The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria, was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, estimated to be at least 100 metres in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world; the lighthouse was damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323 and became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder, surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains of the lighthouse on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour. In 2016 the Ministry of State of Antiquities in Egypt had plans to turn submerged ruins of ancient Alexandria, including those of the Pharos, into an underwater museum. Pharos was a small island located on the western edge of the Nile Delta. In 332 BC Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria on an isthmus opposite Pharos.
Alexandria and Pharos were connected by a mole spanning more than 1,200 metres, called the Heptastadion. The east side of the mole became the Great Harbour, now an open bay. Today's city development lying between the present Grand Square and the modern Ras el-Tin quarter is built on the silt which widened and obliterated this mole, the Ras el-Tin promontory represents all, left of the island of Pharos, the site of the lighthouse at its eastern point having been weathered away by the sea; the lighthouse was constructed in the 3rd century BC. After Alexander the Great died, the first Ptolemy announced himself king in 305 BC, commissioned its construction shortly thereafter; the building was finished during the reign of his son, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, took twelve years to complete at a total cost of 800 talents of silver. The light was produced by a furnace at the top, the tower was said to have been built with solid blocks of limestone. Although, since the lighthouse was over 300 feet tall the use of limestone as the main material is doubtful due to the possibility of collapsing under its own weight.
Rather, pink granite found nearby is more probable as it is much stronger and can withstand more weight. Strabo reported that Sostratus had a dedication to the "Saviour Gods" inscribed in metal letters on the lighthouse. Pliny the Elder wrote that Sostratus was the architect, disputed. In the second century AD Lucian wrote that Sostratus hid his name under plaster bearing the name of Ptolemy so that when the plaster fell off, Sostratus's name would be visible in the stone. Blocks of sandstone and limestone used in construction are analyzed to be from the Wadi Hammamat quarries in the desert east of the city. Arab descriptions of the lighthouse are consistent despite it undergoing several repairs after earthquake damage. Given heights vary only fifteen percent from c. 103 to 118 m, on a 30 by 30 m square base. The fullest description of the lighthouse comes from Arab traveler Abou Haggag Youssef Ibn Mohammed el-Balawi el-Andaloussi, who visited Alexandria in 1166 CE. Balawi provided measurement of the interior of the lighthouse's rectangular shaft.
The inner ramp was described as roofed with masonry an 7 shibr noted as to allow two horsemen to pass at once. In clockwise rotation the ramp held four stories with having eighteen and seventeen rooms on the second and fourth floors, respectively. Balawai account the base of the lighthouse to be 45 ba long on each side with connecting ramp 600 dhira long by 20 dhira wide. Continuing the octangle section is accounted at 24 ba in width with the diameter of the cylindrical section 12.73 ba. The apex of the lighthouse's oratory was measured with diameter 6.4 ba. The Arab authors indicate that the lighthouse was constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone; the tower was made up of three tapering tiers: a lower square section with a central core. Ancient accounts from geographer Al-Idrisi accounts admiration from his viewing of the lighthouse in 1154. Al-Idrisi accounts the construction, openings in the walls throughout the rectangular shaft with lead used as a filling agent in between the masonry blocks at the base.
Al-Idrisi accounted the total height of the lighthouse to be 300 dhira rashashl. At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during the day. Extant Roman coins struck by the Alexandrian mint show that a statue of Triton was positioned on each of the building's four corners, a statue of Poseidon or Zeus stood atop. Al-Masudi wrote in the 10th century CE that the seaward-facing side featured an inscription dedicated to Zeus. Late accounts of the lighthouse after the destruction of the 1303 Crete earthquake include Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan scholar and explorer, who passed through Alexandria in 1326 and 1349. Battuta noted that the wrecked condition of the lighthouse was only noticeable by the rectangle tower and entrance ramp. Battuta's account measured each side of the tower to be 140 shibr on either side. Battuta detailed pla
William Owen "Buckey" O'Neill was a sheriff, newspaper editor, politician, Georgist and lawyer in Arizona. His nickname came from his tendency to "buck the tiger" at faro or other card games, he became a captain in Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, died in battle. O'Neill was born the first of four children on February 2, 1860 to John Owen and Mary O'Neill in St. Louis, Missouri, his father was an Irish immigrant who had most arrived in the United States during the 1850s. By Spring 1862, the family had moved to Pennsylvania; when the American Civil War began the elder O'Neill joined the 116th Pennsylvania Volunteers. On December 13, 1862, during the Battle of Fredericksburg, the senior O'Neill was wounded and served the rest of the war as a member of the Invalid Corps; the younger O'Neill was educated at Georgetown Law School. During the first part of 1879, O'Neill responded to an item in the Washington Star calling for men to migrate to Arizona Territory, he arrived in Phoenix, in September the same year.
Upon his arrival in town he was hired as a printer by the Phoenix Herald. By late 1880, O'Neill had become bored with position and sought to experience the "Real West" in the boomtown of Tombstone. In Tombstone, O'Neill took the opportunity to experience the local saloons before taking a job with The Tombstone Epitaph. By mid-1881 he again felt a left town. Where he went to next is unknown, one story has O'Neill journeying to Hawaii and traveling through California, he is known to have visited Santa Fe before going to Albuquerque, New Mexico and working as a court reporter. In early 1882, he was back in Phoenix working as a deputy to Marshal Henry Garfias. Several weeks O'Neill moved to Prescott, his home for the next fifteen years. O'Neill arrived in Prescott in the spring of 1882. There he progressed in his journalistic career. Starting as a court reporter, he soon founded his own newspaper and Horn, a paper for the livestock industry, he became the editor of the Arizona Miner weekly newspaper in 1884 to February 1885.
He became captain of the Prescott Grays in the local unit of the Arizona Militia. On February 5, 1886, Dennis Dilda, a convicted murderer, was hanged. O'Neill and the Prescott Grays stood honor guard for the event; when the trap dropped, O'Neill fainted. He wrote a story called "The Horse of the Hash-Knife Brand." In it, a member of a posse admits to nearly fainting at the hanging of a horse thief. On April 27, 1886, he married Pauline Schindler, they had a son. In 1888, while serving as Yavapai County, Arizona judge, he was elected county sheriff, running on the Republican ticket. On March 20, 1889, four masked men robbed the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad passenger train in Diablo Canyon. A four-man posse, made up of O'Neill, Jim Black, Carl Holton, Ed St. Clair, was soon formed and they took off after robbers. On March 21, O'Neill and his posse caught up with the robbers. After exchanging rifle shots, the posse captured the four men. During the fight, no men were injured; the four men were William Sterin, John Halford, Daniel Harvick, J. J. Smith.
All four were pardoned eight years later. There is unfounded speculation that, in 1898, William Sterin enlisted under a false name in the Rough Riders, was killed in action on San Juan Hill; the character of Henry Nash is incorrectly portrayed as Sterin in the TNT made-for-TV movie "Rough Riders". The real Henry Nash was an Arizona school teacher who served in Roosevelt's Rough Riders, was a friend of O'Neill up until his death. After his term was up, O'Neill was elected unanimously mayor of Prescott. In 1894 and 1896 he ran for Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from Arizona Territory, running on the Populist Party ticket. One of his best friends was Tom Horn. In 1897, after years of speculating on mines, he sold a group of claims near the Grand Canyon to Chicago backers, who proposed building a railroad from Williams to the mines and the south rim, he became a director of the development companies, soon began railroad surveys, mine developments, building a smelter. He used profits to begin building rental buildings—he was headed for financial independence.
O'Neill helped introduce a bill allowing women to vote in municipal elections in 1897. Although O'Neill convinced his Populist friends to sign the bill into law, the high court dismissed the bill in 1899. In 1898, war broke out between the United States and Spain. O'Neill joined the Rough Riders and became Captain of Troop A. First Lieutenant Frank Frantz served as O'Neil's Deputy Commander. Along with Alexander Brodie and James McClintock, he tried to make an entire regiment made up of Arizona Cowboys. Though, only three troops were authorized; the Rough Riders landed at Daiquirí on June 22, 1898. Two Buffalo Soldiers, of the 10th Cavalry fell overboard. Upon seeing this, O'Neill jumped into the water in full sabre, he searched for the men before having to come up for breath. On June 25, 1898, the Rough Riders saw their first action. O'Neill led his men at the front of the line in the Battle of Las Guasimas, capturing the Spanish flank. During the action he saw several men, who he believed were Spaniards, across the road from him, shouted "Hostiles on our right, fire at will!"
He learned. On July 1, 1898, at about 10am, the Rough Riders and the 10
Alisa is an Indonesian soap opera television series, aired on RCTI from December 20, 2008 to April 23, 2009. It was produced by video productions house public distributor company network SinemArt, directed by Desiana Larasati. Alyssa Soebandono as Alisa Christian Sugiono as Evan Nia Ramadhani as Natasha Ali Syakieb as Eric Marcel Chandrawinata as Nono Didi Riyadi as Freisco Farish Hanna Hasyim Riyanto RA. Frans Tumbuan as Henri Shinta Muin Ana Pinem Ivanka Suwandhi Donna Harun Cindy Fatika Sari Adjie Pangestu Rima Melati Leuvenia Fernanda Alisa and Evan met in an unpleasant circumstance. Alisa, a beverage Sales Promotion Girl, bumped into Evan and knocked him down while casing a guy who stole her merchandise. Evan was furious, his suit was all wet. But destiny brought them back together. Alisa turns out to be one of Evan's student; because of the bad first impression, both Alisa and Evan could never get along. They were always arguing. Alisa couldn't stand Evan's arrogant, playboy and degrading attitude towards people who are under his social status.
Evan on the other hand, despised Alisa's know it all attitude, pride rebellious and no-respect behavior. Alisa is a simple girl, she was forced to work odd jobs to pay for her daily expenses, as well as her father's medication. Alisa worked as Natashass washer. Natasha happened to be his main woman among all the ladies who surrounded him. After a long and winding journey and time and Alisa, in the end, couldn't deny the feeling deep down inside that they were in love, they were preparing to tie the knot. But a shocking truth emerged. Turns out and Alisa were siblings. Alisa was in fact the daughter of Evan's father, through an affair; the wedding had to be called off, Both were devastated. How did the love story go? Will Evan and Alisa be together in the end? Or will they get back together with their previous lovers ?? Alisa