In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with classifying plants; the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Fossil plants are covered by the code of nomenclature. Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans. Botanical nomenclature has a long history, going back beyond the period when Latin was the scientific language throughout Europe, to Theophrastus and other Greek writers. Many of these works have come down to us in Latin translations; the principal Latin writer on botany was Pliny the Elder. From Mediaeval times, Latin became the universal scientific language in Europe.
Most written plant knowledge was the property of monks Benedictine, the purpose of those early herbals was medicinal rather than plant science per se. It would require the invention of the printing press to make such information more available. Leonhart Fuchs, a German physician and botanist is considered the originator of Latin names for the increasing number of plants known to science. For instance he coined the name Digitalis in his De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes. A key event was Linnaeus’ adoption of binomial names for plant species in his Species Plantarum. In the nineteenth century it became clear that there was a need for rules to govern scientific nomenclature, initiatives were taken to refine the body of laws initiated by Linnaeus; these were published in successively more sophisticated editions. For plants, key dates are 1867 and 1906; the most recent is the Melbourne Code, adopted in 2011. Another development was the insight into the delimitation of the concept of'plant'. More and more groups of organisms are being recognised as being independent of plants.
The formal names of most of these organisms are governed by the today. Some protists that do not fit into either plant or animal categories are treated under either or both of the ICN and the ICZN. A separate Code was adopted to govern the nomenclature of Bacteria, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Botanical nomenclature is linked to plant taxonomy, botanical nomenclature serves plant taxonomy, but botanical nomenclature is separate from plant taxonomy. Botanical nomenclature is the body of rules prescribing which name applies to that taxon and if a new name may be coined. Plant taxonomy is an empirical science, a science that determines what constitutes a particular taxon: e.g. "What plants belong to this species?" and "What species belong to this genus?". The definition of the limits of a taxon is called its'circumscription'. For a particular taxon, if two taxonomists agree on its circumscription and position there is only one name which can apply under the ICN. Where they differ in opinion on any of these issues and the same plant may be placed in taxa with different names.
As an example, consider Siehe's Glory-of-the-Snow, Chionodoxa siehei: Taxonomists can disagree as to whether two groups of plants are sufficiently distinct to be put into one species or not. Thus Chionodoxa siehei and Chionodoxa forbesii have been treated as a single species by some taxonomists or as two species by others. If treated as one species, the earlier published name must be used, so plants called Chionodoxa siehei become Chionodoxa forbesii. Taxonomists can disagree as to whether two genera are sufficiently distinct to be kept separate or not. While agreeing that the genus Chionodoxa is related to the genus Scilla the bulb specialist Brian Mathew considers that their differences warrant maintaining separate genera. Others disagree, would refer to Chionodoxa siehei as Scilla siehei; the earliest published genus name must be used. Taxonomists can disagree as to the limits of families; when the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group first published its classification of the flowering plants in 1998, Chionodoxa siehei would have been placed in the family Hyacinthaceae.
In the 2009 revision of their classification, the APG no longer recognize the Hyacinthaceae as a separate family, merging it into a enlarged family Asparagaceae. Thus Chionodoxa siehei moves from the Hyacinthaceae to the Asparagaceae. Taxonomists can disagree as to the rank of a taxon. Rather than allow the Hyacinthaceae to disappear altogether, Chase et al. suggested that it be treated as a subfamily within the Asparagaceae. The ICN requires family names to end with "-aceae" and subfamily names to end with "-oideae", thus a possible name for the Hyacinthaceae when treated as a subfamily would be'Hyacinthoideae'. However, the name Scilloideae had been published in 1835 as the name for a subfamily containing the genus Scilla, so this name has priority and must be used. Hence for those taxonomists who accept the APG system of 2009, Chionodoxa siehei can be placed in the subfamily Scil
10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae; the first work to apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. Names published before that date are unavailable if they would otherwise satisfy the rules; the only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, published in 1757, but is to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.
During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into ever-expanding editions; the Animal Kingdom: Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance. They have members for the different purposes of life, they all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; the list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals. These classes were created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key: Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood Viviparous: Mammalia Oviparous: Aves Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood Lungs voluntary: Amphibia External gills: Pisces Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood Have antennae: Insecta Have tentacles: VermesBy current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta contained arachnids and crustaceans, one order of Amphibia comprised sharks and sturgeons. Linnaeus described mammals as: Animals.
In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera: Primates: Homo, Lemur & Vespertilio Bruta: Elephas, Bradypus, Myrmecophaga & Manis Ferae: Phoca, Felis, Mustela & Ursus Bestiae: Sus, Erinaceus, Sorex & Didelphis Glires: Rhinoceros, Lepus, Mus & Sciurus Pecora: Camelus, Cervus, Ovis & Bos Belluae: Equus & Hippopotamus Cete: Monodon, Physeter & Delphinus Linnaeus described birds as: A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down, they are areal, vocal and light, destitute of external ears, teeth, womb, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, diaphragm. Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera: Accipitres: Vultur, Strix & Lanius Picae: Psittacus, Buceros, Corvus, Gracula, Cuculus, Picus, Alcedo, Upupa, Certhia & Trochilus Anseres: Anas, Alca, Diomedea, Phaethon, Larus, Sterna & Rhyncops Grallae: Phoenicopterus, Mycteria & Tantulus, Scolopax, Charadrius, Haematopus, Rallus, Otis & Struthio Gallinae: Pavo, Crax, Phasianus & Tetrao Passeres: Columba, Sturnus, Loxia (cardina
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
The stigma is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. The stigma, together with the style and ovary comprises the pistil, which in turn is part of the gynoecium or female reproductive organ of a plant; the stigma forms the distal portion of the stylodia. The stigma is composed of the cells which are receptive to pollen; these may be restricted to the apex of the style or in wind pollinated species, cover a wide surface. The stigma receives pollen and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates. Sticky, the stigma is adapted in various ways to catch and trap pollen with various hairs, flaps, or sculpturings; the pollen may be captured from the air, from visiting insects or other animals, or in rare cases from surrounding water. Stigma can slender to globe shaped to feathery. Pollen is highly desiccated when it leaves an anther. Stigma have been shown to assist in the rehydration of pollen and in promoting germination of the pollen tube. Stigma ensure proper adhesion of the correct species of pollen.
Stigma can play an active role in pollen discrimination and some self-incompatibility reactions, that reject pollen from the same or genetically similar plants, involve interaction between the stigma and the surface of the pollen grain. The stigma is split into lobes, e.g. trifid, may resemble the head of a pin, or come to a point. The shape of the stigma may vary considerably: The style is a narrow upward extension of the ovary, connecting it to the stigmatic papillae, it may be absent in some plants in the case. Styles are tube-like—either long or short; the style can be open with a central canal. Alternatively the style may be closed. Most syncarpous monocots and some eudicots have open styles, while many syncarpous eudicots and grasses have closed styles containing specialised secretory transmitting tissue, linking the stigma to the centre of the ovary; this forms a nutrient rich tract for pollen tube growth. Where there are more than one carpel to the pistil, each may have a separate style-like stylodium, or share a common style.
In Irises and others in the Iridaceae family, the style divides into three petal-like style branches to the base of the style and is called tribrachiate. These are flaps of tissue, running from the perianth tube above the sepal; the stigma is a edge on the underside of the branch, near the end lobes. Style branches appear on Dietes and most species of Moraea. In Crocuses, there are three divided style branches. Hesperantha has a spreading style branch. Alternatively the style may be lobed rather than branched. Gladiolus has a bi-lobed style branch. Freesia, Romulea and Watsonia have bifuracated and recurved style branches. May be terminal, lateral, gynobasic, or subgynobasic. Terminal style position is the commonest pattern. In the subapical pattern the style arises to the side below the apex. A lateral style is found in Rosaceae; the gynobasic style arises from the base of the ovary, or between the ovary lobes and is characteristic of Boraginaceae. Subgynobasic styles characterise Allium. Pollen tubes grow the length of the style to reach the ovules, in some cases self-incompatibility reactions in the style prevent full growth of the pollen tubes.
In some species, including Gasteria at least, the pollen tube is directed to the micropyle of the ovule by the style. Gynoecium Stigma shape and size - English labels Terminal versus gynobasic style Images Gynobasic Diagram