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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support free market, free trade, limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Yellow is the political colour most associated with liberalism. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free trade and free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, based on the social contract, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property and governments must not violate these rights.

While the British liberal tradition has emphasized expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasized rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of constitutionalism and secularism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.

Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were communism and socialism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents and Marxism–Leninism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread further in Western Europe, as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.

Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.

Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.

Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism i

Jungfernstieg station

Jungfernstieg is an underground railway station in the city centre of Hamburg, served by the underground railway and the suburban railway. The station is one of Hamburg's busiest rapid transit hubs. Most of the station is located underwater; that is, under the Alster River, the lakes Binnenalster and Kleine Alster respectively. At this location, the Alster forms the border between the two Hamburg districts Neustadt and Altstadt, both part of the borough of Hamburg-Mitte; the station is named after Jungfernstieg boulevard. On 25 March 1931, a first station was opened as part of the underground Kellinghusenstraße–Jungfernstieg railway line — now part of the U1. At first, the platforms a little off its current location. On 2 January 1934 the proper Jungfernstieg station opened as Europe's first underwater railway station; the station had entrances on Jungfernstieg and Ballindamm in 1930s Art Deco fashion. On 1 October 1958, the underground platforms between the Circle Line's Rathaus station and Jungfernstieg station were connected by an underpass, with additional entries on Rathausmarkt and Mönckebergstraße.

Both stations were merged into one station and named "Rathaus". In 1973, the diameter U-Bahn line U2 was completed between Gänsemarkt and Hauptbahnhof Nord, around the same time as the S-Bahn's first section of their so-called "City S-Bahn line" between Hauptbahnhof and Landungsbrücken. Both lines received new platforms underneath the existing 1930s Jungfernstieg station on 1 June 1975; this now tripartite station was renamed back to "Jungfernstieg", with several connectors between the three parts, additional entrances at Alstertor and Rathausmarkt. "Rathaus" was remade a separate station, since only served by Circle Line U3. The 1950s underpass between Rathaus and Jungfernstieg was retained. On 29 November 2012, the U-Bahn's U4 connection between Jungfernstieg and HafenCity Universität was opened, utilizing unused tracks along the U2 platforms; the station's three platform tubes form a sort of triangle. The 1930s U-Bahn U1 platform follows the course of Reesendammbrücke at two stories below street level.

Below that, the S-Bahn platform runs in a curved north-south direction and the U-Bahn U2/U4 platforms at the deepest running east-west. Jungfernstieg station has over 20 entrances, spread around four ticket halls at Jungfernstieg, Bergstraße and Rathausmarkt. Most recognizable are two sheltered entrances at the intersection of Neuer Wall; the ticket hall at Bergstraße connects to nearby Rathaus station via a pedestrian underpass. Each of the three platform areas is linked to two of those ticket halls on either of their respective platforms' ends. Jungfernstieg station has four island platforms, with one being allocated to U-Bahn line U1, one to the three S-Bahn lines, two shared by U-Bahn lines U2 and U4; the four tracks for U2 and U4 allow for same-direction cross-platform interchange in each direction. Besides the direct access of each platform to and from the ticket halls, each platform has a direct connection to at least one of the other lines; the 1930s built. When the U4 was added to the two platforms of line U2, the two platforms had to be re-fitted to meet current fire safety regulations.

At this undertaking, the platforms for U2 and U4 were made handicap-accessible, while the platform for U1 is the only one still not. HVV runs one staffed service centre at Jungfernstieg, along a number of sales points and ticket machines throughout the station. There are toilets, baby-care rooms and restaurants. Hamburger Hochbahn-Wache has a staffed guard office at Jungfernstieg, along the obligatory CCTV cameras and SOS/information telephones; the lines S1, S2 and S3 of Hamburg S-Bahn and the lines U1, U2 and U4 of Hamburg U-Bahn call at Jungfernstieg station. Among others, HHA bus lines M4, M5, 34, 36 and 109 call at bus stops on the streets above the station. Jungfernstieg is the central landing pier for Hamburg's Alster ferries. List of Hamburg U-Bahn stations List of Hamburg S-Bahn stations Line and route network plans, hvv.de 100 Jahre Hochbahn, hochbahn.de Hamburg U-Bahn line U4, hochbahn.de

Valiyaparamba

Valiyaparamba is a coastal island in Hosdurg taluk, Kasaragod district, Kerala state, India. Valiyaparamba is separated from the mainland by Kavvayi Backwater, it is located five kilometres southwest of Cheruvathur and about 30 kilometres from Bekal, north Kerala. The island is 16.14 square kilometres in size, had a population of 11,917 in 1991. The island's main source of income is from fishing; the island has 13 wards ruling by each ward member to leading the Valiyaparamba Panchayathu. Valiyaparamba dotted with numerous little islands. Valiyaparamba, a hinterland separated from the mainland, is a noted fishing centre in the district. A Bekal Fort stands on a headland. A National Waterway passes through the island; the island has one high school and one higher secondary school. The island is separated from the mainland and accessible by transport boat service or by crossing the Mavila Kadappuram Bridge. Nearest railway station: Cheruvathur, on the Kozhikode-Mangalore route, about 5 km from Valiyaparamba.

National Highway passes through Cheruvthur. Nearest airports: Mangalore in Karnataka State, about 100 km. Payyannur Peringome 20 km from Payyanur Ezhimala 12 km from Payyanur Town Kunhimangalam village 8 km from Payyanur town Kavvayi Island 3 km from Payyanur Ramanthali 7 km from Payyanur Karivellur 10 km from Payyanur Trikarpur 6 km from Payyanur about Valiyaparamba