Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. Referred to as Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies draw upon a constitution, either codified, or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract. After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world. A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms as it may be a constitutional monarchy or a republic, it may have a presidential system or a semi-presidential system.

Liberal democracies have universal suffrage, granting all adult citizens the right to vote regardless of ethnicity, property ownership, age, gender, social status, etc. However some countries regarded as liberal democracies have had a more limited franchise and some do not have secret ballots. There may be qualifications such as voters being required to register before being allowed to vote; the decisions made through elections are made not by all of the citizens but rather by those who are members of the electorate and who choose to participate by voting. The liberal democratic constitution defines the democratic character of the state; the purpose of a constitution is seen as a limit on the authority of the government. Liberal democracy emphasises the separation of powers, an independent judiciary and a system of checks and balances between branches of government. Liberal democracies are to emphasise the importance of the state being a Rechtsstaat, i.e. a state that follows the principle of rule of law.

Governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. Many democracies use federalism—also known as vertical separation of powers—in order to prevent abuse and increase public input by dividing governing powers between municipal and national governments. Liberal democracy traces its origins—and its name—to the European 18th-century known as the Age of Enlightenment. At the time, the vast majority of European states were monarchies, with political power held either by the monarch or the aristocracy; the possibility of democracy had not been a considered political theory since classical antiquity and the held belief was that democracies would be inherently unstable and chaotic in their policies due to the changing whims of the people. It was further believed that democracy was contrary to human nature, as human beings were seen to be inherently evil, violent and in need of a strong leader to restrain their destructive impulses.

Many European monarchs held that their power had been ordained by God and that questioning their right to rule was tantamount to blasphemy. These conventional views were challenged at first by a small group of Enlightenment intellectuals, who believed that human affairs should be guided by reason and principles of liberty and equality, they argued that all people are created equal and therefore political authority cannot be justified on the basis of "noble blood", a supposed privileged connection to God or any other characteristic, alleged to make one person superior to others. They further argued that governments exist to serve the people—not vice versa—and that laws should apply to those who govern as well as to the governed; some of these ideas began to be expressed in England in the 17th century. There was renewed interest in Magna Carta, passage of the Petition of Right in 1628 and Habeas Corpus Act in 1679 established certain liberties for subjects; the idea of a political party took form with groups debating rights to political representation during the Putney Debates of 1647.

After the English Civil Wars and the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the Bill of Rights was enacted in 1689, which codified certain rights and liberties. The Bill set out the requirement for regular elections, rules for freedom of speech in Parliament and limited the power of the monarch, ensuring that, unlike much of Europe at the time, royal absolutism would not prevail; this led to significant social change in Britain in terms of the position of individuals in society and the growing power of Parliament in relation to the monarch. By the late 18th century, leading philosophers of the day had published works that spread around the European continent and beyond; these ideas and beliefs inspired the American Revolution and the French Revolution, which gave birth

Zaghawa language

Zaghawa is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of east-central Chad and northwestern Sudan. The people who speak this language call it Beria, from Beri, the endonym of the Zaghawa people, a, Zaghawa for "mouth", it has been estimated that there are between 750,000 and 1,350,000 Zaghawa speakers, who live in Chad and the Darfur region of Sudan. Zaghawa clans are: Beria Tuba: Biria, Brogat Kube: Dirong, Kube, Kapka Wegi Zaghawa dialects, which do not always correspond to clan divisions, are: Zaghawa has a nine-vowel system with advanced-tongue-root vowel harmony; the vowels fall into two sets: /i e o u/ /ɪ ɛ a ɔ ʊ/,with the vowels of affixes depending on the set of vowels in the stem, with /a/ functioning in both sets. There is some variation among dialects as to the presence of a tenth vowel, /ə/, which in some dialects functions as the +ATR counterpart of /a/. Diphthongs are /ei əu iə/ and /aɪ aʊ ɔɪ/. Consonants are simple: /p b t d k ɡ, m n ɲ ŋ, f s ʃ h, ɾ r, l j w/. Osman includes /ʒ ħ/ in this list.

/ʃ/ occurs in the Sudanese dialect as a variant of /s/ appearing before /i/. The phonemic status of the rhotics are unclear: Osman states that may be exchanged without any change in meaning, yet maintains that they are distinct phonemes. Of the obstruents, /p/ may not occur word-initially, only /p t k s/ may occur word-finally, with /b/ in final position in some dialects. /r/ may not occur word-initially, /f ɾ/ only appear in the middle of words, as in /tòrfù/'bird'. There are five tones, mid, rising, all of which may occur on simple vowels, for example in /ɪ́ɡɪ́/ I watered, /ɪ̌ɡɪ̂/ I said, /ɪ̀ɡɪ̀/ right. Tone distinguishes words, but has grammatical functions. Words tend to be short CV and CVCV; the most complex syllables are CRV, where R is either of the two rhotics. In the 1950s, a Zaghawa schoolteacher named Adam Tajir created an alphabet for the Zaghawa language, based on the clan identification marks. Sometimes known as the camel alphabet, he based the phoneme choice on the Arabic language rather than on Zaghawa.

Some of the marks were longer than others, which made it harder to use it as a computer font. In 2000, a Beri veterinarian named Siddick Adam Issa prepared an improved version of the alphabet, named Beria Giray Erfe. In 2007, this system of writing was turned into a computer font by Seonil Yun in cooperation with SIL International and the Mission Protestante Franco-Suisse au Tchad. There is an Arabic script alphabet under development, based on the Tijani system of writing African languages in the 13th century. Jakobi and Joachim Crass 2004. Grammaire du beria. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe. Khidir, Z. F. 1999. Lexique des plantes connues Beri du Tchad. University of Leipzig Papers on Africa, 11. University of Leipzig. Khidir, Z. F. 2001. Lexique des animaux chez les Beri du Tchad. University of Leipzig Papers on Africa, 17. University of Leipzig. MacMichael, H. A. 1912. Notes on the Zaghawa and the People of Gebel Midob, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 42: 288-344.

Tubiana, Joseph 1963. Note sur la langue des zaghawa. Travaux de XXVe congrès internationale des orientalistes, 614-619. Moscow. Tubiana, Marie-Josée 1964. Survivances préislamiques en pays zaghawa. Paris: Université de Paris. Tubiana, Marie-Josée 1985. Des troupeaux et de femmes: Mariage et transferts de biens chez les Beri du Tchad et du Soudan. Paris: L’Harmattan. Tubiana, Marie-Josée et Joseph Tubiana. 1995. Contes Zaghawa du Tchad. Paris: L’Harmattan. Suleiman Osman: Phonology of Zaghawa Language in Sudan Zaghawa Beria Computer Font ELAR documentation on the Sudanese dialectal variant of Zaghawa

Wasserhaus (M√ľnchenstein)

The residential estate Wasserhaus is in the sub-district Neue Welt, Münchenstein, Basel-Country near Basel The German word "Siedlung" means settlement. The environmental area called the Neue Welt evolved in the 17th century as the industry started to establish itself around the upper end of the "St. Alban-Teich"; this is an artificially constructed canal built during the 12th century to bring water to the industry in Basel. During 1624–25, the canal was prolonged through Brüglingen towards the Birs waterfall in Münchenstein. From here the water is diverged to the canal. Here there is a small power station, built onto the waterfall; the residential estate Wasserhaus lies on the left bank of the river Birs, between the industrial area of the Neue Welt and the waterfall. Up until the end of the First World War, the building of residential areas was confined to areas within the Basel city boundaries. Soon after the First World War, the suburban areas started being inhabited and expanded, it was during this period that large residential building blocks were erected in Basel's peripheries.

These quarters were renowned for their high quality standards of residence, but for their modest social attraction. On the other hand, experiments were made with generously arranged cooperative settlements terraced houses with individual gardens; the communal housing estate "Freidorf" in Muttenz and "Wasserhaus" in Münchenstein are two prime examples of this evolution. These estates were developed to enhance the social charm in the rural community; the "Wasserhaus" residential area was built during 1920–21. The estate originated thanks to financial investments from the regional industry. In the beginning the industries themselves administrated the cooperative in the function of housing for their workers; the small residential cooperative progressed as an alternative to the public pension schemes. During the 1980s the private pension schemes expanded, the small cooperative was continually losing its financial advantages. Subsequently the houses were placed on the cooperative folded; the estate was developed by the Architect Wilhelm Eduard Brodtbeck from Liestal, concluding the plans drawn by Prof.

Hans Benno Bernoulli. Not only the funds and organisation originated from an innovative idea; the architecture was revolutionary. Built on a vast unrestricted zone, far away from the town boundaries, the original project was foreseen for 100 residential terraced houses; these houses arranged uniformly distributed along two parallel streets in a north–south axis. Each house with a small garden to the street and a spacious rear garden, it was foreseen to have a, focal and social, centrally situated congregational building as main component. However, due to financial problems, only a part of the original plans were completed and this without the important central connecting elements; because of the unique archetype nature and the prototypical neighbourhood, the Wasserhaus estate was taken up in the inventory of the valuable and worthy of protection place of interest. Inventar der schützenswerten Ortsbilder The original project had foreseen a large gardening area; these garden plots were used as building space.

An extension was built onto the estate during 1995–98. Wasserhaus Münchenstein, canton Baselland