Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and an historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in AD14, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, details about his personal life are scarce. What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, and an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 56 or 57 to an equestrian family, one scholars suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic.
The claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is generally disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Belgica and Germania, Pliny the Elder mentions that Cornelius had a son who aged rapidly, which implies an early death. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families. The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis and his marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus dedication to Fabius Iustus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, no evidence exists, that Plinys friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Plinys letters hint that the two men had a common background.
Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces, probably Gallia Narbonensis. His ancestry, his skill in oratory, and his depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, and had been subjugated by Rome. As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics, like Pliny, in 77 or 78, he married Julia Agricola, daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their life, save that Tacitus loved hunting. He started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus
The Suessiones were a Belgic tribe of western Gallia Belgica in the 1st century BC, inhabiting the region between the Oise and the Marne, around the present-day city of Soissons. They were conquered in 57 BC by Julius Caesar, pliny the Elder apparently gives their name as Suaeuconi. Coinage minted by Belgic Gauls first appeared in Britain in the mid-2nd century BC with the coinage now categorized as the Gallo-Belgic A type, coins associated with King Diviciacus of the Suessiones, issued near or between 90 and 60 BC, have been categorized as Gallo-Belgic C. Finds of this issue of coin extend from Sussex to the Wash, a issue of coin, Gallo-Belgic F, has concentrated finds near Paris, throughout the lands of the Suessiones, and the southern, coastal areas of Britain. These finds lead scholars to suggest that the Suessiones had significant trade and migration into Britain during the 2nd, Caesar mentions that their capital was Noviodunum, the present-day city of Soissons. Soissons was the city of the Merovingian Kingdom of Soissons from 511 to 613.
Soissons was the birthplace of the Frankish Prince Charlemagne in the year 747, son of King Pippin the Short and it is today the capital of the département of the Aisne, in the northern part of Champagne. The region is commonly referred to as the Soissonnais and people of the region are called Soissonaires. List of peoples of Gaul List of Celtic tribes
The Aresaces were a Celtic people closely related to, and probably originally part of, the Treveri. They inhabited the left bank of the Rhine in the Mainz-Bingen area, the Aresaces are not mentioned by ancient writers, such as geographers or Julius Caesar, but are known from three inscriptions dating to the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Two of these come from Rhenish Hesse, while the third is from Augusta Treverorum, another Celtic tribe in Rhenish Hesse, known from an inscription as well as ancient literature, was the Cairacates. According to current scholarship, the Aresaces would have organized as a pagus or sub-unit of the Treveri, settled in Rhenish Hesse in the area south. This area was sparsely settled during the late La Tène period. One possible cultural and administrative centre of the Aresaces might have been the oppidum on the Donnersberg, urbanization was only to increase noticeably at the time of, or shortly before, the Roman presence in the region. At the time of the Romans arrival in greater Mainz in 13–12 BCE, there is further evidence for settlement at Mainz-Finthen near the Königborn and Aubach.
The Aresaces were likely to have organized as a separate civitas from the Treveri at this stage, if not earlier. Meanwhile, the city of Mainz—known in Latin as Mogontiacum—flourished as a headquarters for a number of Roman legions. The territory of the Aresaces was formerly thought to have belonged to the Vangiones, this interpretation is now considered superseded in light of archaeological discoveries
The Ambarri were a Gallic people, whom Julius Caesar calls close allies and kinsmen of the Aedui. If the reading Aedui Ambarri in the referred to is correct. They are not mentioned among the clientes of the Aedui and they occupied a tract in the valley of the Rhône, probably in the angle between the Saône and the Rhône, and their neighbors on the east were the Allobroges. They are mentioned by Livy with the Aedui among those Galli who were said to have crossed the Alps into Italy in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, several communes in todays Ain department of France derive their name from them, Ambérieu-en-Bugey, Ambérieux-en-Dombes and Ambronay. They joined Bellovesusmigrations towards Italy, together with the Aeduii, Ambarri and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, William, ed. article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Cahors is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France. Its site is dramatic, being contained on three sides within a U-shaped bend in the River Lot known as the presquîle. Cahors is known as the centre of AOC black wine, which has made since the Middle Ages and exported via Bordeaux. Cahors has had a history since Celtic times. The Cadurci were among the last Celtic tribes to resist the Roman invasion, romanization was rapid and profound, Cahors became a large Roman city, with many monuments whose remnants can be seen today. It has declined economically since the Middle Ages, and lost its university in the 18th century, today it is a popular tourist centre with people coming to enjoy its mediaeval quarter and the 14th-century fortified Valentré bridge. It is the seat of the Diocese of Cahors and it was infamous at that time for having bankers that charged interest on their loans. The church in these times said that money as an end in itself was a sin. Because of this Cahors became synonymous with this sin, and was mentioned in Dantes Inferno alongside Sodom as wicked, pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse, was born in Cahors in 1249, the son of a shoemaker.
In the 2007 Tour de France, Cahors was the start of stage 18, the town is situated 115 km north of Toulouse, on the RN20 / A20, connecting the city, via Limoges to Paris and Orleans. The towns height above sea level is between 105 metres and 332 metres, the area of the town is 64.72 square kilometres, with population density relatively high for France at 309 inhabitants per square kilometre. The Valentré Bridge, the symbol of the town, building began in 1308 and was completed in 1378. The legend associated with this bridge is one of the most fully realized of all Devils Bridge legends, with a developed plot, complex characters. When the bridge was restored in 1879, the architect Paul Gout made reference to this by placing a small sculpture of the devil at the summit of one of the towers, Maison Henri IV or Hôtel de Roaldès. Daurade quarter with, Maison Hérétié Maison Dolive Maison du Bourreau The barbican that once defended the Barre Gate, cloister Arc de Diane, a relic of ancient Roman baths.
The stone walls can be seen in the car park first level, below the statue of Leon Gambetta, the area around Cahors produces wine, primarily robust and tannic red wine. Wine from the Cahors appellation must be made from at least 70% Malbec grape, the Cahors Blues Festival takes place every year in July since 1982. Pope John XXII Jules Combarieu, musicologist Communes of the Lot department INSEE commune file Official website Cahors Cathedral at Structurae
Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, and Germani. The Eburones played a role in Julius Caesars account of his Gallic Wars, as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae, Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones. In the early medieval church this evolved into the church province of Cologne. This large area included parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel. More generally Caesars description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine.
In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle. This is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, and west of the Eifel. No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel according to Edith Mary Wightman, in contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times. This would certainly account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar and this is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones, possibly between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, and it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could quickly form a military alliance against Caesars forces.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesars forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis, before that battle, information from the Remi, a tribe allied with Rome, stated that the Germani had collectively promised, they thought, about 40,000 men. The whole force was led by Galba, king of the Suessiones, the alliance did not work. The Suessiones and Bellovaci surrendered after the Romans defended the Remi, and after this the Ambiani offered no further resistance and the Nervii, along with the Atrebates and Viromandui, formed the most important force on the day of the battle
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
The Morini were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul. They were mentioned in classical works as the Commentarii de Bello Gallico written by Julius Caesar. They became a part of the Roman empire with the coastal parts of the present-day départment of Pas-de-Calais in northernmost France. A generation after their entry into the Roman Empire the writer Vergil described them poetically as the remotest of people, the tribes name Morini is thought to be Celtic meaning those of the sea. It is apparently derived from the suffix -no- and the Celtic word mori meaning sea, another derived word morici exists and is translated into Latin as marini sailors. The variation morici is found in Aremorici those who live in front of the sea, mori is a close relative of Welsh môr, Breton and Cornish mor, Irish muir. The Indo-European prototype was perhaps *móri that gave birth to Germanic *mari, English mere, German Meer, etc. Old Slavic morje. One of the most important cities of the Morini, was Gesoriacum, modern Boulogne-sur-Mer, called Bononia by Zosimus in late antiquity, Itius Portus or Portus Itius was the name of a Morini port city, generally considered to be either Wissant or Boulogne.
The administrative capital or civitas during the Roman Empire was Tarwanna or Tervanna, modern Thérouanne, today in France, to the south of the Morini and Atrebates were the Ambiani, whose civitas was at modern Amiens. Strabo in his Geographica, describes the country of the Morini as being on the sea, close to the Menapii, during the rainy season these proved secure hiding-places, but in times of drought they were easily taken. Caesar described the Belgae, including the Morini, as Gauls who had different language, customs and he mentioned that he had heard that the Belgae had some Germanic ancestry from east of the Rhine. Pliny the Elder remarked that the Morini cultivated flax and used linen to make sails, the area was known for exporting wool, pork and garum. In late classical times Zosimus implied the Germanic character of the city, Caesar was very interested in that part of the Morini territory, which is where the crossing of the sea to Britannia was the shortest. The Morini had several harbours of which Portus Itius, was only one, the tribe counted some pagi, apparently, could make their own decisions.
The Morini fled into or behind the marshes and became unreachable for the Roman army, in 56 BC, when autumn was very wet, this tactic worked. The year after, which was much dryer, it failed, the Morini participated together with other coastal people and tribes from Britain, in the uprising of the Veneti. Caesar wanted to induce fear in the northern Morini so that they wouldnt attack him, the territory of the Morini and Menapii was well protected by marshes and woodland and suited for guerrilla tactics. The dangers outweighed the benefits of subduing those economically less interesting regions, in 55 BC Labienus tightened the Roman grip upon the strategically more important western side of the Morini tribal areas
This article is about the Cenomani in Gallia Celtica, for the Cenomani in Cisalpine Gaul, see Cenomani. According to Caesar, they assisted Vercingetorix in the rising with a force of 5000 men. Under Augustus they formed a civitas stipendiaria of Gallia Lugdunensis, there was another people called Cenomani that held extensive territory in Cisalpine Gaul, there is disagreement whether they are one and the same people. The orthography and the quantity of the vowel of Cenomani have given rise to discussion. According to Arbois de Jubainville, the Cenomni of Italy are not identical with the Cehomni of Gaul. In the case of the latter, the survival of the man in Le Mans is due to the stress laid on the vowel, had the vowel been short and unaccented. In Italy, Cenomani is the name of a people, in Gaul, William Smith adopts the difference, placing the peoples in two separate articles in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. According to Livy, the Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul arrived after the expedition of Bellovesus, led by Helitovius and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Cenomani. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
The Caeroesi were a tribe living in Belgic Gaul when Julius Caesars Roman forces entered the area in 57 BCE. They are known from his account of the Gallic War and they are generally equated with the Cæracates mentioned briefly by Tacitus in his Histories. They were one of a group of tribes listed by his local informants as the Germani, along with the Eburones, Condrusi and Segni. These tribes are referred to as the Germani Cisrhenani, to them from Germani living on the east of the Rhine, outside of the Gaulish. He said that the descendants of the original Germani in his time were the Tungri, the general area of the Belgian Germani was between the Scheldt and Rhine rivers, and north of Luxemburg and the Moselle, which is where the Treverii lived. In modern terms this area includes eastern Belgium, the parts of the Netherlands, and a part of Germany on the west of the Rhine. The Caeroesi appear to have lived in the south of this range, in the Eifel region, in the area which because the Roman pagus of Carucum, this became the Frankish pagus called Caroascus.
A Roman era boundary marker has been found near Neidenbach bei Kyllburg marked FINIS PAGI CARV CVM and this was on the Roman road between Trier, the main Roman city of the Treverii, and Cologne. This was an area, forming a boundary between regions. To the east of Neidenbach, the Vinxtbach, a river flowing eastwards to the Rhine. The name Vinxtbach is in fact thought to derive from the Latin word finis, today the Vinxtbach is still a boundary between modern German dialects, with Ripuarian to the north, and Moselle Frankish to the south. Also nearby is the boundary of modern German Länder of Rheinland-Pfalz. Their name is believed to mean sheep people, and to be Celtic in origin