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Liberalism in the United Kingdom

This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support proved by having had a representation in parliament; the sign ⇒ denotes another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme, it is not necessary that parties labelled themselves as a liberal party. In the United Kingdom, the word liberalism can have any of several meanings. Scholars use the term to refer to classical liberalism. However, the derogatory connotation is much weaker in the UK than in the US, social liberals from both the left and right wing continue to use liberal and illiberal to describe themselves and their opponents, respectively; the term referred to the broad liberal political alliance of the nineteenth century, formed by Whigs and radicals. This alliance, which developed into the Liberal Party, dominated politics for much of the reign of Queen Victoria and during the years before the First World War. British liberalism is now organised between two schools.

In his speech to the party conference in 2006, David Cameron described the party as a "liberal conservative" party, in a speech in Bath on Thursday 22 March 2007, he described himself as a "liberal Conservative". When the Liberals lost the 1895 general election, a political crisis shook the Liberal Party; until that, the Liberal Party adhered to the Gladstonian liberalism, of free markets, low taxation, self-help and freedom of choice, but after the 1895 many Liberals claimed for a political reform. The reformers' leaders were Thomas Hill Green and Herbert Samuel, that in the Progressive Review of December 1896, said that the classical liberalism was "sapped and raddled", claiming for more state's powers. Samuel's "New Liberalism" called for old-age pensions, labour exchanges, workers' compensation, all prefiguring modern welfare. Many Liberals, including future Prime Ministers Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Winston Churchill, H. H. Asquith and Lloyd George, sceptics of non-interventionism on economy and free market, embraced the New Liberalism.

During the Liberal Governments of 1905–1916, the welfare state was introduced to provide provision for lower incomes. In 1908 a pension system was created with old-age pensions for people older than age 70. However, the Great War of 1914 reduced the Liberal support from population, the Liberals themselves split in two factions in 1918: Asquith's supporters and George's coupons. While Asquith became Leader of the Opposition, George forged a coalition with the Conservative leader Bonar Law, continuing to be Prime Minister. However, the Liberal internal conflict caused many reformer and radical voters to join in the Labour Party, while more conservative liberals merged to the Conservatives led by Stanley Baldwin; the 1924 general election signalled the end of the Liberal Party as government force. However, the New Liberalism continued to be the preferred ideology by the Liberal Party, until its dissolution in 1988 when formed the Liberal Democrats. With the rise of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative Party leader in the 1975 leadership election ushered in a resurgence of the old 19th-century Gladstone laissez-faire economic liberal principles.

The UK in the 1970s had seen sustained high inflation rates, which were above 20% at the time of the leadership election, high unemployment, over the winter of 1978–79 there was a series of strikes known as the "Winter of Discontent". Thatcher led her party to victory at the 1979 general election with a manifesto which concentrated on the party's philosophy rather than presenting a "shopping list" of policies; this philosophy became known as Thatcherism and it focused on rejecting the post-war consensus that tolerated or encouraged nationalisation, strong labour unions, heavy regulation, high taxes, a generous welfare state. Thatcherism was based on social and economic ideas from British and American intellectuals such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman. Thatcher believed that too much democratic-oriented government policy was leading to a long-term decline in the British economy; as a result, her government pursued a programme of economic liberalism, adopting a free-market approach to public services based on the sale of publicly owned industries and utilities, as well as a reduction in trade union power.

She held the belief that the existing trend of unions was bringing economic progress to a standstill by enforcing "wildcat" strikes, keeping wages artificially high and forcing unprofitable industries to stay open. Thatcherism promoted low inflation, the small state, free markets through tight control of the money supply and constraints on the labour movement, it is a key part of the worldwide economic liberal movement and as such is compared with Reaganomics in the United States, Economic Rationalism in Australia and Rogernomics in New Zealand. Thatcherism is often compared to classical liberalism. Milton Friedman said, she is a nineteenth-century Liberal."

The Flowers Foundations

The Anne and Chris Flowers Foundation and the J. C. Flowers Foundation are charitable organizations founded by private equity investor J. Christopher Flowers and his wife Anne W. Flowers, they operate by providing funding and logistical support to community organizations that tackle local social issues malaria in Africa and parolee recidivism in New York. Recipients have included Harvard University, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, various Episcopal and Anglican organizations, numerous others. Susan Lassen has been involved with the Flowers philanthropic efforts since 2004 and is President of the J. C. Flowers Foundation; the Anne and Chris Flowers Foundation and the J. C. Flowers Foundation are successors to the White Flowers Foundation. In October 2004, founder Chris Flowers traveled to several remote areas in Zambia. On a visit to the Anglican Mission in Fiwila, Flowers witnessed the funeral of a child who had died of malaria; as a result, the Foundation, in partnership with a number of other organizations, founded NetsforLife.

NetsforLife distributes insecticide-treated anti-malaria bednets in remote areas in Africa in partnership with the local Anglican church. Partners in this effort have included Episcopal Relief and Development, various Anglican organizations in Africa, Coca-Cola, ExxonMobil, Standard Chartered Bank and the Starr Foundation. In 2010, former Coca-Cola CEO Neville Isdell partnered with the Foundations to establish the Isdell:Flowers Cross-Border Anti-Malaria Initiative, which distributes anti-malaria bednets, in this case in Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe; as of December 2014, the Foundations, NetsforLife and the Isdell:Flowers Initiative have raised a total of $34 million for programs to combat malaria in Africa, reaching over 25 million people and distributing over 12 million anti-malaria bednets. In 2010, the Foundations launched the Harlem Parolee Initiative in an effort to address the high rates of recidivism within inner-city New York communities; the Foundations partner with local faith-based communities to provide education and support to recent parolees.

The Foundations fund resources aimed at reintegrating parolees back into families from which they have been absent for significant periods of time

Uzun-Mirko

Mirko Apostolović, known as Uzun-Mirko was a Serbian voivode, with the bimbaša rank during the Serbian revolution. He was famed for his many fatal wounds, undetected infiltration into the Ottoman fort at Belgrade, among other operations, which gained him many awards, he is the founder of the Uzun-Mirković family. Mirko was born in Brajkovac, near Lazarevac, his family were of the Piperi, settled first in Rudnik, they moved to Belgrade, during the Austrian-Turkish War they lived in Srem. His father Petar Apostolović and grandfather Apostol died in the Austrian-Turkish War in 1792, they fought in the Austrian freicorps against the Ottoman Turks. At the return from Srem and his mother lived in Mislođin he moved to Belgrade, where he learned to be a tailor, he received his nickname'Uzun' from the Turkish word for tall. Uzun-Mirko reached fame when he participated in the Battle of Belgrade that took place from November 29 to December 12, 1806, when he together with his band and bimbaša Konda, a former mercenary commander serving the Ottomans in Belgrade, entered undetected in the city and from the interior opened the Sava Gate for the Serbian Army.

He was wounded during the fighting. He was wounded. After the First Serbian Uprising, he rehabilitated in Wien, he participated in the Second Serbian Uprising, in the battles of Lipar, Čačak and Dublje. When he sought a pension from the Sovjet in 1842, they asked him for documents, upon which he answered "my documents are my 7 wounds!". Uzun-Mirko was, like other elders, obeyed the laws. According to contemporaries, he prayed loudly, "so that it could be heard outside". On May 21, 1865, for the 50-year-anniversary of the Second Uprising, Mihailo Obrenović III, Prince of Serbia brought the Takovo cross for Uzun-Mirko, awarded him with the Montenegrin golden medallion of Obilić, he died in 1868, was buried in Belgrade, his grave is situated in the Novo Groblje in Belgrade. Uzun-Mirko is the founder of the Uzun-Mirković family, his son was Infantry colonel Ljubomir Uzun-Mirković, he in turn had a son, Division general Dragoljub Uzun-Mirković, who in turn had a son, Artillery captain Miroslav Uzun-Mirković.

His maternal cousin was Division general Dragutin Đ. Okanović, who in 1906 as a member of the Black Hand, founded "Novi pokret". P. 60 Знамените личности Брајковца Брајковац кроз векове - Узун Мирко Апостоловић Информација о његовом гробу