Lincoln's House Divided Speech

The House Divided Speech was an address given by Abraham Lincoln President of the United States, on June 16, 1858, at what was the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield, after he had accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination as that state's US senator. The nomination of Lincoln was the final item of business at the convention, which broke for dinner, meeting again at 8 PM. "The evening session was devoted to speeches", but the only speaker was Lincoln, whose address closed the convention, save for resolutions of thanks to the city of Springfield and others. His address was published in full by newspapers, as a pamphlet, in the published Proceedings of the convention, it was the launching point of his unsuccessful campaign for the Senatorial seat held by Stephen A. Douglas; when Lincoln collected and published his debates with Douglas as part of his 1860 Presidential campaign, he prefixed them with relevant prior speeches. The "House Divided" speech opens the volume. Lincoln's remarks in Springfield depict the danger of slavery-based disunion, it rallied Republicans across the North.

Along with the Gettysburg Address and his Second Inaugural Address, the speech became one of the best-known of his career. It begins with the following words, which became the best-known passage of the speech: "A house divided against itself, cannot stand." I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I do not expect the house to fall — but I do expect it will cease to be divided, it will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction. Lincoln's goals were to differentiate himself from Douglas — the incumbent — and to voice a prophecy publicly. Douglas had long advocated popular sovereignty, under which the settlers in each new territory would decide their own status as a slave or free state. Lincoln, responded that the Dred Scott decision had closed the door on Douglas's preferred option, leaving the Union with only two remaining outcomes: the country would become either all slave or all free.

Now that the North and the South had come to hold distinct opinions in the question of slavery, now the issue had come to permeate every other political question, the Union would soon no longer be able to function. "A house divided against itself cannot stand." I believe this government can not endure, half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided, it will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction. Have we no tendency to the latter condition? Let any one who doubts contemplate that now complete legal combination— piece of machinery so to speak—compounded of the Nebraska doctrine, the Dred Scott decision; the Kansas-Nebraska Act opened all the national territory to slavery.... This... had been provided for... in the notable argument of "squatter sovereignty," otherwise called "sacred right of self government," which latter phrase, though expressive of the only rightful basis of any government, was so perverted in this attempted use of it as to amount to just this: That if any one man, choose to enslave another, no third man shall be allowed to object.

While the Nebraska Bill was passing through Congress, a law case, involving the question of a negro's freedom... was passing through the U. S. Circuit Court for the District of Missouri; the Negro's name was "Dred Scott".... that whether the holding a negro in actual slavery in a free state, makes him free, as against the holder, the United States courts will not decide, but will leave to be decided by the courts of any slave state the negro may be forced into by the master. This point is made, not to be pressed immediately... the logical conclusion that what Dred Scott's master might lawfully do with Dred Scott, in the free state Illinois, every other master may lawfully do with any other one, or one thousand slaves, in Illinois, or in any other free state. While the opinion of... Chief Justice Taney, in the Dred Scott case... expressly declare that the Constitution of the United States neither permits congress nor a territorial legislature to exclude slavery from any United States territory... omit to declare whether or not the same constitution permits a state, or the people of a state, to exclude it.

This was a mere omission. The nearest approach to the point of declaring the power of a state over slavery, is made by Judge Nelson, he approaches it more than once, using the precise idea, the language too, of the Nebraska Act. On one occasion his exact language is, "except in cases where the power is restrained by the Constitution of the United States, the law of the State is supreme over the subject of slave


Shelter aka Shelter Me is a 2007 Italian romantic drama film co-written and directed by Marco Simon Puccioni and starring Maria de Medeiros, Antonia Liskova, Mounir Ouadi. The film was presented at the 57th Berlin International Film Festival in 2007; the film received the Grand Prix award from the Annecy Italian Film Festival. 2007 - Annecy Italian Film Festival Best Actress Award: Antonia Liskova 2008 - David di Donatello Nominated for Best Actress: Antonia Liskova 2008 - Nastro d'Argento European Nastro d'Argento: Antonia Liskova 2008 - Globo d'oro Best Actress in Appearance: Antonia Liskova Best European Actress: Maria de Medeiros Nominated for Best Actress: Antonia Liskova Shelter Me on IMDb Shelter Me at AllMovie Shelter Me at Box Office Mojo Shelter Me at Rotten Tomatoes


Rainilaiarivony was a Malagasy politician who served as the Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1864 to 1895, succeeding his older brother Rainivoninahitriniony, who had held the post for thirteen years. His career mirrored that of his father Rainiharo, a renowned military man who became Prime Minister during the reign of Queen Ranavalona I. Despite a childhood marked by ostracism from his family, as a young man Rainilaiarivony was elevated to a position of high authority and confidence in the royal court, serving alongside his father and brother, he co-led a critical military expedition with Rainivoninahitriniony at the age of 24 and was promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the army following the death of the queen in 1861. In that position he oversaw continuing efforts to maintain royal authority in the outlying regions of Madagascar and acted as adviser to his brother, promoted to Prime Minister in 1852, he influenced the transformation of the kingdom's government from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional one, in which power was shared between the sovereign and the Prime Minister.

Rainilaiarivony and Queen Rasoherina worked together to depose Rainivoninahitriniony for his abuses of office in 1864. Taking his brother's place as Prime Minister, Rainilaiarivony remained in power as Madagascar's longest-serving prime minister for the next 31 years by marrying three queens in succession: Rasoherina, Ranavalona II and Ranavalona III; as Prime Minister, Rainilaiarivony sought to modernize the administration of the state, in order to strengthen and protect Madagascar against the political designs of the British and French colonial empires. The army was reorganized and professionalized, public schooling was made mandatory, a series of legal codes patterned on English law were enacted and three courts were established in Antananarivo; the statesman exercised care not to offend traditional norms, while limiting traditional practices, such as slavery and unilateral repudiation of wives. He legislated the Christianization of the monarchy under Ranavalona II, his diplomatic skills and military acumen assured the defense of Madagascar during the Franco-Hova Wars preserving his country's sovereignty until a French column captured the royal palace in September 1895.

Although holding him in high esteem, the French colonial authority deposed the Prime Minister and exiled him to French Algeria, where he died less than a year in August 1896. Rainilaiarivony was born on 30 January 1828 in the Merina village of Ilafy, one of the twelve sacred hills of Imerina, into a family of statesmen, his father, was a high-ranking military officer and a influential conservative political adviser to the reigning monarch, Queen Ranavalona I, at the time that his wife, gave birth to Rainilaiarivony. Five years Rainiharo was promoted to the position of Prime Minister, a role he retained from 1833 until his death in 1852. During his tenure as Prime Minister, Rainiharo was chosen by the queen to become her consort, but he retained Rabodomiarana as his wife according to local customs that allowed polygamy. Rainilaiarivony's paternal grandfather, had been a privileged adviser to the great King Andrianampoinimerina. Rainilaiarivony and his relatives issued from the Andafiavaratra family clan of Ilafy who, alongside the Andrefandrova clan of Ambohimanga, constituted the two most influential hova families in the 19th-century Kingdom of Imerina.

The majority of political positions not assigned to andriana were held by members of these two families. According to oral history, Rainilaiarivony was born on a day of the week traditionally viewed as inauspicious for births. Custom in much of Madagascar dictated that such unlucky children had to be subjected to a trial by ordeal, such as prolonged exposure to the elements, since it was believed the misfortune of their day of birth would ensure a short and cursed life for the child and its family, but rather than leave the child to die, Rainilaiarivony's father followed the advice of an ombiasy and instead amputated a joint from two fingers on his infant son's left hand to dispel the ill omen. The infant was nonetheless kept outside the house to avert the possibility that evil might still befall the family if the child remained under their roof. Relatives adopted Rainilaiarivony to raise him within their own home. Meanwhile, Rainilaiarivony's older brother Rainivoninahitriniony enjoyed the double privilege of his status as elder son and freedom from a predestined evil fate.

Rainiharo selected and groomed his elder son to follow in his footsteps as Commander-in-Chief and Prime Minister, while Rainilaiarivony was left to make his way in the world by his own merits. At age six, Rainilaiarivony began two years of study at one of the new schools opened by the London Missionary Society for the children of the noble class at the royal palace in Antananarivo. Ranavalona shut down the mission schools in 1836, but the boy continued to study with an older missionary student; when Rainilaiarivony reached age 11 or 12, the relatives who had raised him decided he was old enough to make his own way in the world. Beginning with the purchase and resale of a few bars of soap, the boy grew his business and expanded into the more profitable resale of fabric; the young Rainilaiarivony's reputation for tenacity and industriousness, as he fought against his predestined misfortunes reached the palace, where at the age of 14 the boy was invited to meet Queen Ranavalona I. She was favorably impressed, awarding him the official ranking of Sixth Honor title of Officer of the Palace.

At 16 he was promoted to Seventh Honor p