Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, chemical engineer, peace activist and educator. He published books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history. For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962, he is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize. Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes, one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie, he was married to the American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of molecular biology, his contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements. Pauling worked on the structures of biological molecules, showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure.
Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building, quantum chemistry. His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms. In his years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy, dietary supplements. None of the latter have gained much acceptance in the mainstream scientific community. Linus Carl Pauling was born on February 28, 1901, in Portland, the firstborn child of Herman Henry William Pauling and Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling, he was named "Linus Carl", in honor of Lucy's father and Herman's father, Carl. In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of Portland, to find more affordable and spacious living quarters than their one-room apartment. Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Lake Oswego until Herman brought the family to Salem, where he worked as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company.
Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Lake Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore. He moved his family to Condon, Oregon, in 1905. By 1906, Herman Pauling was suffering from recurrent abdominal pain, he died of a perforated ulcer on June 11, 1910, leaving Lucy to care for Linus and Pauline. Pauling attributes his interest in becoming a chemist to being amazed by experiments conducted by a friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, who had a small chemistry lab kit, he wrote: "I was entranced by chemical phenomena, by the reactions in which substances with strikingly different properties, appear. With an older friend, Lloyd Simon, Pauling set up Palmon Laboratories in Simon's basement, they approached local dairies offering to perform butterfat samplings at cheap prices but dairymen were wary of trusting two boys with the task, the business ended in failure. At age 15, the high school senior had enough credits to enter Oregon State University, known as Oregon Agricultural College.
Lacking two American history courses required for his high school diploma, Pauling asked the school principal if he could take the courses concurrently during the spring semester. Denied, he left Washington High School in June without a diploma; the school awarded him an honorary diploma 45 years after he was awarded two Nobel Prizes. Pauling held a number of jobs to earn money for his future college expenses, including working part-time at a grocery store for $8 per week, his mother arranged an interview with the owner of a number of manufacturing plants in Portland, Mr. Schwietzerhoff, who hired him as an apprentice machinist at a salary of $40 per month; this was soon raised to $50 per month. Pauling set up a photography laboratory with two friends. In September 1917, Pauling was admitted by Oregon State University, he resigned from the machinist's job and informed his mother, who saw no point in a university education, of his plans. In his first semester, Pauling registered for two courses in chemistry, two in mathematics, mechanical drawing, introduction to mining and use of explosives, modern English prose and military drill.
He founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon fraternity. After his second year, he planned to take a job in Portland to help support his mother; the college offered him a position teaching quantitative analysis, a course he had just finished taking himself. He worked forty hours a week in the laboratory and classroom and earned $100 a month, enabling him to continue his studies. In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules, he decided to focus his research on how the physical and chemical properties of substances are related to the structure of the atoms of which they are composed, becoming one of the founders of the new science of quantum chemistry. Engineering professor Samuel Graf selected Pauling to be his teaching assistant in a mechanics and materials course. Dur
Roy Alfred Williams is a former track and field athlete from New Zealand, who won gold in the decathlon at the 1966 Empire and Commonwealth Games in Kingston, but was overlooked for the 1956, 1960 and 1964 Olympic Games. He competed in the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games at Cardiff in the long jump and triple jump, in the 1970 British Commonwealth Games at Edinburgh in the decathlon, he won the national decathlon title 11 times between 1956 and 1970, as well as the 120 yards hurdles title in 1965, the long jump title in 1958 and the discus title in 1956. He is a brother of Yvette Williams, he was inducted into the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame in 1990. In the 2002 New Year Honours, Williams was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to athletics. Profiles of Fame: The stories of New Zealand’s Greatest Sporting Achievers by Ron Palenski p. 51 ISBN 0-473-08536-4 Page with Photo at Sporting Heroes Roy Williams at the New Zealand Olympic Committee
Timo Rose is a German horror and science fiction filmmaker and founder of the production company Sword of Independence Filmworks. Filmmaker Timo Rose is best known for his Mutation trilogy, which involves a toxic chemical created by Nazis and rediscovered in modern times; the second and third chapters in this film trilogy were re-edited in 2006 into an FX-heavy "special edition" entitled Mutation: Annihilation. A large majority of his earlier FX work was done by German director/effects technician and close friend Olaf Ittenbach, although Rose does most of his own under his "Rosecalypse SFX" banner. Younger than many of his contemporaries, Rose bases much of his filmmaking on the brutality of early Andreas Schnaas and Olaf Ittenbach features. In the decade since he began creating films, he has directed more features than any other filmmakers in the German movie scene. Since his 2004 film Lord of the Undead, starring Debbie Rochon, Rose has made it a point to film at least a portion of each of his films in English.
Many of his more recent films, such as Barricade and Beast, have been shot in English, with minimal German interspersed throughout. Rose's films are influenced by modern, hyperkinetic action movies and video games; some films go so far as recreating scenes and character profiles from popular horror-themed video games. His penchant for practical gore effects are reminiscent of the early works of German contemporaries Andreas Schnaas and Olaf Ittenbach. Timo Rose has released several rap CDs under the stage name King Hannibal and takes part in numerous live performances throughout Germany, his albums, which mix traditional rap with metal have all been successful in Germany's upstart hip-hop industry. His latest music project and Prinzessa, was with Magdalena Kalley, his then-girlfriend who had appeared in several of his films. Mutation Midnight's Calling Mutation 2 – Generation Dead Mutation III: Century of the Dead Rigor Mortis – The Final Colours Space Wolf Lord of the Undead The Legend of Moonlight Mountain Mutation: Annihilation Barricade Fearmakers Beast Game Over Unrated – Co-directed with Andreas Schnaas Karl the Butcher vs Axe – Co-directed with Andreas Schnaas Unrated 2 – Scary as hell – Co-directed with Andreas Schnaas MemorieZ' Timo Rose on IMDb Timo Rose at MySpace Timo Rose – Rosecalypse Media International