 1910, interspersed with some modern housing estates. Leyton is in the river forming its western boundary; the area rises from low-lying marshland along the river Lea to over 90 feet at Whipps Cross on the southern edge of Epping Forest. Leyton is bisected by the A12, with most of the district lying on the north-west side of this busy traffic artery through east London; the High Road Leyton bridge crossing the A12 offers some of the best views in London of the Olympic Park, which borders the district, as well as of skyscrapers further west.
It borders Walthamstow along Lea Bridge Road and areas of the London Borough of Hackney via the River Lea. Paleolithic implements and fossil bones show. A Roman cemetery and the foundations of a Roman villa have been found here. From Anglo-Saxon times, Leyton has been part of the County of Essex; the name means "settlement on the River Lea" and was known until 1921 as "Low Leyton". In the Domesday Book, the name is rendered as Leintun. at which time the population was 43. The ancient parish church of St Mary the Virgin was rebuilt in the 17th Century; the parish of Leyton included Leytonstone. The old civil parish was formed into an Urban District within Essex in 1894 and it gained the status of Municipal Borough in 1926; the parish and urban district were known as Low Leyton until 1921. In 1965, the Municipal Borough of Leyton was abolished and was combined with that of Walthamstow and Chingford to form the London Borough of Waltham Forest, within the new county of Greater London. Although Leyton did not become part of London until 1965, the borough formed part of London's built-up area and had been part of the London postal district since its inception in 1856 and the Metropolitan Police District since 1839.
The main route through the town is the High Road, which forms part of the ancient route to Waltham Abbey. At the top end of the High Road is a crossroads with Lea Bridge Hoe Street; this junction and the surrounding district is known as Bakers Arms, named after the public house which has now closed down. The pub was named in honour of the almshouses on Lea Bridge Road built in 1857 by the London Master Bakers' Benevolent Institution. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Leyton was a "pretty retiring place from London" for wealthy merchants and bankers. Leyton's development from an agricultural community to an industrial and residential suburb was given impetus by the arrival of the railway. First at Lea Bridge Station in 1840 at Low Leyton in 1856. Leyton Midland Road opened in 1894, after an elevated line had been built on brick arches across the developed streets. However, not all the green spaces were lost, 200 acres of Epping Forest within Leyton's borders were preserved by the Epping Forest Act 1878.
In 1897 Leyton Urban District Council purchased the land for a formal park close to the town hall. In 1905, the "Lammas land", common pasture land on Leyton Marshes, was purchased by the council for use as a recreation ground. In World War I, about 1,300 houses were damaged by Zeppelin raids. By the 1920s, it had become a built-up and thriving urban industrial area known for manufacturing neckties and for its Thermos factory. During the Blitz of World War II, Leyton suffered as a target because of its proximity to the London Docks and Temple Mills rail yard; the yard is now reduced in size as part of it has become a retail park'Leyton Mills', whilst the rest has been renovated to serve as a depot for high-speed Eurostar trains. After World War Two, Leyton suffered from large-scale industrial decline in the second half of the 20th century. But, like much of east London, which borders the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, has benefited from significant regeneration projects over the past decade. Parks have been spruced up, some new small parks and gardens created and several tower blocks have been demolished.
The millennium was marked with a clock tower in the Lea Bridge Rd area and a major piece of street art at Baker's Arms. And, most in the build-up to the Olympics, Waltham Forest Borough Council spent £475,000 restoring 41 shopfronts on the part of Leyton High Road closest to the 2012 London Olympic Games site; the Olympics authority funded the smartening up of pavements and street furniture. Leyton, which comprises three electoral wards with a total population of 42,061, is a diverse district. Between 61 and 69 per cent of its residents are either Black, Asian, or from an ethnic minority, according to the London Borough of Waltham Forest profile reports for the Leyton, Grove Green and Lea Bridge wards; this compares to 55.1% in the Borough as a whole, according to the United Kingdom Census 2011. Within these groups, there are many people whose origins are from Russia, North Africa, Nigeria, Ireland, Portugal and Italy as well as newer arrivals from South Africa, Serbia, Po
Gaston de Pawlowski was a French writer best known for his prophetic 1911 novel of Science Fiction, Voyage au pays de la quatrième dimension. First published in 1911 in the monthly review Comœdia in 1912, Pawlowski produced a new edition in 1923 in which he discussed the implications of Einsteinian physics upon his work; that edition was published in an English translation by Brian Stableford in 2009. The illustrations for the book edition of the Voyage were prepared by Léonard Sarluis which Jean Clair thought was the inspiration for Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass. Voyage au pays de la quatrième dimension. Charpentier, Paris, 1912. Journey to the Land of the Fourth Dimension. English translation by Brian M. Stableford. Encino, CA: Black Coat Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-934543-37-5 http://dadaparis.blogspot.co.uk/2007_03_28_archive.html http://forums.bdfi.net/viewtopic.php?id=228
Andy Papathanassiou became the first "pit crew coach," when he was hired as a member of NASCAR's Hendrick Motorsports team in 1992. His philosophy and views as an outsider shifted the paradigm of how pit crews select and train their members. Pit crews were composed of mechanics who devoted little time to practicing pit stops - relying instead on their vast knowledge of car building and racing experience. Andy employed an athletic mindset which centered on practice and repetition and review, innovation and process improvement. Collectively, he calls this philosophy, Over the Wall. Papathanassiou grew up in New Jersey, he is the son of Greek immigrants. He attended Emerson Jr./Sr. High School, where, as a National Honor Society member, he played on the football team, leading it to a perfect season in 1984. Throwing the shot put, he was a USA Today All-American and held the NJ state record for over a decade, he played college football on scholarship at Stanford University. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in Economics, a master's degree in Organizational Behavior from Stanford.
After college, he discovered NASCAR by sneaking into the garage area and volunteering with a team at the Sears Point Raceway in Sonoma, CA in 1990 where he saw his first pit stop. He joined Hendrick Motorsports in 1992 as the #24 DuPont team's pit crew coordinator. Papathanassiou sought pit crew members with athletic experience, he had them practice and undergo teambuilding exercises as well as strength training. Under his guidance, Jeff Gordon's 1995 pit crew had the fastest pit stops, which contributed towards the team's championship. Other teams took notice, by the late 1990s most teams had adopted Papathanassiou's methods. Teams now recruit and employ many former college athletes, pit stop times have decreased from 18 or 19 seconds in the early 1990s to 13 seconds today. Teams now hire former players from a number of different sports who undergo rigorous training aimed at reducing pit stop time to a minimum. Team members will exercise, lift weights and use techniques to improve coordination and choreography under the direction of strength and conditioning trainers, with coaches providing guidance based on videos taken of each pit stop.
Pit crew members can earn as much as $100,000. Papathanassiou remains with Hendrick Motorsports as Director of Human Performance, a role similar to a collegiate athletic director; the Hendrick pit program encompasses scouting and recruiting and training, injury rehab and sports psychology support for the crewmembers. In 2006, in addition to his Hendrick duties, he was elected as Executive Director of the North Carolina Motorsports Association, a position he held until 2012; the NCMA promotes the state's six billion dollar motorsports industry through events, business development, education programs, workforce development and public policy. He sits on the board of directors. Papathanassiou gives keynote speeches and conducts teamwork seminars about the techniques he has developed and how they can be applied