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Lichfield

Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England. Lichfield is situated 16 mi north of Birmingham, 9 miles from Walsall and 13 miles from Burton Upon Trent. At the time of the 2011 Census the population was estimated at 32,219 and the wider Lichfield District at 100,700. Notable for its three-spired medieval cathedral, Lichfield was the birthplace of Samuel Johnson, the writer of the first authoritative Dictionary of the English Language; the city's recorded history began when Chad of Mercia arrived to establish his Bishopric in 669 AD and the settlement grew as the ecclesiastical centre of Mercia. In 2009, the Staffordshire Hoard, the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork, was found 5.9 km south-west of Lichfield. The development of the city was consolidated in the 12th century under Roger de Clinton, who fortified the Cathedral Close and laid out the town with the ladder-shaped street pattern that survives to this day. Lichfield's heyday was in the 18th century.

This was a period of great intellectual activity, the city being the home of many famous people including Samuel Johnson, David Garrick, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward, prompted Johnson's remark that Lichfield was "a city of philosophers". Today, the city still retains its old importance as an ecclesiastical centre, its industrial and commercial development has been limited; the centre of the city has over 230 listed buildings, preserves much of its historic character. The origin of the modern name "Lichfield" is twofold. At Wall, 3.5 km south of the current city, there was a Romano-British village, Letocetum, a Common Brittonic place name meaning "Greywood", "grey" referring to varieties of tree prominent in the landscape such as ash and elm. This passed into Old English as Lyccid, cf. Old Welsh: Luitcoyt, to, appended Old English: feld "open country"; this word Lyccidfeld is the origin of the word "Lichfield". Popular etymology has it that a thousand Christians were martyred in Lichfield around AD 300 during the reign of Diocletian and that the name Lichfield means "field of the dead".

There is no evidence to support this legend, as with many folk etymologies. The earliest evidence of settlement is Mesolithic flints discovered on the high ground of the cemetery at St Michael on Greenhill, which may indicate an early flint industry. Traces of Neolithic settlement have been discovered on the south side of the sandstone ridge occupied by Lichfield Cathedral.2.2 mi south-west of Lichfield, near the point where Icknield Street crosses Watling Street, was the site of Letocetum. Established in AD 50 as a Roman military fortress, it had become a civilian settlement with a bath house and a mansio by the 2nd century. Letocetum fell into decline by the 4th century and the Romans had left by the 5th century. There have been scattered Romano-British finds in Lichfield and it is possible that a burial discovered beneath the cathedral in 1751 was Romano-British. There is no evidence of. A Cair Luit Coyd was listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his Historia Brittonum, although these were historic remembrances of early Sub-Roman Britain.

The early history of Lichfield is obscure. The first authentic record of Lichfield occurs in Bede's history, where it is called Licidfelth and mentioned as the place where St Chad fixed the episcopal see of the Mercians in 669; the first Christian king of Mercia, donated land at Lichfield for St Chad to build a monastery. It was because of this that the ecclesiastical centre of Mercia became settled as the Diocese of Lichfield, 7 miles northwest of the seat of the Mercian kings at Tamworth. In July 2009, the Staffordshire Hoard, the largest collection of Anglo-Saxon gold found, was discovered in a field in the parish of Hammerwich, 4 mi south-west of Lichfield; the first cathedral was built on the present site in 700 when Bishop Hædde built a new church to house the bones of St Chad, which had become the centre of a sacred shrine to many pilgrims when he died in 672. The burial in the cathedral of the kings of Mercia, Wulfhere in 674 and Ceolred in 716, further increased the city's prestige.

In 786 King Offa made the city an archbishopric with authority over all the bishops from the Humber to the River Thames. After King Offa's death in 796, Lichfield's power waned; the Historia Brittonum lists the city as one of the 28 cities of Britain around AD 833. During the 9th century, Mercia was devastated by Danish Vikings. Lichfield itself was unwalled and the cathedral was despoiled, so Bishop Peter moved the see to the fortified and wealthier Chester in 1075. At the time of the Domesday Book survey, Lichfield was held by the bishop of Chester; the lord of the manor was the Bishop of Chester until the reign of Edward VI. In 1102 Bishop Peter's successor, Robert de Limesey, transferred; the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield had seats in both locations. Bishop Roger de Clinton was responsible for transforming the scattered settlements to the south of Minster Poo

Ramón Ramírez (Venezuelan pitcher)

Ramón A. Ramírez is a Venezuelan pitcher, a free agent, he has played in Major League Baseball for the Cincinnati Reds. He throws three pitches: a fastball, a slider, a changeup. Ramírez was signed by the San Diego Padres in 2000 as an outfielder, but he was released in 2001; the Reds signed him in 2003 as a pitcher, he reached the major leagues in 2008, when he made four starts for the Reds. The next year, he appeared in 11 games in relief for the Reds. After the season, the Tampa Bay Rays claimed him off waivers; the Boston Red Sox claimed him off waivers, he spent 2010 in the minor leagues for them. He signed with the Doosan Bears of the Korea Baseball Organization in 2011, but he was released before appearing in a game with them. On March 27, 2000, Ramírez was signed by the San Diego Padres as an outfielder, he was released by the Padres on June 12, 2001. On May 12, 2003, Ramírez was signed by this time as a pitcher. In 2004, he pitched for the Billings Mustangs of a rookie league. In 17 games, he had three wins and six losses, tied for fourth in the league.

However, he was 10th in the league in strikeouts, third in innings pitched, second in earned run average. In 2005, Ramírez pitched for the Dayton Dragons of the single-A Midwest League, he had a 5–7 record, a 4.50 ERA, 114 innings pitched, 90 strikeouts in 30 games. Ramírez pitched for the Sarasota Reds of the single-A advanced Florida State League in 2006, he had a 4–5 record, a 4.29 ERA, 53 strikeouts, 65 innings pitched, one complete game in 15 games. In 2007, Ramírez began the year with Sarasota again, he had a 5–2 record, a 4.05 ERA, ​73 1⁄3 innings pitched, 86 strikeouts in 15 games. At Chattanooga, used as a relief pitcher, he had a 5–1 record, a 4.60 ERA, ​31 1⁄3 innings pitched, 35 strikeouts in 16 games. On August 18, he was promoted to the Louisville Bats of the triple-A International League to replace Elizardo Ramírez, called up to the Reds. With Louisville, Ramón Ramírez had a 1–0 record, an 0.00 ERA, ​14 2⁄3 innings pitched, 16 strikeouts in five games. In the minor leagues that year, he had 11 wins, 3 losses, a 3.70 ERA, ​119 1⁄3 innings pitched, 137 strikeouts in 36 games.

The Cincinnati Reds added him to their 40-man roster on November 20. Ramírez attended Reds' spring training in 2008 but was optioned to the minors on March 10 after having an 11.57 ERA in three games. He began the season with Chattanooga. After he had a 2–3 record, a 4.70 ERA, 46 innings pitched, 52 strikeouts in 11 games, he was promoted to Louisville on May 23. At Louisville, he had a 4–5 record, a 3.08 ERA, ​99 1⁄3 innings pitched, 93 strikeouts in 19 games. On August 30, he was called up to the Reds make a start that day in place of the injured Johnny Cueto, he gave up three runs over seven innings while striking out six, but he received a no decision in a 7–6 victory over the San Francisco Giants. He was optioned to Sarasota the next day to make room for Wilkin Castillo on the roster but was recalled on September 2. On September 4, he threw three perfect innings in relief of an injured Josh Fogg in an 8–6 victory over the Pittsburgh Pirates. Afterwards, he made three more starts for the Reds.

He got his first career decision on September 19 when he gave up two runs and struck out five batters in six innings as the Reds defeated the Milwaukee Brewers, 11–2. He got his only other decision of the year on September 24, when he gave up two runs in five innings in a 5–0 loss to the Houston Astros. Ramírez finished the year 1–1, with a 2.67 ERA, 21 strikeouts, 27 innings pitched in 5 games. In the minors, he had a 6–8 record, a 3.59 ERA, 145 strikeouts, ​145 1⁄3 innings pitched in 30 games. Ramírez was expected to compete for a spot in the Reds' starting rotation in 2009. On May 19, he was called up from Louisville to replace the injured Nick Masset in the bullpen. After appearing in one game, he was optioned back to Louisville on May 22 to make room for Carlos Fisher on the roster, he remained in Louisville until August 31. After giving up 4 runs in his first 3 games of the season, Ramírez gave up 1 run in his last 8 games. Used out of the bullpen, he finished the year with an 0–0 record, a 3.65 ERA, eight strikeouts, ​12 1⁄3 innings pitched in 11 games.

At Louisville, he had a 6–7 record, a 4.03 ERA, 78 strikeouts, ​127 1⁄3 innings pitched in 31 games. On November 9, the Tampa Bay Rays claimed Ramírez off waivers, but they released him on December 3. On December 9, the Boston Red Sox claimed him off waivers, he spent the 2010 season with the Pawtucket Red Sox of the International League, where he had a 5–5 record, a 4.92 ERA, one complete game, 97 innings pitched, 80 strikeouts in 28 games. On November 6, he became a free agent. In 2011, Ramírez signed with the Doosan Bears of the Korea Baseball Organization. However, he was released before playing a regular season game. In 2009, Ramírez represented Venezuela in the World Baseball Classic, deciding to play in the tournament at the last minute. On March 10, he gave up one run in three innings of relief as Venezuela defeated Italy 10–1 to advance to the second round of the Classic, he pitched a scoreless ​2⁄3 of an inning on March 16

Irving Szathmary

Irving Szathmary, born Isadore Szathmary in Quincy and died in Valletta, Malta on the eve of his 76th birthday, was a Hungarian-American musical composer and arranger most known for scoring the Get Smart television series. His wife was Irene Szathmary and his daughter was Elizabeth Szathmary. One of six children, his youngest brother was comedian Bill Dana. Szathmary was a child prodigy pianist from the age of five. Before graduating from Quincy High School in 1925, he adopted the name "Irving". At the same time he formed a band with the Szathmary Symphonic Syncopaters. Al Szathmary had a career as an actor and was a stand-in on Get Smart. Another brother was Arthur, a member of the Philosophy Department at Princeton University 1947–1986. Another brother, Sidney played violin in the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra from 1945 to 1978 The family had one sister, Fannie, an associate law librarian at the University of Southern California. Szathmary began arranging for a variety of orchestras, including Benny Goodman in 1934, Emery Deutsch in 1935, Artie Shaw in 1936, Andre Kostelanetz from 1936 to 1977 and from 1937, Paul Whiteman until joining Jack Teagarden in 1940.

During World War II he transcribed many orchestral pieces on V-Disc for American servicemen and began recording arrangements for featured singers such as Frank Sinatra and Mary Martin. He composed a hit song, "Leave It To Love", in 1948, he composed the music for a 1950 United Nations radio program about drug addiction called The Shooting Gallery, narrated by Gary Cooper. In the 1950s he arranged music for Your Hit Parade and The Ed Sullivan Show; when his comedian brother Bill arrived in New York in the early 1950s, performing stand-up under his birth name Szathmary, Irving admonished him with "Don't you know that I have a reputation in music?" that led Bill to adopt the surname "Dana" after their mother "Dene". Irving sometimes used the names Irving Zathmary. In 1959 Irving headed Citation Records, it was Bill Dana who introduced his brother to comedy writer and television producer Leonard Stern to compose the music for Stern's television show I'm Dickens, He's Fenster. Stern suggested something like it.

Szathmary returned a day or two with a theme. "I sensed there was something unique about it," says Stern, but Szathmary decided to prepare a more elaborate demonstration. Another day or two he returned with a bass player, saxophonist and a vocalist with Irving playing piano. "Finally I started to hear the distinctive melody," says Stern. "So I hired him, he made the arrangements and conducted the orchestra as well." Szathmary composed the music for an unsuccessful Stern 1963 television pilot Duncan Be Careful and composed the background music for his brother's The Bill Dana Show. His collaboration with Stern score all the episodes of Get Smart, he retired to Malta. Burlingame, Get Szathmary! Irving Szathmary, Get Smart's Forgotten Composer, Film Music Society, July 21, 2008 Irving Szathmary on IMDb Discography http://www.discogs.com/artist/775454-Irving-Szathmary http://www.discogs.com/artist/4120539-Szath-Myri-And-His-Orchestra