Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
Lilongwe River is a river in Malawi, it flows through Lilongwe, the capital of the country. The river is 200 km long, it flows into Lake Malawi
Timeline of Lilongwe
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lilongwe, Malawi. 1902 – Local leader Njewa sets up a boma named after the Lilongwe River. 1904 – Lilongwe becomes administrative seat of British colonial Nyasaland Protectorate. 1905 – Road built to Dedza. 1906 – "Asian traders" arrive. 1909 – Road built to Fort Jameson and Fort Manning. 1910 – Administrative Lilongwe District created. 1923 – Diamphwe Bridge built. 1930 – Imperial Tobacco Company manufactory begins operating. 1944 – European School founded. 1949 – Odini Catholic newspaper begins publication. 1959 – Roman Catholic diocese of Lilongwe established. 1963 – Lilongwe Technical College founded. 1964 – Lilongwe becomes part of independent Malawi. 1966 – Population: 19,425. 1967 – University of Malawi's Bunda College of Agriculture active. 1968 – Capitol City Development Corporation formed. 1975 – Capital of Malawi moved to Lilongwe from Zomba. 1977 Silver Strikers F. C. formed. Population: 98,718. 1979 – University of Malawi's Kamuzu College of Nursing established.
1983 – Lilongwe International Airport opens. 1987 – Population: 233,973. 1989 – Lilongwe National Botanic Garden founded. 1992 – May: Anti-government protest. 1997 – Media Institute of Southern Africa Malawi chapter headquartered in city. 1998 – Population: 440,471. 2003 – Population: 632,867 in city. 2005 National government administration moved to Lilongwe from Blantyre. Banda Mausoleum erected. 2007 Lilongwe Wildlife Centre founded. Memorial Tower erected. 2008 December: Cholera outbreak. Population: 674,448 in city. 2009 – Kelvin Mmangisa appointed mayor. 2010 – Parliament Building constructed. 2011 – July: Anti-government protest. 2012 Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources opens. Bingu wa Mutharika Conference Centre built. Population: 868,800 in city. 2013 – Capital Hill Cashgate Scandal reported. 2016 – Lilongwe Trade Fair begins. 2017 Bingu National Stadium opens. Desmond Bikoko becomes mayor. July: Stampede occurs at Bingu Stadium. 2020 – Population: 1,324,314. Lilongwe history2017 population This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia and Spanish Wikipedia.
"Lilongwe, Malawi". BlackPast.org. US. "". Directory of Open Access Journals. UK. Items related to Lilongwe, various dates Items related to Lilongwe, various dates "". Internet Library Sub-Saharan Africa. Germany: Frankfurt University Library. "". Connecting-Africa. Leiden, Netherlands: African Studies Centre. "". AfricaBib.org. Christian Zimmermann. "". Research Papers in Economics. US: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
A boma is a livestock enclosure, corral, small fort or a district government office and community used in many parts of the African Great Lakes region, as well as Central and Southern Africa. It is associated with community decision making, it is incorporated into many African languages, as well as colonial varieties of English and German. As a livestock enclosure, a boma is the equivalent of kraal; the former term is used in areas influenced by the Swahili language, the latter is employed in areas influenced by Afrikaans. In the form of fortified villages or camps, bomas were commonplace in Central Africa in the 18th and 19th century, they were commonplace throughout Africa, including in areas affected by the slave trade, tribal wars and colonial conquest, were built and used by both sides. Apart from the neatly built stockades shown in illustrations of bomas, the term, in practice, more resembled the structure shown in the illustration accompanying this article. In that form, they were referred to by the likes of J. A.
Hunter and Henry Morton Stanley. In British colonies in remote areas, boma came to be used to mean government offices because in the late 19th century such offices included a fortified police station or military barracks in the form of a timber stockade, though some had stone walls. Many were called forts, as in'Fort Jameson','Fort Manning', or'Fort Rosebery'. In the 20th century it came to mean the district or provincial government headquarters where fortifications were no longer required. Boma is still used in the African Great Lakes and Southern Africa with this meaning, along with the definition of a livestock enclosure. A popular myth told to tourists in the African Great Lakes states that BOMA stood for'British Overseas Management Administration' or'British Officers Mess Area' during the colonial era in Africa; the myth holds that the term has since been adopted into Swahili and several other vernacular Bantu languages of former British East Africa to mean government in general, or locations of governmental offices, such as district centers.
In fact, the word boma has much deeper roots in languages spoken in the Africa Great Lakes, whether as a word of Bantu origin or a loan word from Persian. The Oxford English Dictionary ascribes the first use to the adventurer Henry Morton Stanley, in his book Through the Dark Continent:'From the staked bomas..there rise to my hearing the bleating of young calves.' The term is used throughout Stanley's earlier book How I found Livingstone'...we pitched our camp, built a boma of thorny acacia, other tree branches, by stacking them round our camp...' Krapf's A Dictionary of the Suahili Language defines boma as'a palisade or stockade serving as a kind of fortification to towns and villages...may consist of stones or poles, or of an impenetrable thicket of thorns,' though he does not give an origin for the word. Boma appears in Band's'Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon', which indicates the word was in use in Tanganyika long before it fell under the control of the British. Johnson's Standard Swahili-English Dictionary suggests boma comes from a Persian word, which he says means'garrison, place where one can dwell in safety.'
In Swahili and Sabaki: A Linguistic History and Hinnebusch give iboma,'defended area,' as either a Great Lakes Bantu innovation or a borrowing from Persian. At any rate, the word was in circulation before any British'overseas management' of the coast, although the acronym is clever. Moreover, no such entity as the'British Overseas Management Administration' existed; the UK Government's responsibility for the development of its colonies on a continuing basis was first recognised in 1929 by the Colonial Development Act. In 1961 a Department of Technical Co-operation was established to deal with the technical co-operation side of the aid programme; the Ministry of Overseas Development was first set up as a separate ministry in October 1964, headed by a Minister of Overseas Development. It brought together the functions of the former Department of Technical Co-operation and the overseas aid policy functions of the Foreign, Commonwealth Relations and Colonial Offices and of other government departments.
Great Britain's bilateral aid agency was called the'Overseas Development Administration' from 1970 until it was renamed the Department for International Development in 1997. Compound Kraal Stockade Swahili definition for boma in the Internet Living Swahili Dictionary DFID historical background
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
National Statistical Office of Malawi
The National Statistical Office of Malawi is the main government department responsible for the collection and dissemination of official statistics in Malawi. It has headquarters in Zomba and 300 employees, operates under the 2013 Statistics Act; the NSO has regional offices in the major urban centres of Lilongwe and Blantyre. Situated off Chimbiya Road, the NSO Headquarters contains the offices of the Commissioner of Statistics and Deputy Commissioner of Statistics, together with the general administration and human resources departments; the administration section deals with first enquiries for statistical data from the general public, with product sales. The Economics Division produces statistics on foreign trade, national accounts, balance of payments, business activity, consumer prices, industrial production and tourism. Major surveys include the Annual Economic Survey, the 5-yearly Integrated Household Survey, Small and Medium Scale business surveys; the information technology department is situated at this campus.
The Demography Division is responsible for the population census, which takes place every ten years, a number of other demographic and social surveys, such as the Demographic and Health Survey. The Agriculture Division conducts agricultural surveys, like the National Census of Agriculture and Livestock. Another survey conducted by the division is the Welfare Monitoring Surveys; the following are some of the publications produced by the National Statistical Office of Malawi: Population and Housing Census Integrated Household Survey Demographic and Household Survey Annual Economic Survey Welfare and Monitoring Survey