The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed.
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the Southwest
Limmatquai is a street in the Swiss city of Zürich. It is named after the Limmat, and it follows the bank of that river for about 1 kilometre through the Altstadt, or historical core. The Limmatquai has its southern end adjacent to the Quaibrücke bridge and Bellevueplatz square and its northern end is at the Bahnhofbrücke bridge and Central plaza. For most of its length, the street runs alongside the river, with buildings only on its eastern side. In the 12th and 13th century, the houses alongside the east bank of the Limmat were built directly on the shore, and were accessed from Oberdorfstrasse and Niederdorfstrasse on their landward sides. Over the course of the centuries, the Limmat was increasingly channeled. The section between the Rathaus and the steps up to Grossmünsterplatz was originally known as Rathausquai and was built in 1835/36, the section upstream of the steps was originally known as Sonnenquai and was built between 1835 and 1839. In the years 1887 to 1891 the whole street was broadened, the churches of Grossmünster and Wasserkirche are both adjacent to the Limmatquai, although both predate its construction.
The Grossmünster lies to the east, at the top of a flight of stairs, views across the river from the Limmatquai include the Fraumünster church, the Hotel zum Storchen, the Schipfe and the Lindenhof. The Limmatquai is one of the attractions for tourists. Zürich tram lines 2,4 and 15 traverse the Limmatquai between Bellevue and Central stops, calling at the stops at Helmhaus and Rudolf-Brun-Brücke. The Limmat tour boats operated by the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft call at a landing stage mid-way along the Limmatquai on their route between Zürichhorn and the Landesmuseum, most private vehicles are prohibited, the area is the largest pedestrian zone of Zürich. The garden restaurant Terrasse will be redesigned, while the stand is maintained. Bus and motorized road transport operate in the future on a track, meaning the separate bus lane at Utoquai is repealed. The best-known event on the Limmatquai is the annual Sechseläuten parade which traverses the street on its way to Sechseläutenplatz, between April 2014 and January 2015, an art installation known as the Hafenkran or Zürich maritim project was present on the Limmatquai.
The installation comprised an old harbour crane from Dresden, together with a number of bollards, the installation proved controversial, and polarized the public and the political establishment of Zürich. Das Limmatquai vor und nach der Neugestaltung, aufenthaltsnutzung, Fuss- und Veloverkehrsaufkommen im Vergleich der Jahre 2004-2005-2008. Published by Tiefbau- und Entsorgungsdepartement der Stadt Zürich, Zürich 2009, media related to Limmatquai at Wikimedia Commons Limmatquai page from the Zürich Tourist Service A history of the Limmatquai
The Limmat Valley is a river valley and a region in the cantons of Zürich and Aargau in Switzerland. The Limmat is a 35 km long river located in the cantons of Zürich and it is the continuation of the Linth, and is known as the Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zürich, in the city of Zürich, flowing in northwesterly direction to the Aare. The confluence is located northeast of the town of Brugg, shortly after the mouth of the Reuss. The confluence of the three rivers Aare and Limmat is known as Wasserschloss, standortförderung Limmattal is a society to enhance networking of the region and to realize common projects by the communities in the region Limmatal. Near realization is an additional tramway called Limmattalbahn, between Zürich-Farbhof and Killwangen-Spreitenbach, as continuation of the Zürich tram line 2 and of the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
The Reppisch is a river in Switzerland. It rises in the Türlersee and joins the Limmat as its tributary, the Reppisch flows in the Säuliamt, canton of Zürich, an area featuring still partially untouched nature. Between Birmensdorf and Dietikon, the crosses a narrow valley which is used as a target range by the Swiss army troops stationed in the infantry barracks nearby. Therefore, this valley may be closed to entry during some parts of the week, shortly before entering Dietikon, the river underruns the Mutschellenpassstrasse and the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn railway. In the spring of 1999, there were floods in this area, blocking the road. Sixty eight named streams empty into the Reppisch, of three, namely the Wüeribach, the Rummelbach and the Lunnerenbach, are 4 or more kilometres long. The most important tributary of the Reppisch is the roughly 8-kilometre-long Wüeribach, which drains the plain of Wettswil and Bonstetten and empties into the Reppisch near Birmensdorf from the left
Lake Zürich is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich. The waters of the Lake of Zürich flow out of the lake at its north-west end, passing through the city of Zürich, the culminating point of the lakes drainage basin is the Tödi at 3,614 metres above sea level. No streams of importance flow into the lake besides the Linth, the Seedamm, a partially artificial causeway and bridge, crosses a narrow point of the lake carrying a railway line and road from Rapperswil to Pfäffikon. The eastern section of the lake is known as the Obersee, west of this dam lie the small islands of Lützelau and Ufenau, where in 1523 Ulrich von Hutten took refuge and died. Both shores are well cultivated and fertile, another touristic destination is the Au peninsula at the village of Au between Wädenswil and Horgen. To the east – separated by Zürichberg-Adlisberg and Pfannenstiel – are two lakes, Greifensee and Pfäffikersee. Zimmerberg and the Etzel regions lie to the west, Lake Zürich is split between the cantons of Zürich, St.
Gallen and Schwyz. The lower lake, to the west of the Seedamm, is largely in the canton of Zürich, besides Bürkliplatz in Zürich and the Seedamm, there are no bridges across the lake. The Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft – the Lake Zürich Navigation Company – provides with its 17-passenger ships touristic services on Lake Zürich, there are a number of passenger ferry services, noticeably the Horgen–Meilen ferry, an auto ferry between Horgen and Meilen. Zürich, at the end of the lake, is the largest city on Lake Zürich. On the west shore are Rüschlikon, Horgen, Wädenswil, Richterswil, Pfäffikon, on the opposite shore are Küsnacht, Meilen, Stäfa, and Rapperswil-Jona with the medieval town of Rapperswil, whose castle is home to the Polish museum. Schmerikon is close to the east end of the lake, Lake Zürichs water is very clean and reaches, during summer, temperatures well beyond 20 °C. Swimming in the baths and beaches is very popular. Historically, the best weather for swimming has been late August, with August 28 typically having the nicest weather at around 5, the lakes water is purified and fed into Zürichs water system, it is potable.
Because the lake has grown in size over time, the piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. Also on the area of about 40 square kilometres around Zürichsee, there the settlements Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg on Greifensee
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936
Untersiggenthal is a municipality in the district of Baden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland, located in the Limmat Valley. Untersiggenthal has an area, as of 2006, of 8.3 square kilometers, of this area,33. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 44. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,18. 8% is settled, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules two Keys in saltire Argent. Untersiggenthal has a population of 7,161, as of 2008,26. 1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 10. 9%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Untersiggenthal is,685 children or 10. 7% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 766 teenagers or 11. 9% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,842 people or 13. 1% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 856 people or 13. 3% are between 30 and 39,1,056 people or 16. 4% are between 40 and 49, and 888 people or 13. 8% are between 50 and 59.
As of 2000, there were 240 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household,1,226 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, the average number of people per household was 2.45 individuals. In 2008 there were 1,048 single family homes out of a total of 2,740 homes, there were a total of 58 empty apartments for a 2. 1% vacancy rate. As of 2007, the rate of new housing units was 4.9 new units per 1000 residents. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35% of the vote, the next three most popular parties were the SP, the CVP and the FDP. In Untersiggenthal about 74. 9% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education, of the school age population, there are 448 students attending primary school, there are 211 students attending secondary school in the municipality. As of 2007, Untersiggenthal had an unemployment rate of 2. 79%, as of 2005, there were 67 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 17 businesses involved in this sector. 399 people are employed in the sector and there are 40 businesses in this sector. 748 people are employed in the sector, with 103 businesses in this sector.
As of 2000 there were 3,210 total workers who lived in the municipality, of these,2,713 or about 84. 5% of the residents worked outside Untersiggenthal while 483 people commuted into the municipality for work. There were a total of 980 jobs in the municipality, of the working population,24. 8% used public transportation to get to work, and 46. 9% used a private car
The Sihl is a Swiss river that rises near the Druesberg mountain in the canton of Schwyz, and eventually flows into the Limmat in the centre of the city of Zürich. It has a length of 73 km, including the Sihlsee reservoir, water is abstracted from the river at the Sihlsee, leading to decreased downstream water flows and a consequent negative impact on water quality. The river flows through, or along the border of, the cantons of Schwyz, Zürich and Zug. The main settlements of the Sihl Valley are all in the canton of Zürich, above Langnau am Albis, some 13 km from the confluence with the Limmat, there are no major settlements alongside the river, and only a few small villages. Whilst the town of Einsiedeln is situated close to the Sihlsee, it is actually in the valley of a tributary river, the first written reference to the name dates to 1018, in the form Sylaha. The name may be of Old European or Celtic origin, *Sîla > Romance Sila with the addition of the Old High German element aha flowing water.
The river rises to the side of the Druesberg mountain, in the municipality of Unteriberg of the canton of Schwyz. Some 2 km downstream of Studen, the river enters the artificial Sihlsee reservoir at its southern end, the Minster flows into the Sihlsee, and was, prior to construction of the reservoir, a direct tributary of the Sihl. The Eubach and Grossbach tributary streams flow into the Sihl via the Sihlsee, the Sihlsee is some 8.5 km long, and lies close to the town of Einsiedeln. It is Switzerlands largest artificial lake, and is impounded by a 33-metre high dam and this has led to decreased water flows downstream of the dam, with negative impact on water quality and a tendency for the river to dry out in places during low flow conditions in winter. The river continues as the border between the cantons of Zug and Zürich, passing through the Sihlsprung rapids along the way, at the village of Sihlbrugg, the river enters the canton of Zürich for a second and final time. North of Sihlbrugg, the flows through a lightly populated and heavily wooded valley, accompanied by a main road.
The Sihlwald forest, an example of a large-scale and original forest. At this point, Lake Zürich lies only 2 km to the east, from here the valley bottom is continuously built-up through the town of Adliswil to the boundary of the city of Zürich. Once in the city, the flows through and between the Leimbach, Friesenberg, Alt-Wiedikon and Enge quarters before reaching the city centre. In this stretch the river is crossed by bridges, and for one 1.2 km stretch the A3 motorway runs along. Nearer the city centre, the SZU railway line runs in tunnel along, one access to that lines Selnau station is constructed in the form of an artificial island within the river. Shortly after passing under the station, the Sihl joins the Limmat at the apex of the Platzspitz park and this threat has led the City of Zürich to develop and test evacuation plans for the affected areas of the city
Baden, sometimes unofficially, to distinguish it from other Badens, called Baden bei Zürich or Baden im Aargau, is a municipality in Switzerland. It is the seat of the district of Baden in the canton of Aargau, located 25 km northwest of Zürich in the Limmat Valley mainly on the western side of the Limmat, its mineral hot springs have been famed since at least the Roman era. Its official language is German, but the spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Its population in 2010 was over 18,000, downtown Baden is located on the left bank of the river Limmat in its eponymous valley. Its area is divided into the Kappelerhof, Meierhof, in 1962, Baden absorbed the adjacent village of Dättwil. On the right bank of the river is the village of Ennetbaden and these communities, as of 2006, had an area of 13.2 km2. Of that,9. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, the hot sulfur springs, which given Baden its name, lie north of downtown and number about 20. They vary in temperature from 98 to 126 °F.
Baden is first attested in Roman sources as Aquae Helveticae. Hippocrates had counseled against the use of water from springs, but by the time of Vitruvius, Pliny. In addition to their use, the Romans revered natural springs for recreational. Tacitus mentions the town obliquely, describing it as a built up into a semblance of a town. Much used for its healthful waters and this Roman vicus was to the north of the Baden gorge on the Haselfeld, founded to support the legionary camp at Vindonissa. There was a complex on the left bank of the Limmat fed by a system of springs with 47 °C water. The main axis of the vicus was the Vindonissa road, which ran parallel to the slope and it was flanked by porticos, beyond which lay commercial and residential buildings. The center of the settlement had some wealthy villa-like structures, the resort and commercial districts all grew to a respectable size over the first half of the 1st century. In AD69, the 21st Legion burned the town amid the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors and its wooden buildings destroyed, the town was rebuilt in stone.
The town shrank some after the closing of the Vinonissa camp in AD101, reginuss pottery workshop and Gemellianuss bronze works flourished during the second half of the 2nd century. Around the middle of the 3rd century, the settlement was threatened by multiple Alemanni invasions, the baths were frequented again by the time of Charlemagne
The Reuss is a river in Switzerland. With a length of 164 kilometres and a basin of 3,426 square kilometres. The upper Reuss forms the valley of the canton of Uri. The course of the lower Reuss runs from Lake Lucerne to the confluence with the Aare at Brugg, the Gotthardreuss rises in the Gotthard massif, emerging from Lago di Lucendro in the canton of Ticino and passing into the canton of Uri at Brüggboden. The Furkareuss rises east of Furka Pass and forms the Urserental and Furkareuss join at Hospental. Downstream of Andermatt the Reuss passes through Schöllenen Gorge and under the legendary Devils Bridge, at Göschenen it is joined by the Göschenerreuss. The Reuss leaves Lake Lucerne some 20 km to the north-west, notable bridges in Lucerne are the Kapellbrücke, first built 1333, rebuilt 1993 and Spreuerbrücke, built 1408. A needle dam just upstream from the Spreuerbrücke) maintains the water level and it receives the Kleine Emme from Entlebuch at Emmen. It receives the Lorze from Lake Zug downstream of Maschwanden, downstream of this confluence, the Reuss forms the border between Aargau and Zürich, passing Merenschwand and Ottenbach, and enters Aargau downstream of Ottenbach.
Within Aargau, the Reuss flows past Aristau, Rottenschwil, Hermetschwil-Staffeln, here forming Flachsee, the Reussbrücke at Bremgarten was first built c. After the confluence the river continues as the Aare, which flows into the Rhine at Koblenz, the catchment area of 3,426 km2 approximately covers Central Switzerland. The catchment area of the upper Reuss includes almost the entire canton of Uri (with the exception of Urnerboden, the highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Dammastock, at elevation 3,630 m. Downstream of Lucerne, further tributaries add other parts of Zug as well as parts of Zürich, the Germanic name is attested as Rusa, Rusia from the 9th century, from an early Germanic *Rūsi, oblique *Rūsjō-. Greule interprets the name as an Old European hydronym, directly cognate with Riß, until the 13th century, the Schöllenen Gorge was impassable, separating Urseren from Uri. Urseren was accessible via Furka and Oberalp, and was under the influence of the bishopric of Chur, the main settlement area of Uri was the plain of the Reuss estuary Altdorf.
Settlements tended to form on either side of the river, while the river itself was taken as communal or parish boundary. The Schöllenen Gorge was made passable the 1230s, opening access to the Gotthard Pass, the Reuss was canalised between Attinghausen and Altdorf in 1850–1863, and to the river mouth in 1900–1912, significantly increasing the arable land in the Reuss plain. A small river delta was reconstructed in 1985, after flooding in 1987, improved flood control measures were constructed during 1995–1999