The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, Unix-like operating system kernel. The Linux family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers in the form of Linux distributions, on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, NAS appliances. While the adoption of the Linux kernel in desktop computer operating system is low, Linux-based operating systems dominate nearly every other segment of computing, from mobile devices to mainframes. Since November 2017, all of the world's 500 most powerful supercomputers run Linux; the Android operating system for tablet computers and smartwatches uses the Linux kernel. The Linux kernel was conceived and created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds for his personal computer and with no cross-platform intentions, but has since expanded to support a huge array of computer architectures, many more than other kernels do.
Linux attracted developers and users who adopted it as the kernel for other free software projects, notably the GNU Operating System, created as a free, non-proprietary operating system, based on UNIX as a by-product of the fallout of the Unix wars. The Linux kernel API, the application programming interface through which user programs interact with the kernel, is meant to be stable and to not break userspace programs; as part of the kernel's functionality, device drivers control the hardware. However, the interface between the kernel and loadable kernel modules, unlike in many other kernels and operating systems, is not meant to be stable by design; the Linux kernel, developed by contributors worldwide, is a prominent example of free and open source software. Day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list; the Linux kernel as a whole, as it is stated in the COPYING file, is released under the GNU General Public License version 2, but it contains several files under other compatible licenses and an ad hoc exemption for the User-space API header files.
In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, at the time a 21-year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki, started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel 80386 assembly language and a terminal driver. On 25 August 1991, Torvalds posted the following to comp.os.minix, a newsgroup on Usenet: I'm doing a operating system for 386 AT clones. This has been brewing since April, is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat. I've ported bash and gcc, things seem to work; this implies that I'll get something practical within a few months Yes - it's free of any minix code, it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable, it never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have:-(. It's in C, but most people wouldn't call what I write C, it uses every conceivable feature of the 386 I could find, as it was a project to teach me about the 386. As mentioned, it uses a MMU, for both paging and segmentation.
It's the segmentation that makes it REALLY 386 dependent. Some of my "C"-files are as much assembler as C. Unlike minix, I happen to LIKE interrupts, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide the reason behind them. After that, many people contributed code to the project. Early on, the MINIX community contributed code and ideas to the Linux kernel. At the time, the GNU Project had created many of the components required for a free operating system, but its own kernel, GNU Hurd, was incomplete and unavailable; the Berkeley Software Distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances. Despite the limited functionality of the early versions, Linux gained developers and users. On 17 September 1991, Torvalds prepared version 0.01 of the Linux kernel and put on the "ftp.funet.fi" – FTP server of the Finnish University and Research Network. It had 10,239 lines of code. On 5 October 1991, version 0.02 of the Linux kernel was released to public. Torvalds assigned version 0 to the kernel to indicate that it was for testing and not intended for productive use.
In December 1991, Linux kernel 0.11 was released. This version was the first to be self-hosted as Linux kernel 0.11 could be compiled by a computer running the same kernel version. When Torvalds released version 0.12 in February 1992, he adopted the GNU General Public License version 2 over his previous self-drafted license, which had not permitted commercial redistribution. On 19 January 1992, the first post to the new newsgroup alt.os.linux was submitted. On 31 March 1992, the newsgroup was renamed comp.os.linux. The fact that Linux is a monolithic kernel rather than a microkernel was the topic of a debate between Andrew S. Tanenbaum, the creator of MINIX, Torvalds; this discussion is known as the Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate and started in 1992 on the Usenet discussion group comp.os.minix as a general debate about Linux and kernel architecture. Tanenbaum argued that microkernels were superior to monolithic kernels and that therefore Linux was ob
Bhoot Aaya is an Indian drama documentary television series created by Akashdeep Sabir and directed by Ayush Raina for Sony Entertainment Television. Its central plot was based on paranormal experiences narrated by the real victims. Earlier the series was scheduled to telecast on September 29, 2013, but it was delayed, the series premiered on October 13, 2013, which aired weekly on every Sunday at 11 PM IST. The show was directed by Ayush Raina who directed Horror Story, was co-produced by Kaishav Arora; the series ended on 6 April 2014. There were 23 episodes in total. Bhoot Aaya attempted to explore the unexplained forces of the dark world and their encounters with humans, it is based on human brain psychology. The show depicted spine chilling experiences of ordinary people; each episode of Bhoot Aaya introduced Gaurav Tiwari and other experts from Indian Paranormal Society to explain the reasons behind such unexplained events. Karanvir Bohra Teejay Sendhu Official website on SET India Bhoot Aaya on SET Asia
The RES Group is a global renewable energy company, active in the renewable energy industry for over 30 years. Its core business is to develop and operate large-scale, grid-connected renewable energy projects worldwide for commercial and utility clients. RES is active in the wind and solar energy sectors and is focused on the transition to a low-carbon economy providing transmission, energy storage and demand side management expertise. Renewable Energy Systems was started in 1982 as part of the Sir Robert McAlpine group of engineering and construction companies, its early years were spent in researching various designs for commercial wind turbines, including work on a vertical axis wind turbine model as well as the now more used horizontal axis units. The company built its first commercial wind farm at Carland Cross in Cornwall in 1992, using 15 Vestas turbines, each of 400 kW capacity. In December 1998, the first commercial 1MW wind turbine to be designed and built in the UK was installed by RES at Slievenahanaghan, Co Antrim.
In 2001 the company built the then-largest wind farm in the world at King Mountain in Texas, using 214 Bonus turbines of 1.3 MW capacity. In 2005, RES won a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the Sustainable Development category. More the company has been active in the developing offshore UK wind power market, it has supported the delivery of both onshore and offshore engineering works for the Lynn and Inner Dowsing offshore wind farms off the coast of Lincolnshire in the UK. The RES Group has now developed and/or constructed over 100 wind farms worldwide, with more than 12 GW of capacity. In addition, it has projects on its books totaling several thousand megawatts worldwide, at various stages of development; the group will be managing the assets of the Renewables Infrastructure Group, a company involved in onshore wind and solar energy in Britain and Ireland, that plans a stock market flotation to raise up to GBP 300 million. The RES Group has offices across the UK, North America and Australasia.
Since late 2003 RES has been based at its low carbon headquarters building at Beaufort Court, Kings Langley, Hertfordshire in the UK. This unique site, centered on the old'Arts and Crafts' style Ovaltine Egg Farm building constructed in 1929, uses electricity supplied from its own 225 kW Vestas V29 wind turbine and from on-site photovoltaic panels. Heat comes from a biomass boiler. A miscanthus energy crop is grown on 5 hectares of the site, whilst cooling is produced on demand using pumped ground water. Solar power in the United Kingdom Wind power in the United Kingdom Blyth Biomass Power Station The following sites give further information on the Beaufort Court location