Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
Linda is the site of an old ghost town in the Linda Valley in the West Coast Range of Tasmania, Australia. It has been known as Linda Valley. There had been a location or community high on the ridge between Mount Owen and Mount Lyell above the Linda Valley to the west known as North Mount Lyell and in Blainey's The Peaks of Lyell, the photograph caption has The site of North Lyell town, blasted away to form the modern open cut When North Mount Lyell was taken over by Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company in 1903, Linda was reduced in significance. Most residents moved to either Gormanston, or Queenstown the nearby Mount Lyell towns. Linda Post Office opened on 18 December 1899 and closed in 1966. Linda railway station was the terminus of the Linda aerial ropeway and the North Mount Lyell Railway when it was in operation. Ore was taken from the mine to smelters at Crotty the refined metal taken to a port at Pillinger on the shores of Macquarie Harbour at Kelly Basin; the remains of the town are now adjacent to the Lyell Highway east of Queenstown.
West Coast Tasmania Mines Blainey, Geoffrey. The Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Bradshaw, Noeline; the North Lyell Mining Disaster. Queenstown: Galley Museum Volunteer Committee
Lake Burbury is a man-made water reservoir created by the Crotty Dam inundating the upper King River valley that lies east of the West Coast Range. Discharge from the reservoir feeds the John Butters Hydroelectric Power Station and operated by Hydro Tasmania; the reservoir was named in honour of a former Governor of Tasmania. The lake is fed by rivers from the north, including the upper King River, the Eldon River. Valleys that open to the area include the Linda Valley, it has a natural lake just north of its northern shore known as Lake Beatrice, at the eastern end of Mount Sedgwick. It has a surface area of 54 square kilometres, it is susceptible to extreme weather. Its feeder rivers are the upper King, Nelson and Eldon Rivers. There are design features in the Crotty Dam to lower the surface level in the event of severe floodwaters; the lake has the'Bradshaw' bridge crossing it to connect the Lyell Highway across it, has two dams - one in the King River Gorge - the Crotty Dam, the other adjacent to Mount Darwin, the Darwin Dam.
The dam inundated the historical sites of the Darwin and Crotty - as well as the bridge of the North Mount Lyell Railway over the King River, not salvaged before the flooding. Significant portions of the Kelly Basin Road are inundated as well; the Crotty Dam site had been surveyed in the early twentieth century but the proposed dam did not proceed at that time. It was involved in the last major dam construction by Hydro Tasmania. Crotty Dam and Lake Burbury have been identified as indicative places on the Register of the National Estate; the lake lies to the west of the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park and has a series of buffer zone conservation areas. The Hydro Tasmania jurisdiction of the lake is to the 242-metre elevation round the edge of the lake, as well as the island created by the impoundment. A webcam is located on the south east shore of the lake which looks across to where the Lyell Highway emerges from the Linda Valley and moves south around the eastern base of Mount Owen.
List of reservoirs and dams in Tasmania List of lakes in Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey. The Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Rae, Lou; the Abt Railway and Railways of the Lyell region. Sandy Bay: Lou Rae. ISBN 0-9592098-7-5. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. Whitham, Lindsay. Railways, Mines and People and other historical research. Sandy Bay: Tasmanian Historical Research Association. ISBN 0-909479-21-6. Hydro Tasmania information Australian Heritage Database entry
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Geology of Tasmania
The geology of Tasmania is complex, with the world's biggest exposure of diabase, or dolerite. The rock record contains representatives of each period of the Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic and Cainozoic eras, it is one of the few southern hemisphere areas that were glaciated during the Pleistocene with glacial landforms in the higher parts. The west coast region hosts numerous active and historic mines; the earliest geological history is recorded in rocks from over 1,270 million years ago. Older rocks from western Tasmania and King Island were folded and metamorphosed into rocks such as quartzite. After this there are many signs of glaciation from the Cryogenian, as well as the global warming that occurred at the start of the Ediacaran period. An orogeny folded the older Precambrian rocks. In the Cambrian time the Tyennan block forming the south west and central Tasmania, was pushed up and over the land of north west Tasmania, the Tyennan Orogeny. There were volcanic action and sediments from the Cambrian and Ordovician.
The large ore deposits were formed on the West Coast. The north east of Tasmania began to form as part of the Lachlan Orogen with turbidity flows of mud and sand on to the ocean floor. In the Devonian the Tabberabberan Orogeny caused more folding, intrusion of granite on the west and east coasts, joined the east of Tasmania to the west. In the Permian period, conditions were again glacial and the Tasmania basin formed, with low sea levels in the Triassic. A giant intrusion of magma happened in the Jurassic forming diabase, or dolerite which gives many of the Tasmanian mountains their characteristic appearance. Continental breakup happened in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic Periods, splitting off undersea plateaus, forming Bass Strait and breaking Tasmania away from Antarctica. In the Cainozoic, a couple of basins extended inland from Macquarie Harbour and the northern Midlands; the higher mountains were glaciated during the Pleistocene. The oldest rocks in Tasmania from the Precambrian form several blocks.
The blocks are King Island. The island's oldest rocks seem to have originated when that part of the island was attached to western North America. Analysis of monazite and zircon in rocks of the ancient Rocky Cape Group in north-west Tasmania found that they are between 1.45 billion and 1.33 billion years old. These minerals resemble those found in Montana and southern British Columbia. Fossils called Horodyskia have been found in both sites. At more than 1 billion years old, the fossils are some of the oldest visible to the naked eye. Previous theories had suggested that Tasmania emerged from central Australia as the supercontinents broke apart, but the recent spectroscopic and radioactive dating evidence contradicts this. Tasmania's geographic location during the Precambrian is still unclear, but it is clear that some of it was linked to an area of ancient North America; the rocks of Tasmania are much older than those of the east coast of Australia indicating a different geologic history. Alternative ideas for the location are presented below.
On King Island now in Bass Strait, the oldest Tasmanian rocks are found. On the west side of King Island, there are basalts that have been metamorphosed by amphibolite grade metamorphism at 1,270 million years ago. Sedimentary rocks such as feldspathic sandstone that have been altered to schist and quartzite. Detrital zircons have been dated to 1444, 1600, 1768 and 1900 Ma. A dolerite sill was intruded. Granite intruded 760 million years ago in the Cryogenian; the granite contains inherited zircons from 1,800 to 1,200 million years ago. The Wickham deformation affected the earlier rocks by heating to 470 to 480 °C at pressures below 300 MPa, tight folding; this was followed in the Neoproterozoic on the eastern side of the island with beds of diamictite, mudstone and picrite interleaved with conglomerate. Dykes of augite syenite, picrite and 580 Ma tholeiite dolerite were intruded. An interpretation is that deposits occurred in a tidal area, with a continental rift allowing magma from the mantle to intrude.
These newer Proterozoic sediments were tilted and faulted. The latter tholeiite igneous rocks have a strong magnetic signature, this can be detected from the rock underneath Bass Strait; the band of rocks is 35 km wide. It extends north northeast to Phillip Island and south 40 km to just off the west coast of Tasmania stopping at the Braddon River FaultIn the Rocky Cape Block west of Wynyard and north of Granville Harbour, the Precambrian rocks consist of the Rocky Cape Group from the Stenian period, with Cowrie Siltstone, Detention Subgroup, Irby Siltstone, Jacob Quartzite; the sequence is over 5700 metres thick. Currents travelled either southeasterly; the metamorphic belt titled the Arthur Lineament forms the limits of the Rocky Cape Group to the south east. The Burnie Formation followed in the Tonian period south east of the lineament with greywacke and slaty mudstone, some basic pillow lavas; the Oonah Formation has more varieties of rock than the Burnie formation including conglomerate, quartz sandstone and chert.
The Bowry Formation in the Cryogenian 780 million years ago was intruded by granite 777 million years ago. These have been metamorphosed to the blueschist level. In the Smithton Synclinorium the Togari Group followed with conglomerate from the Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations and dolomite marking the end
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company
Mount Lyell Mining and Railway Company was a Tasmanian mining company formed on 29 March 1893, most referred to as Mount Lyell. Mount Lyell was the dominant copper mining company of the West Coast from 1893 to 1994, was based in Queenstown, Tasmania. Following consolidation of leases and company assets at the beginning of the twentieth century, Mount Lyell was the major company for the communities of Queenstown and Gormanston, it remained dominant until its closure in 1994. The Mount Lyell mining operations produced more than a million tonnes of copper, 750 tonnes of silver and 45 tonnes of gold since mining commenced in the early 1890s -, equivalent to over 4 billion dollars worth of metal in 1995 terms. In the early stage of operations, Mount Lyell was surrounded by smaller competing leases and companies, they were all absorbed into Mount Lyell operations, or were closed down. In 1903 the North Mount Lyell company was taken over, in 1912 the most severe calamity to visit the Mount Lyell company was the 1912 North Mount Lyell Disaster known at the time as the North Lyell fire.
During its history, Mount Lyell had exploration leases surrounding its main mining area, had at one time or other explored most of the West Coast Range revisiting many of the smaller mines, worked on in the early 1900s. As a consequence the Mount Lyell company had utilised considerable resources on maintaining leases over areas of promising geology - as well as checking older mining locations on the west coast. At various stages it shared costs and resources with other companies who would assist by investing in exploration by becoming partners in some leases; the operations were conducted in various parts of the Mount Lyell Lease, in the mid 1970s, prior to reduction in the workforce, "Cape Horn" was located just west of the "Comstock" operation, on the north side of Mount Lyell, while most of the North Mount Lyell workings were finished, "12 West" was still in operation due to its rich copper ores. "West Lyell open cut", dominant in the 1950s was finished, various parts of the lease were disappearing into the opening above the "Prince Lyell" workings.
Following the first large layoffs in the mid 1970s, the town of Queenstown lost its dominance on the west coast by the mid 1990s, being a company town many services closed by the 2000s, the separate west Tasmanian local government authorities were amalgamated into the West Coast Council. On 29 March 1993 the company celebrated its centenary. At that stage it was known as the Copper Division of Renison Goldfields Consolidated Limited; the Mount Lyell Mining Field, the various activities of the company in Queenstown and the west coast of Tasmania were celebrated throughout the community. The Mount Lyell Remediation and Research and Demonstration Program was conducted between 1994 and 1996 following the closing of the company, to reverse the ecological change upon the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour, it is estimated. The Mount Lyell lease and mine was reopened by Copper Mines of Tasmania in 1995; this company in turn was acquired by Sterlite Industries, an Indian-based company, in 1999.
As a consequence it is part of the Vedanta group of companies. Its concentrate material is shipped to India for processing. Government guidelines saw tailings dams created and special measures taken to prevent any further pollution of the rivers and harbour. Mining was suspended at Mount Lyell due to accidents in the 2010s, remains in mothball situation in the late 2010s; the following locations were within the operating mine lease and indicate a separate orebody - the operating life is indicated: - Iron Blow 1883 - 1929 North Lyell 1896 - 1972 Royal Tharsis 1902 - 1991 Lyell Comstock 1913 - 1959 Crown Lyell 1931 - 1985 West Lyell Open Cut 1934 - 1978 Cape Horn 1969 - 1987 Prince Lyell Mine 1969 - 1995 See West Coast Wilderness Railway for more details. Mount Lyell was the operator of the 3 ft 6 in gauge Queenstown to Regatta Point railway from 1893 to 1963, which used the Abt rack system of cog railway for steep sections; this railway was rebuilt and recommenced operation in 2002 as the Abt Wilderness Railway, is now known as the West Coast Wilderness Railway and was operated by Federal Hotels until 2013.
The company has been significant in Australian business history works as Geoffrey Blainey, the Australian historian, began his career with the writing of the company history The Peaks of Lyell, which has now progressed to its sixth edition. Due to circumstances at the winding up of Mount Lyell significant amounts of company records were deposited with Tasmanian state archives. Pollution of the Queen and King Rivers, Macquarie Harbour was caused by the release of mine waste and effluent into the rivers, it is estimated. The environmental impacts included: tailings and acid drainage into rivers and a delta of tailings the size of a city suburb in Macquarie Harbour. Smelting ended in the 1960s and CMT has built a dam to contain tailings. Research by the Supervising Scientist published in 1997 overwhelmingly identified the lease site as the major source of acid drainage related pollutants affecting the rivers and harbour, with meta
Mount Owen (Tasmania)
Mount Owen is a mountain directly east of the town of Queenstown on the West Coast Range in Western Tasmania, Australia. With an elevation of 1,146 metres above sea level, like most of the mountains in the West Coast Range, it was named by the geologist Charles Gould after Richard Owen; the taller mountains were named after opponents or critics of Charles Darwin, the smaller after his supporters. The north western slopes are seen from Gormanston and the Linda Valley'Long Spur'; the tree line on Mount Owen was to a high level. However, timber on the slopes was used by the local mining operations. In the early days of settlement, fires started on the slopes destroyed housing in Queenstown and threatened the North Mount Lyell Railway. By the early twentieth century, the slopes of Mount Owen were denuded and had limited remnant vegetation. A map in Geoffrey Blainey's The Peaks of Lyell, sourced from 1900–1910, calls the north west peak the'North Spur'; the northern slopes visible from the Lyell Highway passing through the Linda Valley, show the extent of degradation due to fire, smelter fumes and heavy rainfall.
It has small glacial lakes on its upper eastern slope, indicating the extent of glaciation in the King River valley. The western slopes loom over Queenstown and in winter are covered in snow; the eastern wall to its north eastern peak hangs over the western shore of Lake Burbury and, in earlier times, the North Mount Lyell Railway which passed beneath. In the late 1890s a number of mining ventures that utilized proximity to mining leases with the name Mount Lyell as an attractor of investment, tried to elicit interest in leases on the lower slope of Mount Owen. There are TV and communications towers on its north west peak, used a vehicle access track. Other geological features near Mount Owen include Mount Lyell to the north and Mount Huxley to the south. Mount Owen is accessible on foot along a formed four wheel track; as early as 1938 suggestions were made to create a formed track for visitors. The surface is gravel and rocks, it takes about 4 hours including the return trip. The walk starts at the saddle between Gormanston and Mt Owen.
List of highest mountains of Tasmania Blainey, Geoffrey. The Peaks of Lyell. Hobart: St. David's Park Publishing. ISBN 0-7246-2265-9. Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania – A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown