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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts: the particular form of biological classification set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturae and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus there are three kingdoms, divided into classes, they, in turn, into orders and species, with an additional rank lower than species. A term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general; that is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification. This term is used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades, it is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not exist: it is a collective term for what are several separate fields, which use similar approaches. Linnaean name has two meanings: depending on the context, it may either refer to a formal name given by Linnaeus, such as Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758, or a formal name in the accepted nomenclature.

In his Imperium Naturae, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal and Mineral Kingdoms, survives today in the popular mind, notably in the form of the parlour game question: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The work of Linnaeus had a huge impact on science. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum for plants and the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, are accepted as part of the starting points of nomenclature. However, the impact he had on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy, his classes and orders of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups but only for use in identification. They were used for that purpose well into the nineteenth century. Within each class were several orders; the Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were: Classis 1. Monandria: flowers with 1 stamen Classis 2. Diandria: flowers with 2 stamens Classis 3.

Triandria: flowers with 3 stamens Classis 4. Tetrandria: flowers with 4 stamens Classis 5. Pentandria: flowers with 5 stamens Classis 6. Hexandria: flowers with 6 stamens Hexandria monogynia pp. 285–352 Hexandria polygynia pp. 342–343 Classis 7. Heptandria: flowers with 7 stamens Classis 8. Octandria: flowers with 8 stamens Classis 9. Enneandria: flowers with 9 stamens Classis 10. Decandria: flowers with 10 stamens Classis 11. Dodecandria: flowers with 12 stamens Classis 12. Icosandria: flowers with 20 stamens, perigynous Classis 13. Polyandria: flowers with many stamens, inserted on the receptacle Classis 14. Didynamia: flowers with 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short Classis 15. Tetradynamia: flowers with 6 stamens, 4 long and 2 short Classis 16. Monadelphia. Diadelphia. Polyadelphia. Syngenesia. Gynandria. Monoecia: monoecious plants Classis 22. Dioecia: dioecious plants Classis 23. Polygamia: polygamodioecious plants Classis 24. Cryptogamia: the "flowerless" plants, including ferns, fungi and bryophytesThe classes based on the number of stamens were subdivided by the number of pistils, e.g. Hexandria monogynia with six stamens and one pistil.

Index to genera p. 1201By contrast his ordines naturales numbered 69, from Piperitae to Vagae. Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but not quite for the same groups, he divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes, in the tenth edition, of 1758, these were: Classis 1. Mammalia Classis 2. Aves Classis 3. Amphibia Classis 4. Pisces Classis 5. Insecta Classis 6. Vermes His taxonomy of minerals has long since dropped from use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturae, the Linnaean classes were: Classis 1. Petræ Classis 2. Mineræ Classis 3. Fossilia Classis 4. Vitamentra This rank-based method of classifying living organisms was popularized by Linnaeus, although it has changed since his time; the greatest innovation of Linnaeus, still the most important aspect of this system, is the general use of binomial nomenclature, the combination of a genus name and a second term, which together uniquely identify each species of organism within a kingdom.

For example, the human species is uniquely identified within the animal kingdom by the name Homo sapiens. No other species of animal can have this same binomen. Prior to Linnaean taxonomy, animals were classified according to their mode of movement. Linnaeus's use of binomial nomenclature was anticipated by the theory of definition used in Scholasticism. Scholastic logicians and philosophers of nature defined the species man, for example, as Animal rationalis, where animal was considered a genus and rationalis the characteristic distinguishing man from all other animals. Treating a

Cold Day in July

"Cold Day in July" is a country music song written by Richard Leigh and most known as performed by the Dixie Chicks. Two artists recorded the song in 1992, Suzy Bogguss on her album Voices in the Wind and Joy Lynn White on her debut album, Between Midnight & Hindsight. White's version was released as a single in 1993, peaking at #71 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. "Cold Day in July" was recorded by American country music group the Dixie Chicks on their 1999 album, Fly. Released in April 2000 as the album's fourth single, the Dixie Chicks' version peaked at #10 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart in July 2000, it reached #7 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Eurocode: Basis of structural design

In the eurocode series of European standards related to construction, Eurocode: Basis of structural design establishes the basis that sets out the way to use Eurocodes for structural design. Eurocode 0 establishes Principles and requirements for the safety and durability of structures, describes the basis for their design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. Eurocode 0 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1991 to EN 1999 for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works, including geotechnical aspects, structural fire design, situations involving earthquakes and temporary structures. Eurocode 0 is applicable: for the design of structures where other materials or other actions outside the scope of EN 1991 to EN 1999 are involved, for the structural appraisal of existing construction, in developing the design of repairs and alterations or in assessing change of use. Eurocode 0 may be used, when relevant, as a guidance document for the design of structures outside the scope of the EN Eurocodes EN 1991 to EN 1999, for: assessing other actions and their combinations.

Annex A2 of EN 1990 gives rules and methods for establishing combinations of actions for serviceability and ultimate limit state verifications with the recommended design values of permanent and accidental actions and ψ factors to be used in the design of road bridges and railway bridges. It applies to actions during execution. Methods and rules for verifications relating to some material-independent serviceability limit states are given; the current latest version of the British Standard is EN 1990:2002+A1:2005, incorporating corrigendum December 2008. It supersedes DD ENV 1991-1:1996, withdrawn; the Eurocodes were published as European Prestandards. The following European Standards which are published or in preparation are cited in normative clauses: EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures First-order reliability method The EN Eurocodes EN 1990: Basis of structural design EN 1990 - Eurocode: Basis of structural design - "Eurocodes: Background and applications" workshop