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Limited-access road

A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway, including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as cars, bicycles or horses, few or no intersecting cross-streets. The degree of isolation from local traffic allowed varies between regions; the precise definition of these terms varies by jurisdiction. The first implementation of limited-access roadways in the United States was the Bronx River Parkway in New York, in 1907; the New York State Parkway System was constructed as a network of high-speed roads in and around New York City. The first limited access highway built is thought to be the built Long Island Motor Parkway in Long Island, New York.

The Southern State Parkway opened in 1927, while the Long Island Motor Parkway was closed in 1937 and replaced by the Northern State Parkway and the contiguous Grand Central Parkway. The first Dutch bike freeway route opened in 2004 between Etten-Leur. Expressways are defined as having "partial control of access", meaning that major roads use interchanges and commercial development is accessed via cross roads or frontage roads, while minor roads can cross at grade and farms can have direct access; this definition is used by some states, some of which restrict freeways only to motor vehicles capable of maintaining a certain speed. Some other states use "controlled access" to mean a higher standard than "limited access", while others reverse the two terms. While Australia's larger capital cities feature controlled-access highway networks, the smaller metropolitan areas rely on limited-access highways for high-speed local traffic. In South Australia the terms "expressway" and "freeway" can be synonymous.

The Southern and Northern Expressways are both controlled-access highways. However confusingly, the Port River Expressway is a limited-access highway. Dual carriageways that connect capital cities and regional centres, such as the M31 Hume Highway between Sydney and Melbourne, are all limited-access highways. In spite of this,'freeway' terminology is used on signage for most regional limited access highways in the state of Victoria; the terms Motorway and Expressway in New Zealand both encompass multi-lane divided freeways as well as narrower 2-4-lane undivided expressways with varying degrees of grade separation. The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China is the longest highway system in the world; the network is known as National Trunk Highway System. By the end of 2016, the total length of China's expressway network reached 131,000 kilometers. Expressways in China are a recent addition to a complex network of roads. China's first expressway was built in 1988; until 1993 few expressways existed.

The network is expanding after 2000. In 2011, 11,000 kilometres of expressways were added to the network; the Expressways of Pakistan are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed highways in Pakistan, which are owned and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority. They are one class lower than the country's motorways and are upgraded versions of the national highways; the total length of Pakistan's expressways is 260-kilometre as of November, 2016. Around 770-kilometre of expressways are under construction in different parts of country. Most of these expressways will be complete between 2017 and 2020. Expressways in India make up more than 942 km of the Indian National Highway System on which they are the highest class of road; the National Highways Development Project is underway to add an additional 18,637 km of expressways to the network by the year 2022. Expressways in Iran are one class lower than freeways and are used in large urban areas such as Isfahan, Mashhad, or Tehran and between other important cities in rural and desert areas.

The speed limit in Urban areas is between 50 and 70 km/h and in rural and desert areas between 90 and 110 km/h. The term Expressway as used in English in Japan refers to both freeway-style highways and narrower, more winding undivided Regional High-Standard Highways 地域高規格道路. Both types of expressways have a combined length of 10,021 km as of April 2012. Limited-access roads in Malaysia but not always, take the name highway. Highways have a lower speed limit than expressways, permit at-grade intersections and junctions to residential roads and shopfronts, although grade separation is still typical. Highways are toll-free and are owned and operated by the federal government. Notable examples of limited-access roads are the Federal Highway, Skudai Highway, Gelugor Highway, Kuantan Bypass and Kuching Bypass. Limited-access roads in Singapore are formally known as semi-expressways. While still functioning as high-speed roads, semi-expressways may still have at-grade intersections

Alexei Rios

Alyaksey Ryas or Alexei Manuelevich Rios is a Belarusian professional footballer of Peruvian and Spanish descent playing for Dinamo Minsk. Having started his career at Dinamo Minsk Rios joined FC Shakhtyor Soligorsk in 2005 at the age of 17. At Soligorsk he debuted in the Belarusian Premier League in 2007 where he played for eight years before joining FC BATE Borisov for the 2015 season. Shakhtyor Soligorsk Belarusian Cup winner: 2013–14BATE Borisov Belarusian Premier League champion: 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Belarusian Cup winner: 2014–15 Belarusian Super Cup winner: 2015, 2016, 2017 Ryas made his debut for Belarus on 31 August 2016, after coming on as a substitute at half time in a friendly match against Norway. Scores and results list Belarus' goal tally first. Rios was born to a Belarusian mother in Minsk, he is married. FC BATE profile Alexei Rios at Soccerway

Steppenwolf (film)

Steppenwolf is a 1974 film adaptation of Hermann Hesse's 1927 novel Steppenwolf. The film made heavy use of visual special effects, it follows the adventures of a half-man, half-animal individual named Harry Haller, who in the Germany of the 1920s, is depressed, resentful of his middle class station, wants to die not knowing the world around him. He meets two strange people who introduce him to life and a bizarre world called the Magic Theater; the film took seven years of complicated pre-production for its producers Melvin Abner Fishman and Richard Herland. Fishman, a student of Jung and alchemy, wanted the film to be "the first Jungian film" and built up relationships with the Hesse family that allowed the film rights of the book to be released. Herland raised the finances. Directors Michelangelo Antonioni and John Frankenheimer, as well as the actor James Coburn were all touted to direct the film. In the end, the film was directed by Fred Haines. Although Walter Matthau, Jack Lemmon and Timothy Leary were all proposed as playing the main role of Harry Haller, the role went to Max von Sydow.

In the other principal parts, Pierre Clementi played Pablo, Dominique Sanda took the role of Hermine and Carla Romanelli was Maria. Although the film is in English, none of the principal actors were native English speakers; the rights to the finished film were given over to Peter Sprague, its financier. A "marketing disaster" followed. For decades the film remained little seen except for brief runs in art film houses. Steppenwolf on IMDb


"Wetwired" is the twenty-third episode of the third season and the 72nd episode overall of the science fiction television series The X-Files. The episode first aired in the United States on May 1996, on Fox, it was written by the show's visual effect designer Mat Beck, directed by Rob Bowman. The episode was viewed by 14.48 million people. The episode received positive reviews from television critics; the show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. Mulder is a believer in the paranormal, while the skeptical Scully has been assigned to debunk his work. In this episode and Scully investigate a series of murders committed by ordinary citizens angered after seeing illusory images. Scully's trust in Mulder is put to the ultimate test. "Wetwired" was written by the show's visual effects supervisor. Beck drew inspiration from debates about television violence and his desire to explore the effect that television has on people.

Actor Steven Williams had scheduling conflicts due to his work on the series L. A. Heat, resulting in the creation of the Plain Clothed Man, who appeared in the episode as an emissary for X. Williams called his scene at the end of the episode with The Smoking Man one of his favorite scenes he performed on the show. In Braddock Heights, Maryland, a man mistakenly kills his wife, believing her, as well as the police who soon arrive, to all be someone else. Fox Mulder is tipped off to the case by the mysterious Plain-Clothed Man, who provides him with a newspaper article discussing the case. Mulder and partner Dana Scully visit the man, his doctor, Dr. Stroman, in a psychiatric hospital and are told the man killed five people, believing them to all be the same person. Mulder and Scully visit the murderer's house, where Mulder sees a repairman working on the cable line, they find hundreds of video tapes of a cable news channel. Scully believes all the violence the man watched on TV may have led him to the murders, something Mulder does not believe.

That night Scully watches the tapes. She sees Mulder in a car talking to the Cigarette Smoking Man. In the morning Scully suspiciously asks Mulder; when Mulder tells her he only went out for a paper earlier, she believes. The next day a similar murder occurs when a woman thinks she sees her husband in a hammock with another woman. Mulder sees the same cable repairman near the house. Climbing up on the telephone pole Mulder finds a device inside the cable box. Mulder brings the device to the Lone Gunmen. Mulder contacts Scully, growing paranoid. Hearing possible clicks while on the phone with Mulder, she frantically searches her hotel room for monitoring devices; when Mulder knocks at her door, Scully runs off. Mulder believes her to be suffering from paranoid psychosis; the Lone Gunmen believe the device to be some sort of subliminal mind control device. Mulder was not affected due to his color blindness; the police find a body they believe to be that of Scully. Mulder is unable to contact Scully's mother.

He finds Scully there. Scully claims Mulder blames him for her abduction and her sister's murder. Scully's mother calms her down, she is hospitalized. Mulder believes. Mulder tries to contact Dr. Stroman with no success, he traces Dr. Stroman's location to an empty hotel room. Using the phone log for the room Mulder tracks Stroman to a house where he spots him meeting with the cable repairman. However, by the time Mulder enters, shots ring out, Mulder finds both men dead, with X responsible for their murders. X used a third party to inform Mulder, knowing he had orders to kill the men, but Mulder was not able to piece things together in time. Mulder calls him a coward but X tells Mulder that Mulder needs him. X meets in a car with The Smoking Man. "Wetwired" was written by Mat Beck. Beck was inspired to pen the episode after hearing the debates concerning violence on television and its effect on viewers. Beck's initial concept was more complex and pulled from neurology texts, but as the script progressed, it was simplified.

Actor Steven Williams had scheduling conflicts due to his work on the series L. A. Heat, resulting in the creation of the "Plain Clothed Man", who appeared in the episode as an emissary for X. Paul Rabwin provided narration for a television show that plays in the background. Dana Scully's motel room as well as The Lone Gunmen's office were constructed on sound stage; the episode had late-stage sound problems which resulted in post-production dragging into the day the episode was scheduled to be broadcast. Williams called his scene at the end of the episode with The Smoking Man one of his favorite scenes. Rob Bowman said, "I dug the script. I felt it was a good old-fashioned show, people who didn't like'Jose Chung's From Outer Space' would like'Wetwired' because all the bad boys are back. A good clean steak-and-potatoes type of episode." "Wetwired" premiered on the Fox network in the United States on May 10, 1996. The episode earned a Nielsen rating of 9.7, with a 17 share, meaning that 9.7

Royal Newfoundland Constabulary

The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary is the provincial police service for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The primary function of the RNC is to enforce provincial laws, the Criminal Code, provide security details for VIPs and the Premier of Newfoundland; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary is responsible for providing metropolitan police services to the northeast Avalon Peninsula. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, the Ontario Provincial Police and the Sûreté du Québec are the only provincial police forces in Canada; the RNC dates back with the appointment of the first police constables. In the 19th century, the RNC was modelled after the Royal Irish Constabulary with the secondment in 1844 of Timothy Mitchell of the Royal Irish Constabulary to be Inspector General, making it the oldest civil police force in North America. Mitchell served as Inspector General and Superintendent of Police until 1871, when the Newfoundland Constabulary was reorganized with a new Police Act. Other officers recruited from the RIC to take command of the Newfoundland force included Thomas J. Foley, who served from 1871 to 1873, Paul Carty, who headed the RNC from 1873–1895, John Roche McGowen, who served as constabulary Inspector General from 1895-1908.

In January 1909, John J. Sullivan became the first Newfoundland-born police chief of the RNC, he held that post until September, 1917. During World War II, the RNC pursued spies and criminal elements in the foreign military stationed at St. John's, their investigation into the 1942 Knights of Columbus Hostel fire has become popular knowledge. In 1979, Queen Elizabeth II of Canada conferred the designation Royal on the Newfoundland Constabulary, in recognition of its long history of service to Newfoundland and Labrador. On May 3, 2005, the RNC made a formal exchange of colours with An Garda Síochána na hÉireann, one of the two successor forces to the old RIC; the exchange of colours was to mark the historic links between policing in Ireland. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary serves alongside the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, contracted by the provincial government to provide provincial and community policing services; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary services major metropolitan areas while the RCMP serves smaller and remote rural areas.

The RNC polices the following areas: St. John's Metropolitan Area Corner Brook Labrador West Operating stations include: St. John's - 3 locations: Headquarters, Patrol Services Division and Criminal Investigation Division Mount Pearl - Satellite Office Labrador City - Detachment Corner Brook - Regional Office Churchill Falls - Regional Office The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary maintains a fleet of vehicles of models from several major automakers, such as models including but not limited to the following: Other Vehicles are commissioned for special purposes, such as the Tactics and Rescue Unit, Dog Services, Mounted Unit Transport, Evidence Collection. 29 foot Mercury Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat with twin 200HP engines As a result of the recommendations of the Select Committee on the Arming Policy of the RNC, members on operational duty were permitted to wear sidearms starting 14 June 1998. Members were required to keep all firearms secured in the trunk of the police cruiser and were only deployed with permission from the Chief.

The RNC has operated a mounted unit since 1873. The unit was created in 2003 replacing a voluntary unit; the unit's history can be traced back to three earlier units, the Newfoundland Constabulary Mounted Force 1873-1894, New Fire Brigade Mounted Force 1895-1922 and Newfoundland Constabulary 1922-1951. The unit has four Percheron horses: Dr. Rich Townshend Fraize Dobbin RNC Marine unit dates back to the 1880s using the steam cruiser Fiona and now has 8 crew members patrolling the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline with the Canadian Coast Guard with 5 vessels; the current RNC Marine Unit RHIB is housed at the Rovers Search and Rescue Regional Training and Response Facility Custodian helmet Integrated Security Unit List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage Monarchy of Canada Royal Canadian Mounted Police Royal Irish Constabulary Newfoundland Ranger Force—police force that patrolled the country from 1935 until 1949 Official website Oral history collection related to Ferryland Constabulary officers

Rudolf Matutinović

Rudolf Matutinović was a Croatian sculptor. Rudolf Matutinović was born on March 27, 1927, on Makarska Riviera, his father Ante and mother Iva had six children - Ivan, Ante, Rudolf and Verđina. From the earliest age, the shapes of rocks and shadow play and the lavish colours of nature around Biokovo Mountain fascinate young Rudolf; as a small child, he felt the calling to become a sculptor. At the age of fifteen, he witnessed the horror of war for the first time in August 1942 when the Italian army sentenced the boy Matutinović, along with several other people from the village, to death by execution, they were saved by Franciscan friars from the Zaostrostrog Monastery. In the fall of 1943, he found himself on Hvar Island with the army brigade of Biokovo-Neretva County, was sent to El Shatt refugee camp, located in the desert near the Suez Canal. There, along with some partisan duties, he managed to attend an improvised art school, managed by the painter Živko Kljaković from Split; some other teachers from Split worked at the school.

The natural talent of young Matutinović became obvious. Professor Mate Radmilović suspected the authenticity of one of his works, attributing it to his colleague professor Kljaković; these successful works were stored in the professor's own portfolio and exhibited in Cairo. The works have been saved and preserved by Ranko Marinković - an act of special encouragement and great honour for Matutinović; these pioneer works made during Matutinović's exile in 1944 are now on display in Zagreb's Historical and School Museums. Matutinović lost both his parents during the war, his mother died in 1944, shortly afterward, after being imprisoned and tortured in an enemy camp in the city of Osijek, his father died in Zaostrog in 1945. After the end of war, Matutinović refused to take up any political position in the youth organization and relinquished any possibility of political and financial support for the study of fine arts, he continued with his work and studies. That same year, he enrols in the sculpture department of the Arts and Crafts School in Split.

In 1948, he graduates from the Arts and Crafts School in Zagreb. His professors were Davorin Hotko. In 1948 Matutinović passes the entrance exam at the Academy of Fine Arts and begins the long-coveted study of sculpture. Among his colleagues were Borka Avramova, Veljko Bodulić, Ivan Mitrović, Boro Mitričevski, Vladimir Dorić, Marijan Kocković and Vera Fišer. Together they made up a successful generation and many of them remain renowned and praised artists to this day, he studied under Andrija Krstulović, Frano Kršinić, Vjekoslav Rukljač and others. During his college years, in 1951, he sculpted a portrait of his colleague Borka Avramova – his first work of art made in stone. In 1953, he graduates with honours from the class of professor Fran Kršinić; this diploma opens up numerous opportunities to work with great sculptor masters of the time. From July 1st until December 1st he worked as an apprentice in the master shop of sculptor Vanja Radauš; the collaboration between the famous sculptor Radauš and the free-minded young Matutinović was not long-lived.

On November 15th 1953 young Matutinović writes: "Dear Professor, I would hereby like to inform you that I have decided to leave your shop. Thank you for presenting me with the opportunity to work with you. Please forgive me if I have inadvertently done anything to offend you. I would like to thank you once again for everything. With all my respect, R. Matutinović. " On December 16 that same year, he receives a scholarship from the Federal commission for cultural relations with foreign countries. He continues his studies in Paris from January 10 until March 27, 1954, Not long after, he begins his collaboration with professor Fran Kršinić; this postgraduate course earns him a Master of Arts diploma. Encouraged by professor Grga Antunc, a friend of Ivan Meštrović, the young sculptor sends photographs of his works to Meštrović. Meštrović’s response arrives shortly afterwards, dated August 6th, 1954: "I hereby declare that I shall be happy to accept as talented a sculptor as Rudolf Matutinović to my sculpture department art classes at the University in Syracuse, NY.

Professor Ivan Meštrović, Syracuse University, NY.” Matutinović’s trip to the United States did not happen, however - the passionate artist hurt his back while working on a project, and, as he himself has noted: "... The questions that I received from the American Embassy in Belgrade had a McCarthyist flavour that did not sit well with an immigrant from a socialist country..." In 1955 his first exhibition opens in Zagreb. That same year he was admitted to the Croatian Association of Artists. From July 10th to August 20th he studied in Rome. In 1956 he married Ljerka Car, a famous poet and professor of literature from the town of Crikvenica, his son Igor is born in 1957. The creative oeuvre of Rudolf Matutinović covered sculpture as well as monuments, he was engaged in drawing. He illustrated books; the not large register of sculptural themes recalls the tradition of the old masters one of the characteristics of whom was their concentration on a small number of topics. Such a constraint contributed to the meticulous workmanship of the statue.

That this was the case with Matutinović is shown by the broad spectrum in the selection of materials – stone, bronze and plaster. He sought his own perfection.