The Palala or Lephalala River called the Rhooebok-river by Thomas Baines, is a river in South Africa. This river's catchment basin is a sub-watershed of the Limpopo River, it is a significant watercourse in the Waterberg area of Limpopo Province. The river drains much of the Lapalala Wilderness area and considerable additional lands that are important habitat for native wildlife in a zone with considerable ongoing bushveld restoration; the predominantly dry deciduous forest community of the upland portion of the Palala River watershed is home to many large African mammals including Blue Wildebeest, White Rhino and numerous bovids. The Palala River has been shown to exhibit high water quality with clear flowing waters in the uppermost regions. Interesting prehistoric rock paintings exist on bluffs along the river in the Lapalala Wilderness area. There are a variety of fauna that inhabit the Palala River including fish, Nile crocodile, African Rock Python and hippopotamus. In a 2004 study of the river's health, specimens of the North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were captured within reaches of the Lapalala Wilderness.
A healthy population of male and female fish was found in the river's upper reaches within the Lapalala Wilderness, manifesting normal body mass averaging 1.1 kilograms. The health of the upper reaches was such that the upper Lapala was used in subsequent studies as the healthy control group to compare to other South African rivers which were more polluted from discharge of untreated sewage and agricultural wastes within their watersheds; the underlying rock formation of the Palala River basin derives from the Kaapvaal craton, formed as a precursor island 2.7 billion years ago. This crustal formation became the base of the Waterberg, further transformed by upward extrusion of igneous rocks; these extruded rocks, containing minerals such as vanadium and platinum, are called the Bushveld igneous complex, leading to the colourful bluff faces along much of the Palala River. The original extent of this rock upthrust involved about 250,000 square kilometers, is sometimes called the Waterberg Supergroup.
Sedimentary deposition from the Palala, Mokolo River and other rivers cutting through Waterberg continued through the era of 2.5 billion to 250 million years ago. Around 250 million years ago the supercontinent Gondwana split into its modern day continents; the Palala River catchment basin today contains swamps, bushveld and some kopje outcrops. On vertical cliffs above the Palala River are some locations of significant prehistoric Bushman rock paintings dating to 8000 BC; these paintings are produced on vertical rock faces, with the best specimens being protected by large rock overhangs. The works depict hunting scenes and various native game antelopes; the media used are paints produced with dyes concocted from native plants and soil minerals. These sites are difficult to access, since there are no paved roads for access. Furthermore, these sites are appropriately not well defined on park maps. After reaching the general area of the paintings, one must descend halfway down the vertical bluffs along the Palala.
Waterberg is the first region in the northern part of South Africa to be named as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. The extensive rock formation was shaped by hundreds of millions of years of riverine erosion to yield diverse bluff and butte landform; the ecosystem can be characterised as Bushveld. Within the Waterberg there are archaeological finds dating to the Stone Age, nearby are early evolutionary finds related to the origin of humans. Drainage basin A List of rivers of South Africa Bushmen Rock painting Nile crocodile Palala River water quality and biota studies: site selection
The Mokolo River is a major watercourse in Limpopo Province of South Africa. This river collects much of the drainage of the Waterberg Massif and discharges it to the Limpopo River; the river's catchment area comprises 8,387 square kilometres. The Mokolo River and its upper course tributaries rise in the southwestern part of the Waterberg, between 1200 and 1600 metres above mean sea level; the Mokolo proper originates about 1.5 km north of Alma at the confluence of the Sand River with the Grootspruit River in a flattish, open area with numerous koppies. Shortly thereafter it flows northwards through a steep gorge emerging above the town of Vaalwater; as it heads northwards it threads through the northern Waterberg, an extensive rock formation, shaped by hundreds of millions of years of river erosion to yield diverse bluffs and buttes. The river flows through the flat area of the lowveld until it enters the Mokolo Dam. From there, it flows through another gorge before entering the Limpopo Plain, near the junction with the Rietspruit.
From this point, the Mokolo River flows through flat sandy areas until it reaches the Limpopo's right bank. The most important tributaries of the Mokolo are: Sand River, Klein Sand River, Sondagsloop, Grootspruit, Brakspruit, Bulspruit, Sandloop, Poer se Loop and the Tambotie River; the Mokolo Dam is the only large dam in the system. 87 percent of the river's water use is for agriculture. Some wetlands rehabilitation in the upper Mokolo has been carried out and that effort has been deemed a success; the Mokolo Dam Nature Reserve is located by the eastern and southern sides of the Mokolo Dam reservoir. The highest concentration of hippopotamus in the Limpopo River is found between the mouths of the Mokolo and the Mogalakwena Rivers. Drainage basin A List of rivers of South Africa Bushveld Water Management Areas Mokolo Dam Nature Reserve, Limpopo Water Resource Quality Situation Assessment
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk. Preferably there are few obstructions such as trees to avoid. Bridges must have sufficient clearance. High water speed may make a channel unnavigable. Waters may be unnavigable because of ice in winter. Navigability depends on context: A small river may be navigable by smaller craft, such as a motorboat or a kayak, but unnavigable by a cruise ship. Shallow rivers may be made navigable by the installation of locks that increase and regulate water depth, or by dredging. Inland Water Transport Systems have been used for centuries in countries including India, Egypt, the Netherlands, the United States and Bangladesh. In the Netherlands, IWT handles 46% of the nation's inland freight. What constitutes'navigable' waters can not be separated from the context in which the question is asked. Numerous federal agencies define jurisdiction based on navigable waters, including admiralty jurisdiction, pollution control, to the licensing of dams, property boundaries.
The numerous definitions and jurisdictional statutes have created an array of case law specific to which context the question of navigability arises. Some of the most discussed definitions are listed here. Navigable waters, as defined by the US Army Corps of Engineers as codified under 33 CFR 329, are those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, those inland waters that are presently used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce while the waterway is in its ordinary condition at the time of statehood. Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, approved 3 March 1899, prohibits the unauthorized obstruction of a navigable water of the U. S; this statute requires a permit from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for any construction in or over any navigable water, or the excavation or discharge of material into such water, or the accomplishment of any other work affecting the course, condition, or capacity of such waters.
However, the ACOE recognizes that only the judiciary can make a definitive ruling as to which are navigable waters.33 CFR 329 For the purposes of transferring property title into public property, the definition of a Navigable waterways follows 33 CFR 329. For the purpose of establishing which river is public and therefore state-owned, what is navigable is a constitutional question defined by Federal case law. See PPL Montana v Montana. If a river was considered navigable at the time of statehood, the land below the navigable water was conveyed to the state as part of the transportation network in order to facilitate commerce. Most states retained title to these navigable rivers in trust for the public; some states divested themselves of title to the land below navigable rivers, but a federal navigable servitude remains if the river is a navigable waterway. Title to the lands submerged by smaller streams are considered part of the property through which the water flows and there is no'public right' to enter upon private property based on the mere presence of water.
The scope of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authority was granted under the Federal Power Act, 1941. Such authority is based on congressional authority to regulate commerce. Therefore, FERC's permitting authority extends to the flow from non-navigable tributaries in order to protect commerce downstream; the Clean Water Act has introduced the terms "traditional navigable waters," and "waters of the United States" to define the scope of Federal jurisdiction under the Clean Water Act. Here, "Waters of the United States" include not only navigable waters, but tributaries of navigable waters and nearby wetlands with "a significant nexus to navigable waters". Therefore, the Clean Water Act establishes Federal jurisdiction beyond "navigable waters" extending a more limited federal jurisdiction under the Act over private property which may at times be submerged by waters; because jurisdiction under the Clean Water Act extends beyond public property, the broader definitions of "traditional navigable" and "significant nexus" used to establish the scope of authority under the Act are still ambiguously defined and therefore open to judicial interpretation as indicated in two U.
S. Supreme Court decisions: "Carabell v. United States" and "Rapanos v. United States". However, because authority under the Act is limited to protecting only navigable waters, jurisdiction over these smaller creeks is not absolute and may require just compensation to property owners when invoked to protect downstream waters. A water-body is presumed non-navigable with the burden of proof on the party claiming it is navigable; the U. S. Forest Service considers a waterbody not navigable. See Whitewater v. Tidwell 770 F. 3d 1108. Therefore, public rights associated with navigability cannot be presumed to exist without a finding of navigability.'Navigability' is a legal term of art, which can lead to considerable confusion. In 2009, journalist Phil Brown of Adirondack Explorer defied private property postings to make a direct transit of Mud Pond by canoe, within a tract of private property surrounded by public land within the Adirondack Park. In New York State, waterways that are'navigable-in-fact' are considered public highways, meaning that they are subject to an easement for
The Changane River is a river in Mozambique, a tributary to the Limpopo River which it joins near the coast, just past the town of Chibuto. It forms part of the eastern boundary of Gaza Province; the Changane is the easternmost tributary of the Limpopo, entering it from the left near its mouth on the Indian Ocean The Changane and its main tributaries rise close to the border with Zimbabwe. The river runs southwards along the 34°E line of longitude from about 22°S to about 24°S latitude; the river drains the wetlands of Banhine National Park. The basin covers about 15.9 % of the Limpopo Basin. The river flows through a dry region. In the interior, annual rainfall is as low as 400 millimetres, rising to 800 millimetres near the coast; the Changane River Valley is near sea level, was once a beach line. The Changane has a low runoff coefficient and long periods with no discharge at all; the Changane Valley holds scattered saline wetlands and seasonally flooded grasslands with islands of Acacia nilotica kraussiana.
It is semi-arid, but in the late 1990s rainfall increased causing widespread and devastating flooding. 500 millimetres of rain fell in only 3 days in March 2000. The more flooded areas have higher salinity, they are dominated by salt-tolerant grasslands with extensive bare patches.18 species of fish have been found in the Banhine National Park towards the north of the valley. The African lungfish, two killifish species and two Barbel species have developed ways to deal with drought, since the wetlands are sometimes dry on the surface; the Banhine National Park used to be home to buffalo, tsetsebe, hartebeest and wildebeest. Many of these animals were destroyed during the civil wars of early 1990s. However, the park is still home to many migratory birds. Results of an aerial survey in October 2004 showed that the park had healthy populations of ostrich, impala, duiker, porcupine and oribi; the people of the area have faced a lengthy civil war, must cope with drought and occasional devastating floods.
There is a small human population in the Banhine Park. They have been damaging the environment by slash-and-burn cultivation of maize, sorghum and sugar cane. With drought, the crops fail and the people revert to hunting and fishing, placing stress on the fauna; the government is encouraging people to move out of the park by building permanent water sources outside of the reserve and giving incentives to those who move. The Chibuto District lies in the floodplain of the Changane River near Chibuto city. In this part of the river basin average rainfall is around 200 millimetres during the cold and dry season from April to September, around 570 millimetres in the hot and humid season from October to March; the people are poor, with 50% below the poverty line. They live through subsistence agriculture, growing a mix of vegetables, banana and rice, they graze cattle and make use of local reeds and grass for fiber products. The freshwater springs in the wetland are used for domestic use. Land use maps show that between 2001 and 2007 most of the shrubby marshlands in Chibuto have been converted for use in agriculture in both the dry and wet seasons.
The cause may in part be exceptionally dry conditions during this period. The local farmers report an unsustainable growth in cattle on the land; the reed collectors report that reed are being burned to clear the land for farming, which may have serious long-term impact on the environment. A study undertaken between November 2006 and January 2007 found that the river water did not meet the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality; this may have been due in part to the effects of the wetlands that feed the river and to the natural occurrence of a river bed rich in ions due to natural geology of the area. However, contamination with coliforms was due to urban waste
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
Gaza is a province of Mozambique. It has an area of 75,709 km2 and a population of 1,446,654. Xai-Xai is the capital of the province. Inhambane Province is to the east, Manica Province to the north, Maputo Province to the south, South Africa to the west, Zimbabwe to the northwest. Most of the district lies in the basin of the Limpopo River, which runs from northwest to southeast through the district, emptying into the Indian Ocean near Xai-Xai; the Changane River, a tributary of the Limpopo, forms part of the province's eastern boundary. The Rio dos Elefantes flows into the district from the west through the Massingir Dam, to empty into the Limpopo; the Save River forms the northern boundary of the province. The Limpopo railway, which connects Zimbabwe and Botswana to the port of Maputo, runs through the province, entering Zimbabwe at the border town of Chicualacuala; the province, including the towns of Xai-Xai and Chokwe, were affected by the 2000 Mozambique flood. Limpopo National Park lies within the province, bounded by the Elefantes and Limpopo rivers and the South African border.
Banhine National Park lies in the east-central portion of the province. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park and its associated conservation area, in the process of being formed, will cover the northern part of the province, including both national parks, extend into adjacent parts of Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe; the province was created on October 20, 1954, when Sul do Save District was divided into the districts of Gaza and Lourenço Marques. In 1978, Mozambique's districts were renamed provinces. Gaza Province is divided into the 11 districts of: Bilene Macia District Chibuto District Chicualacuala District Chigubo District Chókwè District Guijá District Mabalane District Manjacaze District Massagena District Massingir District Xai-Xai Districtand the municipalities of: Chibuto Chókwè Macia Manjacaze Xai-Xai Chicumbo Gazaland Salane Gaza Province official site