Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865; the amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption, it was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state's enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.
On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865; the measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the "reconstructed" Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was cited in case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as "badges and incidents of slavery."
The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Slavery existed in all of the original thirteen British North American colonies. Prior to the Thirteenth Amendment, the United States Constitution did not expressly use the words slave or slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons; the Three-Fifths Compromise, Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons".
This clause was a compromise between Southerners who wished slaves to be counted as'persons' for congressional representation and northerners rejecting these out of concern of too much power for the South, because representation in the new Congress would be based on population in contrast to the one-vote-for-one-state principle in the earlier Continental Congress. Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, "No person held to Service or Labour in one State" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9, Clause 1 allowed Congress to pass legislation outlawing the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis in Dred Scott v. Sandford for treating slaves as property.
Stimulated by the philosophy of the Declaration of Independence, between 1777 and 1804 every Northern state provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery. Most of the slaves involved were household servants. No Southern state did so, the slave population of the South continued to grow, peaking at 4 million people in 1861. An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South; the American Colonization Society, an alliance between abolitionists who felt the races should be kept separated and slaveholders who feared the presence of freed blacks would encourage slave rebellions, called for the emigration and colonization of both free blacks and slaves to Africa. Its views were endorsed by politicians such as Henry Clay, who feared that the main abolitionist movement would provoke a civil war. Proposals to eliminate slavery by constitutional amendment were introduced by Representative Arthur Livermore in 1818 and by John Quincy Adams in 1839, but failed to gain significant traction.
As the country continued to expand, the issue of slavery in its new territories became the dominant national issue. The Southern position was that slaves were property and therefore could be moved to the territories like all other forms of property; the 1820 Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, preserving the Senate's equality between the regions. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso was introduced to a war appropriations bill to ban slavery in all territories acquired in the Mexican–Ameri
Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4, 1861, when he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, ended upon his assassination and death on April 15, 1865, 42 days into his second term. Lincoln was the first member of the recently-established Republican Party elected to the presidency, he was succeeded by Vice President Andrew Johnson. Lincoln presided over the Union victory in the American Civil War. Lincoln took office following the 1860 presidential election, in which he won a plurality of the popular vote in a four-candidate field. All of Lincoln's votes came from the Northern United States, as the Republicans held little appeal to voters in the Southern United States. A former Whig, Lincoln ran on a political platform opposed to the expansion of slavery in the territories, his election served as the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War. During the 16 weeks between Election Day and Inauguration Day, seven slave states declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
After being sworn in as president, Lincoln refused to accept any resolution that would result in Southern secession from the Union. The Civil War began weeks into Lincoln's presidency with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, a federal installation located within the boundaries of the Confederacy. Lincoln was called on to handle both the political and military aspects of the Civil War, facing challenges in both spheres; as commander-in-chief, he ordered the suspension of the constitutionally-protected right to habeas corpus in the state of Maryland in order to suppress Confederate sympathizers. He became the first president to institute a military draft; as the Union faced several early defeats in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Lincoln cycled through numerous military commanders during the war settling on General Ulysses S. Grant, who had led the Union to several victories in the Western Theater. Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed about millions of slaves in Confederate-held territory, established emancipation as a Union war goal.
In 1865, Lincoln was instrumental in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery unconstitutional. Lincoln presided over the passage of important domestic legislation, including the first of the Homestead Acts, the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862, he ran for re-election in 1864 on the National Union ticket, supported by War Democrats in addition to Republicans. Though Lincoln feared he might lose the contest, he defeated his former subordinate, General George B. McClellan of the Democratic Party, in a landslide. Months after the election, Grant would end the war by defeating the Confederate army led by General Robert E. Lee. Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, five days after the surrender of Lee, left the final challenge of reconstructing the nation to others. Following his death, Lincoln was portrayed as the liberator of the slaves, the savior of the Union, a martyr for the cause of freedom. Political historians have long held Lincoln in high regard for his accomplishments and personal characteristics.
Alongside George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt, he has been ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the top three greatest presidents as number one. Lincoln, a former Whig Congressman, emerged as a major Republican presidential candidate following his narrow loss to Democrat Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Senate election in Illinois. Though he lacked the broad support of Republican Senator William H. Seward of New York, Lincoln believed that he could emerge as the Republican presidential nominee at the convention after multiple ballots. Lincoln spent much of 1859 and 1860 building support for his candidacy, his Cooper Union speech was well-received by eastern elites. Lincoln positioned himself in the "moderate center" of his party. On the first ballot of the May 1860 Republican National Convention, Lincoln finished second to Seward, but Seward was unable to clinch the nomination. Ignoring Lincoln's strong dictate to "make no contracts that bind me", his managers maneuvered to win Lincoln's nomination on the third ballot of the convention.
Delegates nominated Senator Hannibal Hamlin from Maine for vice president. The party platform opposed the extension of slavery into the territories but pledged not to interfere with it in the states, it endorsed a protective tariff, internal improvements such as a transcontinental railroad, policies designed to encourage the settlement of public land in the West. The 1860 Democratic National Convention met in April 1860, but adjourned after failing to agree on a candidate. A second convention met in June and nominated Stephen Douglas as the presidential nominee, but several pro-slavery Southern delegations refused to support Douglas, as they demanded a pro-slavery nominee; these Southern Democrats held a separate convention that nominated incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell for president. Breckinridge and Bell would contest the South, while Lincoln and Douglas would compete for votes in the North.
Republicans were confident after these party conventions, with Lincoln predicting that the fractured Democrats stood little chance of winning the election. Lincoln carried all but one Northern state to win an Electoral College majority with 180 votes to 72 for Breckinridge, 39 for Bell, 12 for Douglas. Lincoln won every county in New England and most of the remaining counties in
Mary Todd Lincoln
Mary Ann Todd Lincoln was the wife of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, as such the First Lady of the United States from 1861 to 1865. She dropped the name Ann after her younger sister, Ann Todd, was born, did not use the name Todd after marrying. Mary was a member of a large, wealthy Kentucky family, was well educated. After finishing school during her teens, she moved to Springfield, where she lived with her married sister Elizabeth Edwards. Before she married Abraham Lincoln, Mary was courted by his long-time political opponent Stephen A. Douglas, she and Lincoln had four sons only one of whom outlived her. Their home of about 17 years still stands at Jackson Streets in Springfield, Illinois, she supported her husband throughout his presidency. She witnessed his fatal shooting when they were together in the President's Box at Ford's Theatre on Tenth Street in Washington. Mary was involuntarily institutionalized for psychiatric disease ten years after her husband's murder, but retired to the home of her sister.
She complained of many physical symptoms during her adult life. Mary was born in Lexington, Kentucky as the fourth of seven children of Robert Smith Todd, a banker, Elizabeth "Eliza" Todd, her family were slaveholders, Mary was raised in comfort and refinement. When Mary was six, her mother died in childbirth. Two years her father married Elizabeth "Betsy" Humphreys and they had nine children together. Mary had a difficult relationship with her stepmother. From 1832, Mary and her family lived in what is now known as the Mary Todd Lincoln House, an elegant 14-room residence at 578 West Main Street in Lexington, Kentucky. Mary's paternal great-grandfather, David Levi Todd, was born in County Longford and immigrated through Pennsylvania to Kentucky. Another great-grandfather, Andrew Porter, was the son of an Irish immigrant to New Hampshire and Pennsylvania, her great-great maternal grandfather Samuel McDowell was born in Scotland, emigrated to Pennsylvania. Other Todd ancestors came from England. At an early age Mary was sent to Madame Mantelle's finishing school, where the curriculum concentrated on French and literature.
She learned to speak French fluently and studied dance, drama and social graces. By age 20, she was regarded with a grasp of politics. Like her family, she was a Whig. Mary began living with her sister Elizabeth Porter Edwards in Springfield, Illinois in October 1839. Elizabeth, married to Ninian W. Edwards, son of a former governor, served as Mary's guardian. Mary was popular among the gentry of Springfield, though she was courted by the rising young lawyer and Democratic Party politician Stephen A. Douglas and others, she chose Abraham Lincoln, a fellow Whig. Mary Todd married Abraham Lincoln on November 4, 1842, at her sister Elizabeth's home in Springfield, Illinois, she was 23 years old and he was 33 years of age. Their four sons, all born in Springfield, were: Robert Todd Lincoln, diplomat, businessman Edward Baker Lincoln, known as "Eddie", tuberculosis William Wallace Lincoln, known as "Willie", died of typhoid fever while Lincoln was President Thomas Lincoln, known as "Tad", died at age 18 Robert and Tad survived to adulthood and the death of their father, only Robert outlived his mother.
Lincoln and Douglas became political rivals in the great Lincoln-Douglas debates for a seat representing Illinois in the United States Senate in 1858. Although Douglas secured the seat when elected by the Illinois legislature, Lincoln became famous for his position on slavery, which generated national support for him. While Lincoln pursued his successful career as a Springfield lawyer, Mary supervised their growing household, their house, where they resided from 1844 until 1861, still stands in Springfield, has been designated the Lincoln Home National Historic Site. During Lincoln's years as an Illinois circuit lawyer, Mary was left alone for months at a time to raise their children and run the household. Mary supported her husband and politically, not least when Lincoln was elected president in 1860. During her White House years, Mary Lincoln faced many personal difficulties generated by political divisions within the nation, her family was from a border state. Several of her half-brothers served in the Confederate Army and were killed in action, one brother served the Confederacy as a surgeon.
Mary staunchly supported her husband in his quest to save the Union and was loyal to his policies. Considered a "westerner" although she had grown up in the more refined Upper South city of Lexington, Mary worked hard to serve as her husband's First Lady in Washington, D. C. a political center dominated by eastern culture. Lincoln was regarded as the first "western" president, critics described Mary's manners as coarse and pretentious, she had difficulty negotiating White House social responsibilities and rivalries, spoils-seeking solicitors, baiting newspapers in a climate of high national intrigue in Civil War Washington. She refurbished the White House, which included extensive redecorating of all the public and private rooms as well as the purchase of new china, which led to extensive overspending; the president was angry over the cost though Congress passed two additional appropriations to cover these expenses. Mary was a frequent purchaser of fine jewelry and on many occasions bought jewelry on credit from the local Galt & Bro. jewelers.
Upon President Lincoln's death, she had a
Elizabethtown is a home rule-class city and the county seat of Hardin County, United States. The population was 28,531 at the 2010 census, was estimated at 29,906 by the U. S. Census Bureau in 2016, making it the 11th-largest city in the state, it is included in the Elizabethtown–Fort Knox, Kentucky Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Louisville/Jefferson County–Elizabethtown–Madison, Kentucky-Indiana Combined Statistical Area. Elizabethtown is in east-central Hardin County, about 15 miles south of Fort Knox. Interstate 65 passes through the southeast side of the city, leading north-northeast 45 miles to Louisville and southwest 71 miles to Bowling Green; the Western Kentucky Parkway leads west 138 miles to Eddyville. To the east, the Bluegrass Parkway leads 105 miles to Lexington. According to the United States Census Bureau, Elizabethtown has a total area of 25.8 square miles, of which 25.4 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. The Elizabethtown–Fort Knox metropolitan area consists of Hardin and Larue counties, includes Radcliff, a city about three-fourths the size of Elizabethtown.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Elizabethtown has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Established in 1793, the Hardin County was named for Colonel John Hardin, an Indian fighter who worked with tribes in the local area. In a few years, professional men and tradesmen came to live in the area. In 1793, Colonel Andrew Hynes had 30 acres surveyed and laid off into lots and streets to establish Elizabethtown. Named in honor of his wife, Elizabethtown was established in 1797. Thomas Lincoln helped Samuel Haycraft build a millrace at Haycraft's mill on Valley Creek. After Lincoln married Nancy Hanks in 1806, they lived in a log cabin built in Elizabethtown, their daughter, was born there in 1807. Soon after, they moved to the Sinking Spring Farm, where Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809. Thomas Lincoln took his family to Indiana in 1816. After his wife died in 1818, he returned to Elizabethtown and married Sarah Bush Johnston, widowed since 1816.
She and her three children accompanied Thomas back to Indiana, where Sarah was stepmother to Thomas' two children. On March 5, 1850, the Commonwealth of Kentucky granted a charter to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company authorizing it to raise funds and built a railroad from Louisville to the Tennessee state line in the direction of Nashville. John L. Helm, the grandson of Capt. Thomas Helm, became the president of the railroad in October 1854; the rail line was completed to Elizabethtown in 1858, with the first train arriving on June 15, 1858. The opening of the railroad brought economic growth to Elizabethtown, which became an important trade center along the railroad and a strategic point during the Civil War. On December 27, 1862, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan and his 3,000-man cavalry attacked Elizabethtown. During the battle, more than 100 cannonballs were fired into the town. Although he captured Elizabethtown, Morgan's chief goal was to disrupt the railroad and northern transportation.
He proceeded north along the railroad, destroying sections of the track. After the battle, one cannonball was found lodged in the side of a building on the public square. After the building burned in 1887 and was rebuilt, the cannonball was replaced in the side wall, as close to its original site as possible, where it remains in the present day, it is located in the Joey Lee building, located on the historic town square. The building is owned and houses the office of attorney Roger T. Rigney, it features a plaquard noting the cannonball and the history behind it out front. From 1871 to 1873 during the Reconstruction Era, the Seventh Cavalry and a battalion of the Fourth Infantry, led by General George Armstrong Custer, were stationed in Elizabethtown; the military were assigned to suppress the local Ku Klux Klan under the Enforcement Acts, as their members had been attacking freedmen and other Republicans. They broke up illegal distilleries, which began to flourish in the South after the Civil War.
General Custer and his wife Elizabeth lived in a small cottage behind Aunt Beck Hill's boarding house, now known as the Brown-Pusey House. The town is regionally referred to as "E-town", it is notable as one of two larger towns along I-65 between Nashville. The movie Elizabethtown was named after the town. Elizabethtown is classified by the Kentucky Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control as being in a "moist county". Under ABC terminology, "moist" indicates that at least one city within a county has approved packaged alcohol sales. In popular usage, the term "moist" more refers to the city's former status as allowing by-the-drink sales in restaurants, but not package sales. Despite the county being a dry county, alcoholic drink sales have long been allowed in restaurants seating at least 100 diners and deriving at least 70% of their t
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Nancy Hanks Lincoln was the mother of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, her marriage to Thomas Lincoln produced a daughter, a son, Thomas Jr. When Nancy and Thomas had been married for just over 10 years, the family moved from Kentucky to Perry County, Indiana, in 1816. Nancy Lincoln died from milk sickness or consumption at the Little Pigeon Creek Community in Spencer County when Abraham was nine years old; this article reflects the prevailing theories regarding Nancy Hanks Lincoln's heritage. There is information, published about the Shipley and Berry family and for Kentucky heritage sites that differs from the prevailing theory; this is explored in greater detail in the Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage article. Nancy Hanks Lincoln was born to Lucy Hanks in what was at that time part of Hampshire County, Virginia. Today, the same location is in Antioch in West Virginia. Years after her birth, Abraham Lincoln's law partner William Herndon reported that Lincoln told him his maternal grandfather was "a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter."
According to William E. Barton in the "Life of Abraham Lincoln" and Michael Burkhimer in "100 Essential Lincoln Books", Nancy was most born illegitimate due to the fact that Hanks' family created stories in order to lead Abraham to believe he was a legitimate member of the Sparrow family, it is believed that Nancy Hanks Lincoln's grandparents were Ann and Joseph Hanks and that they raised her from infancy until her grandfather died when she was about 9 years old. At the time of Nancy's birth and his wife and children were all living on 108 acres near Patterson Creek in then-Hampshire County, Virginia. In March 1784, Joseph Hanks sold his property via a mortgage and moved his wife, 8 children, young granddaughter Nancy to Kentucky; the family lived on land along Pottinger's Creek, in a settlement called Rolling Fork in Nelson County, until patriarch Joseph's death in 1793. Nancy's grandmother, called by the more formal name Ann rather than its common nickname Nancy, decided to return to her homeland, old Farnham parish in Virginia.
At that time, Nancy went to live with her mother, now Lucy Hanks Sparrow. Having married Henry Sparrow in Harrodsburg, two or three years earlier. After Lucy's sister Elizabeth Hanks married Henry Sparrow's brother Thomas in Mercer County, Kentucky, in 1796, Nancy went to live with the couple, whom she called "mother and father". Lucy's sister Nancy Hanks gave birth to an illegitimate son in 1799 named Dennis Friend Hanks, Nancy Hanks Lincoln's cousin, raised by Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow. At the home of Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow, Nancy would have learned the skills and crafts a woman needed on the frontier to cultivate crops and clothe and feed her family, she learned to read by the Bible and became an excellent seamstress, working at the Richard Berry home before her marriage. Lucy's marriage to Henry Sparrow produced 8 children, Lucy had a reputation as a "fine Christian woman". Two sons were preachers. Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage timeline: her life events and who she lived with during those times On June 12, 1806, Hanks married Thomas Lincoln at Beechland, the home of Richard Berry, by Reverend Jesse Head.
Nancy was brought to the home to work as a seamstress by her friend Polly Ewing Berry, the wife of Richard Berry Jr. since October 10, 1794. Polly was a friend of Nancy's from Mercer County and Richard Berry Jr. was a good friend of Thomas Lincoln. Lincoln proposed to her in his childhood home at what is now Lincoln Homestead State Park or in the Francis Berry house in front of the fireplace. Nancy's marriage bond was signed by Richard Berry Jr.. Per Warren, "The title had no legal significance, Berry having never been so appointed, Nancy Hanks was of age, but of him to call himself'guardian' was a courtesy customary under such circumstances". A record of their marriage license is held at the county courthouse, they had three children: Sarah Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Thomas Lincoln Jr. The young family lived in what was Hardin County, Kentucky. After 1811, on the Knob Creek Farm. Neighbors reported that Nancy Hanks Lincoln was "superior" to her husband, a mild yet strong personality who taught young Abraham his letters as well as the extraordinary sweetness and forbearance he was known for all his life.
In 1816, the year that Indiana became the 19th state, the Lincoln family moved to Spencer County in southern Indiana and proceeded to homestead at Little Pigeon Creek Settlement. Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow and Dennis Hanks settled at Little Pigeon Creek the following fall, having lived in a shelter the Lincolns had lived in until they built their cabin. While Abraham was ten years younger than his second cousin Dennis, the boys were good friends. William Herndon, author of Life of Lincoln, described Nancy Hanks Lincoln: She was above the ordinary height in stature, weighed about 130 pounds, was slenderly built, had much the appearance of one inclined to consumption, her skin was dark. Though her life was clouded by a spirit of sadness, she was in disposition amiable and cheerful. Nancy was described as "a bold, daredevil kind of woman, stepping on to the v
Abraham Lincoln and slavery
Abraham Lincoln's position on slavery is one of the most discussed aspects of his life. Lincoln expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private, he attempted to bring about the eventual extinction of slavery by stopping its further expansion into any U. S. by proposing compensated emancipation in the early part of his presidency. Lincoln stood by the Republican Party's platform of 1860 stating that slavery should not be allowed to expand into any more U. S. territories. He worried that the extension of slavery in new western lands could block "free labor on free soil."As early as the 1850s, Lincoln had been politically attacked as an abolitionist. Howard Jones says that "in the prewar period, as well as into the first months of the American Civil War itself.... Lincoln believed it prudent to administer a slow death to slavery through gradual emancipation and voluntary colonization rather than to follow the abolitionist and demanding an immediate end to slavery without compensation to owners."
In 1863, Lincoln ordered the freedom of all slaves in the areas "in rebellion" and insisted on enforcement freeing millions of slaves, but he did not call for the immediate end of slavery everywhere in the U. S. until the proposed 13th Amendment became part of his party platform for the 1864 election. In 1842, Abraham Lincoln had married Mary Todd, a daughter of a slave-owning family from Kentucky. Lincoln returned to the political stage as a result of the 1854 Kansas–Nebraska Act and soon became a leading opponent of the "Slaveocracy"—the political power of the Southern slave owners; the Kansas–Nebraska Act, written to form the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, included language, designed by Stephen A. Douglas, which allowed the settlers to decide whether they would or would not accept slavery in their region. Lincoln was outraged by the repeal of the 1820 Missouri Compromise, which had outlawed slavery above the 36-30' parallel. During the Civil War, Lincoln used the war powers of the presidency to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, in January 1863..
It declared "all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be thenceforward, forever free" but exempted border states and those areas of slave states not in rebellion and therefore beyond the reach of the constitutional war power to emancipate. It changed the legal status of all slaves in the affected areas, as soon as the Union Army arrived, it did liberate the slaves in that area. On the first day, it affected tens of thousands of slaves, but when the war ended, in April 1865, only about fifteen percent of the slaves had been freed. Full abolition was achieved that year, with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery everywhere in the United States. Lincoln was born on February 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky, his family attended a Separate Baptists church, which had strict moral standards and opposed alcohol and slavery. The family moved north across the Ohio River to free territory and made a new start in Perry County.
Lincoln noted that this move was "partly on account of slavery" but due to land title difficulties. As a young man, he settled in the free state of Illinois. Lincoln, the leader most associated with the end of slavery in the United States, came to national prominence in the 1850s, following the advent of the Republican Party, whose official position was that freedom was "national," the natural condition of all areas under the direct sovereignty of the Constitution, whereas slavery was exceptional and sectional. Earlier, as a member of the Whig Party in the Illinois General Assembly, Lincoln issued a written protest of the assembly's passage of a resolution stating that slavery should not be abolished in Washington, D. C. In 1841, he won a court case, representing a black woman and her children who claimed she had been freed and could not be sold as a slave. In 1845, he defended Marvin Pond for harboring the fugitive slave John Hauley. In 1847, he lost a case representing a slave owner claiming return of fugitive slaves.
While a congressman from Illinois in 1846 to 1848, Lincoln supported the Wilmot Proviso, which, if it had been adopted, would have banned slavery in any U. S. territory won from Mexico. Lincoln, in collaboration with abolitionist Congressman Joshua R. Giddings, wrote a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for the owners, enforcement to capture fugitive slaves, a popular vote on the matter. After leaving Congress in 1849 Lincoln became somewhat less active in politics until he was drawn back into it by the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed territories to decide for themselves whether they would allow slavery. Lincoln was politically opposed to any expansion of it. At issue was extension into the western territories. On October 16, 1854, in his "Peoria Speech", Lincoln declared his opposition to slavery, which he repeated in his route to presidency. Speaking in his Kentucky accent, with a powerful voice, he said the Kansas Act had a "declared indifference, but as I must think, a covert real zeal for the spread of slavery.
I hate it. I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world..."Impressed by the strength of anti-black racism in his