Lincoln County is located between the Arkansas Timberlands and Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is within the Pine Bluff metro area, on the outer edge of the Central Arkansas region; the county is named for the 16th President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 65th county on March 28, 1871, Lincoln County has three incorporated cities, including Star City, the county seat and most populous city; the county contains 46 unincorporated communities and ghost towns, Cane Creek State Park at the confluence of Cane Creek and Bayou Bartholomew, nine listings on the National Register of Historic Places to preserve the history and culture of the county. Lincoln County occupies 572.17 square miles and contained a population of 14,134 people in 4,207 households as of the 2010 Census, ranking it 69th in size and 52nd in population among the state's 75 counties. The economy is based on agriculture and the two state prisons in the county. Poverty and unemployment rates steady. Household incomes are below state and national averages.
Politically, Lincoln County has transitioned from reliably Democratic to Republican since the election of Barack Obama. Lincoln County is served by two school districts, Star City School District and Dumas Public Schools. Higher education and healthcare are available in Pine Bluff to Monticello to the south. Although no Interstate highways serve Lincoln County, the county has access to two United States highways and eight Arkansas state highways. Lincoln County is served by one public owned/public use general aviation airport, Star City Municipal Airport, six community water systems provide potable water to customers in the county; the county was established in 1871 by the Arkansas General Assembly from parts of Arkansas, Desha and Jefferson. It was named for Abraham Lincoln during the Reconstruction Era, a period after the Civil War when Union sympathizers were installed in state offices of former Confederate states by the Republicans, irrelevant in Southern politics. County government was first permanently established in Star City, though the county had a second county seat at Varner from 1885-1912.
Lincoln County's geography is defined by two physiographic regions of Arkansas: the Arkansas Timberlands and the Arkansas Delta. These two regions are separated by Bayou Bartholomew, the world's longest bayou, which splits the county into eastern and western halves with significant differences in geography. In the east, the Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois; the western half is part of the Arkansas Timberlands, a portion of the Gulf Coastal Plain characterized by flat pine and cypress forests and silviculture rather than row agriculture. The county is the eighth-smallest in Arkansas, with a total area of 572.17 square miles, of which 561.20 square miles is land and 10.97 square miles is water. The county is located 68 miles southeast of Little Rock, 170 miles southwest of Memphis, 200 miles northwest of Jackson, Mississippi. Randolph County is surrounded by two Delta counties to the east, Arkansas County and Desha County, a Timberlands county to the west, Cleveland County.
Jefferson County to the north and Drew County are border counties similar to Lincoln County, with Bayou Bartholomew delineating a split geography. Lincoln County contains two protected areas. Cane Creek State Park is a 2,053-acre state park located on the border between the West Gulf Coastal Plain and Arkansas Delta, with a 1,675 acre lake at the center. Fishing and kayaking are available on the lake in addition to pavilions, a visitor center with gift shop on land; the park offers 29 RV/tent camping sites with water and electric hookups, is owned and operated by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Huff's Island Public Use Area is located on the Arkansas River in northeastern Lincoln County. Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the park does not have a boat ramp or camping, but offers day use, river bank access from March–September, four picnic sites; as of the 2000 census, there were 14,492 people, 4,265 households, 3,130 families residing in the county. The population density was 26 people per square mile.
There were 4,955 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 64.88% White, 32.92% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 1.81 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,265 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 14.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 12.40% from 18 to 24, 33.20% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 142.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 154.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $29,607, the median income for
Jean-Baptiste Philippe Ouédraogo referred to by his initials JBO, is a Burkinabé physician and retired military officer who served as President of Upper Volta from 8 November 1982 to 4 August 1983. He has since mediated a few national political disputes and operates a clinic in Somgandé. Ouédraogo received his early education in Upper Volta before joining the Upper Voltan Army and studying medicine abroad. After working in healthcare he was appointed chief medical officer of the Ouagadougou military camp, he participated in the November 1982 coup d'état in Upper Volta and shortly thereafter assumed the presidency. More ideologically moderate than most of his comrades, Ouédraogo did not command much popular support and governed the country amid an unstable political climate. A protracted dispute with Prime Minister Thomas Sankara resulted in his removal from power in a coup in August 1983 and imprisonment, he resumed medical work. He opened a clinic in Somgandé in 1992. In the 2010s he acted as a mediator between opposing political factions.
Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo was born on 30 June 1942 in French West Africa, to a Mossi family. He started his education at the École Primaire Catholique de Bam attending the minor seminary of Pabré before completing his secondary education at the Lycée de Philippe-Zinda-Kaboré de Ouagadougou, he studied medicine at the University of Abidjan and the School of Naval Medicine in Bordeaux, graduating from the latter in 1974. He took courses at the University of Strasbourg, with a focus in paediatrics. Ouédraogo finished his studies with a doctor of medicine, degrees in sports medicine and in paediatrics and child welfare. Ouédraogo became the first head of the paediatrics department at the Centre hospitalier universitaire Yalgado-Ouédraogo in Ouagadougou, serving there from 1976 until 1977. Afterwards he interned at a hospital in Mulhouse until 1981, he married a school teacher and had three children with her, all of whom became physicians. Ouédraogo was commissioned as a second lieutenant and medic into the Upper Voltan Army in October 1972.
In October 1979 he was promoted to médicin-commandant. Three years he was appointed chief medical officer of the new Ouagadougou military base, Camp Militaire de Gounghin. On 7 November 1982 Ouédraogo participated in a military coup which ousted President of Upper Volta Saye Zerbo, he and his fellow military officers formed the Conseil de Salut du Peuple. Two days the council elected him President as a compromise choice between the leftist radicals and conservatives, he was the first Mossi head of state since Maurice Yaméogo. According to Ouédraogo, Captain Thomas Sankara was supposed to take power but withdrew at the last minute, leading other officers to choose him to assume the presidency due to his senior rank though, in his words, "against my will". Unlike Sankara, he lacked political experience and popular support, was regarded by the leftist members of the CSP as conservative and sympathetic to policies of France. Ouédraogo thought of his opponents as "hard-core Marxists" and maintained that he was a "liberal and sincere democrat".
The media viewed Ouédraogo and Sankara as united in goals and dubbed them "Siamese twins". Shortly after taking power, Ouédraogo told the foreign diplomatic corps in Upper Volta that the new government would uphold a non-aligned foreign policy, respect its international agreements, defend its territory with "intransigence". On 21 November Ouédraogo declared that the CSP would restore a constitutional, civilian regime in two years time. Five days the CSP installed a formal government. Ouédraogo was the only soldier in the cabinet and, in addition to his role as President, was made Minister of National Defence and Veterans Affairs. On the whole the CSP exercised true control of the government while Ouédraogo served as little more than a figurehead; the freedoms of labour unions and the press, having been restricted under Zerbo's reign, were restored by the new administration. Ouédraogo attended Mogho Naba Kougri's funeral in December and placed a wreath at the Mossi leader's coffin; the CSP elected Sankara as Prime Minister in January 1983, in effect instituting a power counterbalance to Ouédraogo.
On 28 February a plot by several army officers to massacre the CSP in assembly and restore Zerbo's regime was foiled when they delayed and were arrested by other officials. One of the leading putschists was a commandant, considered for the presidency following the 1982 coup; when questioned about the incident, Ouédraogo told the press, "Since our regime makes many people uneasy, it is quite normal that people should plan this sort of reaction." He publicly declared his determination to "guarantee order and security" and asserted that "the army will not allow itself to be dissuaded by tribal fights and ideologies". He stated that corruption and fraud in the business community had, in part, facilitated the state of "total anarchy" over which the government presided, announced that the national administration would be restructured to mitigate the disorder. Meanwhile, as Sankara toured various communist and socialist countries, rumors circulated among the Voltaic population that the CSP would assume a radical leftist approach to governing and expropriate small businesses.
In an attempt to alleviate concerns, Ouédraogo told members of the National Council of Voltaic Employers that "private initiative will be maintained...you are the primary motor of the country's economic activity". Sankara concluded his tour with a visit to Libya. A Libyan transport aircraft landed at Ouagadougou Airport shortly after his return, generating rumours of a plot to install a pro-Libya regime in
Death Peak is the eighth studio album by British electronic musician Chris Clark and the sixth one under the moniker Clark. Announced on 17 February 2017, it was released on 7 April 2017 by Warp Records. Upon its announcement its first single, "Peak Magnetic", was released for streaming on SoundCloud; the design of the album cover is that of a crumpled photograph of Clark himself, produced by photographer Alma Haser. It peaked at number 11 on the UK Dance Albums Chart and number 20 on the UK Independent Albums Chart. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 78, based on 13 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Mike Schiller of PopMatters gave the album 7 stars out of 10, saying: "Death Peak is a good album, anyone who's followed Clark since Clarence Park should be happy with the twists and turns he continues to take." Paul Clarke of Resident Advisor gave the album a 4.0 out of 5, describing the music on the album as IDM, techno and ambient, saying: "A large part of Death Peak—despite the morbid title—contains some of Clark's most accessible and melodic dance floor tracks."
Loud and Quiet's Luke Cartledge, in his positive review, praised the album for possessing "bizarre, profound impact." Clash rated the album 7 out of 10 portraying the album as "nine-track barrage of industrial experimentalism." The publication named it the 33rd best album of 2017. Track listing taken from Bleep.com. All tracks are written by Chris Clark. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Death Peak. Death Peak at Discogs