Department of Ayacucho
Ayacucho is a department of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country. Its capital is the city of Ayacucho; the region was one of the hardest hit by terrorism in the 1980s during the guerrilla war waged by Shining Path known as the internal conflict in Peru. A referendum was held on 30 October 2005, in order to decide whether the department would merge with the departments of Ica and Huancavelica to form the new Ica-Ayacucho-Huancavelica Region, as part of the decentralization process in Peru; the bill failed and Ayacucho remained an independent department. The department is divided into 11 provinces; the provinces, with their capitals in parenthesis, are: Cangallo Huamanga Huanca Sancos Huanta La Mar Lucanas Parinacochas Paucar del Sara Sara Sucre Víctor Fajardo Vilcas Huamán According to the 2007 Peru Census, the language learnt first by most of the residents was Quechua followed by Spanish. The Quechua variety spoken in Ayacucho is Chanka Quechua; the following table shows the results concerning the language learnt first in the department by province: Ayacucho Regional Government official website
Department of Lima
The Department of Lima is located in the central coast of the country, its regional seat is Huacho. Lima Province, which contains the city of Lima, the country's capital, is located west of the Department of Lima; the region is bordered by the Ancash Region on the north, the Huánuco Region, Pasco Region, Junín Region on the east, the Huancavelica Region on the southeast, the Ica Region on the south, the Pacific Ocean and the Lima Province on the west. The region has a coastal and an Andean zone, has a great diversity of natural regions: the Costa or Chala up to the Janka or Cordillera; the predominating regions are the Yunga and Quechua The Lachay National Reserve, a unique mist-fed eco-system of wild plant and animal species, is a natural reserve located in the region. Lunahuaná District of Cañete Province, is located 38 km away from the city of San Vicente de Cañete; the Incahuasi Archeological complex is located there. Lunahuaná has the sun shines during most of the year. Lunahuaná has become an adventure sports paradise, such as: Canotaje, Parapente & Ala Delta.
Whitewater rafting is possible due to the Cañete River, which has rapids up to level 4. The main settlement in this district is the town of Lunahuaná; the remains of early Andean inhabitants and harpoon fishermen from more than 10,000 years ago, are to be found in the Lima region. These remains were found in Chivateros, near the Chillón River, in various other places; these persons incorporated nets, farming and weaving to their everyday objects. The inhabitants of the coast lived in the lomas and the valleys, where they built temples and dwelling complexes, leading to huge ceremonial centers, such as the Huacoy on the Chillón River. There are finely ornamented temples with figures modeled in clay. Lithic prehistoric projectile points of Paijan type were found at Ancon 40 kilometres north-east of Lima in the Chillón River Valley; the 5,000-year-old ruins known as El Paraíso, Peru are located in this area. A temple at the site is believed to be about 5,000 years old. In 2006, a team of archeological researchers led by Robert Benfer announced their findings from a four-year excavation at Buena Vista, Peru in the Chillón River valley a few miles north of present-day Lima.
They had discovered a 4200-year-old observatory constructed by an early Andean civilization, a three-dimensional sculpture, unique for the time period in this region, sophisticated carvings. The observatory is on top of a 33-foot pyramidal mound and has architectural features for sighting the astronomical solstices; the discovery pushes back the time for the development of complex civilization in the area and has altered scholars' understanding of Preceramic period cultures in Peru. The Lima culture arose in this area to Lurín, it was distinguished by painted adobe buildings. During this time, the Huari conquest took place, thus giving rise to Huari-style ceramics, together with a local style known as Nievería; as the population grew, their culture changed. With the decline of the Huari, whose most important center was Cajamarquilla, new local cultures arose; the Chancay are the most well known. They developed large urban centers and a considerable textile production, as well as mass-produced ceramics.
At this stage in the mid-fifteenth century, the Incas arrived from their base in the Andes. They conquered and absorbed the regional cultures and occupied important sites such as Pachacamac, turning it into an administrative center; the region is divided into 10 provinces, which are composed of 171 districts. Lima Barranca Cajatambo Cañete Canta Huaral Huarochirí Huaura Oyón Yauyos Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve Lima Region Information Hub – Lima Region Information Hub official website Lima Region Tourism Board – Lima Region Tourism Board official website North Lima Region – Lima Region: Social and Tourist Information Lima Travel Guide – General facts and travel information about Lima Gobierno Regional Lima – Lima Regional Government official website
Department of Ancash
Ancash is a region of northern Peru. It is bordered by La Libertad Region on the north, Huánuco and Pasco regions on the east, the Lima Region on the south, the Pacific Ocean on the west, its capital is the city of Huaraz, its largest city and port is Chimbote. The name of the region originates from anqas or from anka. Ancash is a land of contrasts: it features two great longitudinal valleys, which combine the mountain characteristics of the Callejón de Huaylas with the sylvan ones of the Alto Marañón. Miles of sandy beaches and the blue waters of the Pacific; the territory of the coast, high plateaux and Andean punas of the Ancash Region are flat, while the rest of the territory, in the Andes, is rough. In the west, slopes with strong declivity form narrow canyons with deserted sides; the rough territory of the region is crossed by two mountain ranges: on the western side, the Cordillera Negra, which has peaks without glaciers, on the eastern side, the Cordillera Blanca, which has many peaks covered with snow and ice, such as the Huascarán and the Alpamayo.
Between these two mountain ranges, the Santa River flows through the so-called Callejón de Huaylas. This valley narrows to form the Cañón del Pato. Along the Pacific slopes, the Santa River has shaped a wide valley in the punas which narrows into the Cordillera Negra, where the Cañón del Pato canyon was formed; the snow-covered peak of Huascarán, highest peak of Peru and second of the Americas, reaches a height of 6,768 m and contrasts with the 6,263 m deep trough of Chimbote found in the ocean west of Ancash. Remnants of glaciers created many lakes such as Lake Parón. Following the Pan-American Highway north from Lima, the territory of the region of Ancash begins just beyond the Fortress of Paramonga, between wide fields of sugarcane, across the Fortaleza River, 206 kilometres from Lima. Along the coast of Ancash, from the Fortaleza River to the Santa River, the Pacific exerts great influence; the Peruvian current and the El Niño current exert considerable and sometimes tragic effect on local lives and regional economies.
The Peruvian current known as the Humboldt Current, brings cold water and large numbers of fish. With the development of the shoals of anchoveta, the Ancash ports and creeks became commercial fishing centers. During the 1950s, the bay of Chimbote was the top fishing port of the world. However, when warmer waters from the north, such as the current of El Niño, bring catastrophic rains to the coast and sea, the shoals of anchoveta disappear, leaving the fishing fleets plants paralyzed, flooding rivers cause serious damage to the lands and cities; the cycles of these two sea currents that affect Peru are hard to predict. Further north along the Pan-American highway, numerous islands and islets dot the sea near the coast. Most are home only to guano seabirds. From south to north, the most important islands include Tortuga Island, La Viuda Island, Isla Blanca and Santa Island; the coastal region of Peru includes many peninsulas, warm bays and sand beaches, full of color. Because of the lack of roads and difficult terrain, many of these are inaccessible by land.
The most important beaches include La Gramita Beach and Las Salinas Beach. Much of this coast is a monotonous stretch of huge sand deserts, a common denominator in all Peruvian coastal regions because of the influence of the Humboldt Current. Along the rivers, there are green valleys, cultivated with sugarcane and cotton. From south to north, the main rivers of the Ancash coast are the following: Huarmey, Casma, Sechín, Nepeña, Lacramarca and Santa. Of these rivers, the only one with water year-round is the Santa River, its sources are the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca. The other rivers, as with most rivers of the Peruvian coast, are intermittent, depending on the highland rains or the advance of El Niño. Between the years 400 and 600 BC, the first Peruvian civilization, known as Chavín, originated and flourished in this zone; the importance of this culture lies not only in its antiquity but in the history and culture it shares with other cultures along the Andean and Amazonian territories. As archaeologist Julio C.
Tello put it, "Chavín was the mother of all the cultures that bloomed in the old Peru." The name Chavín comes from the Quechua word Chawpin, which translates as headquarters. Tello believed that people came from the Amazonas, scaled the Andes, developed the Chavín culture. During the Inca age, the population of the Santa valley was assimilated into the Inca empire by Pachacuti; the first Spaniards came to Huaylas attracted by the fame of the silver veins of the region. In time, the Spanish destroyed the Inca cities, it was during this time. Though in the Colonial Age this city held little importance and its artistic and cultural life did not have much relevance, it became the headquarters for Simón Bolívar during his campaign to liberate Peru; the Ancash Region was created following the defeat of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation by the combined forces of the Peruvian restoration army and the Chilean army at the battle of Yungay in 1839. The 1970 Ancash earthquake devastated the region, killing more than 50,000 people and damaging 186,000 houses in one of the deadliest natural disasters in Peru.
Today, most of the Ancash population is concentrated in the Callejón de Huaylas. Beginning in 2011, the mining region has been the s
A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is an accredited title, only awarded to a town when the requirements are met. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort. In Roman times, the town of Baiae, by the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy, was a resort for those who were sufficiently prosperous. Mersea Island, in Essex, England was a seaside holiday destination for wealthy Romans living in Colchester; the development of the beach as a popular leisure resort from the mid-19th century was the first manifestation of what is now the global tourist industry. The first seaside resorts were opened in the 18th century for the aristocracy, who began to frequent the seaside as well as the fashionable spa towns, for recreation and health. One of the earliest such seaside resorts was Scarborough in Yorkshire during the 1720s; the first rolling bathing machines were introduced by 1735. In 1793, Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg, Germany was founded as the first seaside resort of the European continent, which attracted Europe's aristocracy to the Baltic Sea.
The opening of the resort in Brighton and its reception of royal patronage from King George IV extended the seaside as a resort for health and pleasure to the much larger London market, the beach became a centre for upper-class pleasure and frivolity. This trend was praised and artistically elevated by the new romantic ideal of the picturesque landscape. Queen Victoria's long-standing patronage of the Isle of Wight and Ramsgate in Kent ensured that a seaside residence was considered as a fashionable possession for those wealthy enough to afford more than one home; the extension of this form of leisure to the middle and working class began with the development of the railways in the 1840s, which offered cheap and affordable fares to fast growing resort towns. In particular, the completion of a branch line to the small seaside town Blackpool from Poulton led to a sustained economic and demographic boom. A sudden influx of visitors arriving by rail provided the motivation for entrepreneurs to build accommodation and create new attractions, leading to more visitors and a rapid cycle of growth throughout the 1850s and 1860s.
The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire cotton mill owners of closing the factories for a week every year to service and repair machinery. These became known as wakes weeks; each town's mills would close for a different week, allowing Blackpool to manage a steady and reliable stream of visitors over a prolonged period in the summer. A prominent feature of the resort was the promenade and the pleasure piers, where an eclectic variety of performances vied for the people's attention. In 1863, the North Pier in Blackpool was completed becoming a centre of attraction for elite visitors. Central Pier was completed with a theatre and a large open-air dance floor. Many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because the all-covering beachwear of the period was considered immodest. By the end of the century the English coastline had over 100 large resort towns, some with populations exceeding 50,000; the development of the seaside resort abroad was stimulated by the well developed English love of the beach.
The French Riviera alongside the Mediterranean had become a popular destination for the British upper class by the end of the 18th century. In 1864, the first railway to Nice was completed, making the Riviera accessible to visitors from all over Europe. By 1874, residents of foreign enclaves in Nice, most of whom were British, numbered 25,000; the coastline became renowned for attracting the royalty of Europe, including Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. In the United States, early seaside resorts in the late 1800s catered to the wealthy class and city businessmen. Cape May, New Jersey became one of the first coastal resorts in the United States, when regular steamboat traffic on the Delaware River began after the War of 1812. Early visitors to Cape May included Henry Clay in 1847, Abraham Lincoln in 1849. By 1880, Henry Flagler extended several rail lines southward down the Atlantic coastline of the United States, enticing the northern upper-class families south to subtropical Florida; the Florida East Coast Railway brought northern tourists to St. Augustine in greater numbers, by 1887 Flagler began construction of two large ornate hotels in St. Augustine, the 540-room Ponce de Leon Hotel and the Hotel Alcazar, bought the Casa Monica Hotel the next year.
Continental European attitudes towards gambling and nudity tended to be more lax than in Britain, British and French entrepreneurs were quick to exploit the possibilities. In 1863, the Prince of Monaco, Charles III and François Blanc, a French businessman, arranged for steamships and carriages to take visitors from Nice to Monaco, where large luxury hotels and casinos were built; the place was renamed Monte Carlo. Commercial seabathing spread to other areas of the United States and parts of the British Empire such as Australia, where surfing became popular in the early 20th century. By the 1970s cheap and affordable air travel was the catalyst for the growth of a global tourism market. Recreational fishing and leisure boat pursuits have become lucrative, traditional fishing villages are well positioned to take advantage of this. For example, Destin, on the coast of Florida, has evolved from an artisanal fishing village into a seaside resort dedicated to tourism with
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
El Callao is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean in the Lima metropolitan area. Callao is Peru's home to its main airport, Jorge Chávez International Airport. Callao municipality consists of the whole Callao Region, coterminous with the Province of Callao. Founded in 1537 by the Spanish, the city has a long naval history as one of the main ports in Latin America and the Pacific, as it was one of vital Spanish towns during the colonial era. Central Callao is about 15 km west of the Historic Centre of Lima. El Callao was founded by Spanish colonists in 1537, just two years after Lima, it soon became the main port for Spanish commerce in the Pacific. The origin of its name is unknown. Other sources point to the similarity with the Portuguese word calhau. At the height of the Viceroyalty all goods produced in Peru and Argentina were carried over the Andes by mule to Callao, to be shipped to Panama, carried overland, transported on to Spain via Cuba. After the Battle of Ayacucho, 9 December 1824, that sealed the independence of Peru and South America, Spain made futile attempts to retain its former colonies, such as at the Siege of Callao.
On 20 August 1836, during the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy, President Andrés de Santa Cruz mandated the creation of the Callao Littoral Province, which had political autonomy in its internal affairs. During the government of President Ramón Castilla, Callao was given the name of Constitutional Province, on 22 April 1857. All of the other Peruvian provinces had been given their names by law, while Callao was given it by constitutional mandate. Callao was never part of the Lima Department nor of any other departments; the province's first mayor was Col. Manuel Cipriano Dulanto. By 1949, Callao was known as one of the biggest centers of coca-based products and cocaine traffic in the world. On 28 October 1746, a tsunami caused by the 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. On 22 January 1826, besieged by nationalist forces backed by Simón Bolívar, General José Ramón Rodil surrendered Callao to General Bartolomé Salom. On 2 May 1866, during the Battle of Callao, the Spanish fleet tried to reconquer independent Peru.
Kon-Tiki left Callao, Peru, on the afternoon of 28 April 1947. On 19 June 1986, dozens of Sendero Luminoso terrorists tried to escape but encountered the government's naval forces on El Frontón, resulting in the so-called Peruvian prison massacres. Callao is built on and around a peninsula, the district of La Punta, a wealthy residential neighborhood. A historical fortress, the Castillo de Real Felipe, stands on the promontory overlooking the harbor. A large naval base is sited in Callao, its prison holds Abimael Guzmán, the leader of the Shining Path terrorist organization, Vladimiro Montesinos, the ex-director of internal security during the Fujimori regime. Jorge Chávez International Airport is located in Callao. On a bluff overlooking the harbor sits Colegio Militar Leoncio Prado, the military high school; the city has a university, the National University of Callao. The main Naval Hospital, Centro Medico Naval is located on Avenida Venezuela in Bellavista, it contains the U. S. Navy command Naval Medical Research Unit Six.
Residents of Callao are known as chalacos. Callao's professional football teams are Sport Boys and Atlético Chalaco. Callao has several islands: San Lorenzo, El Frontón, the Cavinzas Islands, the Palomino Islands, where numerous sea lions and sea birds live in a untouched ecosystem. There are proposed plans to build a huge naval and air port on San Lorenzo Island; this project is called the San Lorenzo Megaport Project. Local government affairs are divided into two levels. Regional matters are handled by the Regional Government of Callao, located in the Bellavista District. Affairs such as city cleaning, promoting of sports and basic services are handled by the Provincial Municipality of Callao, headquartered in the Callao District; each of the six districts has its own Municipality which handles matters in their respective jurisdictional areas. Callao is divided into seven districts, each of, headed by a mayor; the rest of Callao Region is composed of the islands of San Lorenzo, El Frontón, Cavinzas and Palomino, which all together have an area of 17.63 square kilometres.
Jorge Chávez International Airport, known as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez in Spanish, is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in 12 km from the Historic Centre of Lima and 19 km from Miraflores. Callao is the port city now integrated with Lima, the nation's capital. In 2008, the airport handled 98,733 aircraft movements. For many years it was the hub for now defunct Aeroperú and Compañía de Aviación Faucett, one of the oldest airlines in Latin America. Now it serves as a hub for many aviation companies such as Avianca Perú, Viva Air Peru, LATAM Perú; the port is served by the Ferrocarril Central Andino railway, which from 2006 to 2010 was converted from 3 feet gauge to the world standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. Municipality of Callao Regional government of Callao Jorge Chavez International Airport National University of Callao