Lhagba La or Lhakpa La is a 6, 849-metre col about 7 kilometres northeast of Mount Everest in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It was unknown to local inhabitants until it was discovered and named by the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition when reconnoitring a route to climb the mountain, Lhagba La is the starting point of the Kada Glacier which descends eastwards along the valley towards Kada. The Kada River is a tributary of the Arun River, on the western side of the col is the East Rongbuk Glacier which flows north from Everest. Lhagba Pool,500 metres below and to 1 kilometre southwest, is reportedly the second highest lake in the world, expeditions attempting Everest via the North Col generally arrive up the East Rongbuk Glacier and so do not reach Lhagba La at all. However, when George Mallory and Guy Bullock were trying to reach the North Col, instead they approached from the east only to find the glacier did not extend to the North Col. The climbing team eventually had to cross the pass and descend some 460 metres to the East Rongbuk Glacier before ascending to the North Col and their discovery allowed the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition to take the more direct route from the north
George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet from the summit, Mallorys ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation, Mallory was born in Mobberley, the son of Herbert Leigh Mallory, a clergyman who changed his surname from Mallory to Leigh-Mallory in 1914. His mother was Annie Beridge, the daughter of a clergyman in Walton, George had two sisters and a younger brother, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the World War II Royal Air Force commander. He was raised in 10-bedroom house on Hobcroft Lane in Mobberley, in 1896, Mallory attended Glengorse, a preparatory boarding school in Eastbourne on the south coast of England, having transferred from another preparatory school in West Kirby.
At the age of 13, he won a scholarship to Winchester College. In his final year there, he was introduced to climbing and mountaineering by a master, R. L. G. Irving. In October 1905, Mallory entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, to study history, Mallory was a keen oarsman, rowing for his college while at Cambridge. In 1909 Lytton Strachey wrote of Mallory, Mon dieu. —George Mallory, after gaining his degree, Mallory stayed in Cambridge for a year writing an essay he published as Boswell the Biographer. He lived briefly in France afterwards, in 1910, he began teaching at Charterhouse School, Surrey, where he met the poet Robert Graves, a pupil. In his autobiography, Goodbye to All That, Graves remembered Mallory fondly both for his encouragement of Graves interest in literature and poetry and his instruction in climbing, Graves recalled, He was wasted at Charterhouse. He tried to treat his class in a way, which puzzled and offended them. While at Charterhouse, Mallory met his wife, Ruth Turner, who lived in Godalming and Ruth had two daughters and a son, Frances Clare, Beridge Ruth, known as Berry, and John.
After the war, Mallory returned to Charterhouse, resigning in 1921 in order to join the first Everest expedition, between expeditions, he attempted to make a living from writing and lecturing, with only partial success. In 1923, he took a job as lecturer with the Cambridge University Extramural Studies Department and he was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt. In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and an attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps. In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, as well as making the ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. To which he responded, None but ourselves, by 1913, he had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as Mallorys Route—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant
The Hillary Step is a nearly vertical rock face with a height of around 12 metres located high on Mount Everest at approximately 8,790 metres above sea level. It is located on the South East ridge, halfway between the South Summit and the summit, and is the last real challenge before reaching the top of the mountain via the South East route. The Step was named after Sir Edmund Hillary who was the first person, along with Tenzing Norgay, when Hillary and Tenzing first climbed the Hillary Step on 29 May 1953, they climbed the crack between the snow and the rock. Ascent and descent is now made with the assistance of fixed ropes. First ascents in 2016 revealed that 2015 Mount Everest avalanches removed large boulders from the area, instead of a nearly vertical stone wall, climbers now have to traverse a snow ramp
The icefall is considered one of the most dangerous stages of the South Col route to Everests summit. The Khumbu glacier that forms the icefall moves at speed that large crevasses open with little warning. Huge blocks of ice tumble down the glacier from time to time and it is estimated that the glacier advances 0.9 to 1.2 m down the mountain every day. Most climbers try to cross the icefall during the early morning, before sunrise. As the intense sunlight warms the area, the friction between the ice structure lessens and increases the chances of crevasses opening or blocks falling, the most dangerous time to cross the Khumbu Icefall is generally mid- to late-afternoon. Camp I on Everests South Col route is slightly beyond the top of the Khumbu Icefall. On occasion, a climber will experience a large block of ice crashing down in their vicinity, the resulting blast of displaced air and snow can result in a dusting. To those that have experienced it, it is an unnerving experience. It is virtually impossible to run away or even to know which way to run and those bodies have been recovered and given proper burials.
Since the structures are changing, crossing the Khumbu Icefall is extremely dangerous. Even extensive rope and ladder crossings cannot prevent loss of life, many people have died in this area, such as a climber who was crushed by a 12-story block of solid ice. Exposed crevasses may be easy to avoid, but some may be hidden under dangerous snow bridges, around 6,30 am local time, on the morning of 18 April 2014,16 Nepalese climbers were killed by an avalanche in the Khumbu Icefall. As of 22 April,13 bodies had been recovered, the climbers were preparing the route through the dangerous icefall for the spring climbing season when the avalanche engulfed them. Nine others sustained blunt trauma injuries