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Licinius

Licinius I was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan that granted official toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire, he was defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, was executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298, he was trusted enough by Galerius that in 307 he was sent as an envoy to Maxentius in Italy to attempt to reach some agreement about the latter's illegitimate political position. Galerius trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal with Maxentius after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus. Upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308, under his immediate command were the Balkan provinces of Illyricum and Pannonia. In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians.

On the death of Galerius in May 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II to share the eastern provinces between them. By this point, not only was Licinius the official Augustus of the west but he possessed part of the eastern provinces as well, as the Hellespont and the Bosporus became the dividing line, with Licinius taking the European provinces and Maximinus taking the Asian. An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. So in March 313 Licinius married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum, their marriage was the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that reissued Galerius' previous edict allowing Christianity to be professed in the Empire, with additional dispositions that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and exempted Christian clergy from municipal civic duties. The redaction of the edict as reproduced by Lactantius - who follows the text affixed by Licinius in Nicomedia on June 14 313, after Maximinus' defeat - uses neutral language, expressing a will to propitiate "any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens".

Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, although harsh weather he encountered along the way had gravely weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, held by Licinius' troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege, he moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege, before moving his forces to the first posting station. With a much smaller body of men around 30,000, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was still besieging Heraclea. Before the decisive engagement, Licinius had a vision in which an angel recited him a generic prayer that could be adopted by all cults and which Licinius repeated to his soldiers. On 30 April 313, the two armies clashed at the Battle of Tzirallum, in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the imperial purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomedia. Believing he still had a chance to come out victorious, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there.

For Daia, Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius continued to press him on land and sea. The war between them only ended with Daia’s death in August 313. Given that Constantine had crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, the two men decided to divide the Roman world between them; as a result of this settlement, Licinius became sole Augustus in the East, while his brother-in-law, was supreme in the West. Licinius rushed to the east to deal with another threat, this time from the Persian Sassanids. In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him. Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae in Pannonia. Although the situation was temporarily settled, with both men sharing the consulship in 315, it was but a lull in the storm; the next year a new war erupted, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, only for Licinius to suffer a humiliating defeat on the plain of Mardia in Thrace.

The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed. Over the next ten years, the two imperial colleagues maintained an uneasy truce. Licinius kept himself busy with a campaign against the Sarmatians in 318, but temperatures rose again in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube into what was technically Licinius’s territory; when he repeated this with another invasion, this time by the Goths who were pillaging Thrace under their leader Rausimod, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Constantine wasted no time going on the offensive. Licinius's fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine's fleet in 323. In 324, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him and having defeated his army of 165,000 men at the Battle of Adrianople, succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium; the defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius in the Battle of the Hellespont by Cris

Mark Holtom

John Mark Holtom is a male retired English athlete who specialised in the sprint hurdles. Holtom competed in the event at two consecutive Olympic Games, in 1980 and 1984, as well as the 1983 World Championships, he represented England in the 110 metres hurdles event, at the 1978 Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Canada. Four years he represented England and won a silver medal in the 110 metres hurdles event, at the 1982 Commonwealth Games in Brisbane, Australia. In 1986 he represented England and in the 400 metres hurdles event, at the 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh, Scotland. Outdoors 110 metres hurdles – 13.43 400 metres hurdles – 49.49 Indoors 60 metres hurdles – 7.69 All-Athletics profile

Dayr al-Hawa

Dayr al-Hawa was a Palestinian Arab village in the Jerusalem Subdistrict. The village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War on October 19, 1948 by the Fourth Battalion of the Har'el Brigade of Operation ha-Har, it was located 18.5 km west of Jerusalem. Coins and ceramics from the Byzantine era have been found here. In 1838, Edward Robinson called it a "lofty" village, on the brink of a valley, it was further noted as a Muslim village, located in the District of el-Arkub, southwest of Jerusalem. In 1856 the village was named D. el Hawa on the map of Southern Palestine that Heinrich Kiepert published that year. Victor Guérin, visiting the village in 1863, wrote that Dayr al-Hawa "probably owes its name, monastery of the wind, to its high position". An Ottoman village list from around 1870 showed that Der el-Hawa had 32 houses and a population of 103, though the population count included men, only. In 1883, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described it as "a village standing high, on a knoll rising from a high ridge, with a deep valley to the north.

It has several high houses in it. On the west is a good spring; the ground is covered with brushwood all round the place."In 1896 the population of Der el-hawa was estimated to be about 162 persons. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted i by the British Mandate authorities, Dair al-Hawa had a population of 38 residents. In the 1945 statistics the village had a population of 60 Muslims, with a total of 5,907 dunums of land. Of this, 58 dunams were for irrigable land or plantations, 1,565 for cereals, while 4 dunams were built-up land. A mosque was located in the western part of the village and there was a shrine for a local sage known as al-Shaykh Sulayman. Near the ruins of the old village now stands the Israeli moshav, Nes Harim, however, it is not on village land. During the 1948 it was defended by the local militia and the Egyptian Army/Muslim Brotherhood Battalion. Susan Abulhawa Welcome To Dayr al-Hawa Dayr al-Hawa, Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 17: IAA, Wikimedia commons Dayr Al-Hawa, from the Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center Dayr al-Hawa دير الهوا, Palestine Family.net