European University Institute
For European Institute established in 1951 in Saarbrücken, see Europa-Institut of Saarland University, for other uses, see European University The European University Institute in Florence, Italy, is an international postgraduate and post-doctoral teaching and research institute established by European Union member states to contribute to cultural and scientific development in the social sciences, in a European perspective. The European University Institute has been founded in 1972 by the Member States of the European Community, it was born out of an atmosphere of cooperation, with notable advocacy for a European institute at the Hague Conference in 1948 and the European Cultural Conference the following year. Other priorities persisted however until the 1955 Messina Conference. With all six members of the European Coal and Steel Community were present, the German Secretary of State Walter Hallstein took the opportunity to call for a training centre for nuclear sciences; this was proposed under the Euratom Treaty.
The Italian government was enthusiastic and, recognising an academic need to study Europe, made determined action along with the European Commission and the European Parliament. However it was not until over a decade that the idea began to bear fruit, when in 1969 leaders met in The Hague and resolved to fund a European University Institute in Florence. By this point the idea had evolved from a centre for nuclear sciences to one focused on the human sciences, promoting a cultural exchange between member states. Plans were put into motion with conferences in Florence and Rome in 1970 and 1971, when it was decided that the institute would be reserved for post-graduate studies and not directly a Community institution; the six member states – Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands – signed a convention in 1972 establishing the EUI as a pillar for research and development. The EUI Convention entered into force in 1975, the Instituted opened its doors to its first 70 researchers in 1976; the mission, laid down in the 1970s, is to “foster the advancement of learning in fields which are of particular interest for the development of Europe”.
Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the Community in 1973, subsequently acceded to the convention establishing the EUI. In 1992, a new convention revising the 1972 convention establishing the EUI was signed by the 12 Community member states, it entered into force in 2007. As of February 2019, the EUI member states are: The remaining EU member states which are not EUI member states are: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia; the Economics Department provides supervision to PhD students. The research activities of the Department reflect the interests of the faculty and are concentrated in micro and econometrics. Weekly research seminars are given by scholars from around the world; the teaching in the doctoral programme is based on formal coursework at a level which will allow researchers to pursue academic careers in universities or to follow professional opportunities in international organisations. In their third and fourth years researchers work on their thesis projects under the guidance of their supervisor while attending research workshops and seminars.
The Department of History and Civilization offers a programme of transnational and comparative European history. The doctoral programme studies the construction of Europe's boundaries and the diversity and complexity of experiences within them; the department's central concerns are the interlinking of European societies since the Renaissance and the complex cultural legacies that have shaped contemporary Europe. The HEC community is committed to exploring the place of Europe in the world through the study of empires, global processes and institutions; the variety of research approaches and themes, as well as the broad background of its professors, enable the Department to recruit high-quality Ph. D. candidates and to host outstanding research fellows. The Department of Law is international in character, it is committed to the study of law in a comparative and contextual manner, with a special focus on European and international law. Courses and seminars are interactive, research-oriented and designed to cover the main subject areas of the Department's work.
Researchers gain experience in presenting their work, are encouraged to participate in conferences and the Department's Working Groups. Within the department, the Academy of European Law offers advanced-level summer courses in Human Rights Law and EU Law, it manages research projects and runs a publications programme. The EUI Law Department jointly hosts, with Harvard Law School, the Summer School on Law and Logic; this summer school was launched in 2012 and is sponsored by CIRSFID-University of Bologna, the University of Groningen, the European Academy of Legal Theory, a grant from the Erasmus Lifelong Learning Programme. The research programme of the Department of Political and Social Sciences places emphasis on political and social change within Europe at the national, sub-national and transnational level; the research interests of the Department range across the four sub-disciplines of comparative politics, international relations, social and political theory. Courses in both quantitative and qualitative methods are available as options in the first and second year, while field work and data collection
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Dulwich College is a 2–19 independent, boarding school for boys in Dulwich, England. It was founded in 1619 by Edward Alleyn, an Elizabethan actor, with the original purpose of educating 12 poor scholars as the foundation of'God's Gift'. Admission by examination is into years 3, 7, 9, 12 to the Junior, Lower and Upper Schools into which the college is divided, it is a member of Headmistresses' Conference and the Eton Group. Founder's Day at Dulwich College is celebrated at the end of the Summer Term to commemorate the signing of the letters patent by James I on 21 June 1619 authorising Edward Alleyn to establish a college in Dulwich to be called'the College of God's Gift, in Dulwich in Surrey'; the term "Dulwich College" was used colloquially from that date, such as in 1675 when John Evelyn described his visit to Dulwich College in his Diary. However, for at least 263 years this colloquialism was incorrect as the school was part of the overall charitable Foundation. Edward Alleyn, as well as being a famous Elizabethan actor, for whom Christopher Marlowe wrote his title roles, performed at the Rose Theatre, was a man of great property and wealth, derived from places of entertainment including theatres and bear-gardens.
There is no documentary evidence for the legend. He was'Chief Maister and Overseer of games of Beares, Mastiff Dogs and Mastiff Bitches'. Rumours that Alleyn turned his attention towards charitable pursuits out of fear for his moral well-being have been traced to the journalist George Sala and questioned. Since 1605, Alleyn had owned the manorial estate of Dulwich, it may have been around this time that he first had the idea of establishing a college or hospital for poor people and the education of poor boys; the building on Dulwich Green of a chapel, a schoolhouse and twelve almshouses, began in 1613 and was completed in the autumn of 1616. On 1 September 1616 the chapel was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury who became the official Visitor. However, Edward Alleyn faced objections from Francis Bacon, the Lord Chancellor, in getting the patent of incorporation, necessary to secure the Foundation's status as a college, it was Alleyn's persistence that led to the foundation being endowed by James I's signing of the letters patent.
The charity consisted of a Master, four fellows, six poor brothers, six poor sisters and twelve poor scholars, who became the joint legal owners of Alleyn's endowment of the manor and lands of Dulwich, collectively known as the Members of the College. The poor brothers and sisters and scholars were to be drawn from the four parishes that were most tied to Alleyn; the business of the charity was conducted in the name of these thirty members by the Master and four Fellows. Alleyn drew upon the experience of other similar establishments in order to formulate the statutes and ordinances of the college, including drawing on the statutes of the ancient Winchester College and visiting the more contemporary establishments of Sutton's Hospital and Croydon's Hospital. Among the many statutes and ordinances signed by Alleyn that pertained to the charitable scheme were provisions that the scholars were entitled to stay until they were eighteen, and to be taught in good and sound learning’…’that they might be prepared for university or for good and sweet trades and occupations.
Another stipulation was that the Master and Warden should always be unmarried and of Alleyn's blood, surname, if the former was impossible at least of Alleyn's surname. Alleyn made provision that the people of Dulwich should be able to have their men children instructed at the school for a fee as well as children from outside Dulwich for a separate fee; the next two centuries were beset by both external difficulties such as diminishing financial fortunes and failing buildings as well as internal strife between the various Members of the College. The Official Visitor, the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose function was to ensure that the statutes were obeyed, was called in many times; the lack of a disinterested body of governors and of any official connection to the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge contributed to the school failing to fulfill Alleyn's vision in its first two centuries. Some notable Masters did preside over the college during this time, including James Allen, who in 1741 made over to the college six houses in Kensington, the rents of which were to be used in the establishment of two small schools in Dulwich, one for boys from the village, the other for girls to read and sew, out of which James Allen's Girls' School arose.
Dr John Allen of Holland House was a most learned and influential man, but neglected the education of the Poor Scholars. Having obtained an Act in 1805 allowing them to enclose and develop 130 acres of common land within the manor, the college was granted the power by the 1808 Dulwich College Building Act to extend the period over which leases ran, from twenty-one years as laid down by Alleyn, to eighty-four years, thus attracting richer tenants and bringing in large sums of money; the increased wealth of the college resulted in the Charity Commission establishment of an enquiry into the advis
The Westland affair in 1985–86 was an episode in which Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, her Secretary of State for Defence, Michael Heseltine, went public over a cabinet dispute with questions raised about whether the conventions of cabinet government were being observed and about the integrity of senior politicians. The argument was over the future of Westland Helicopters, Britain's last helicopter manufacturer, to be the subject of a rescue bid. While the Defence Secretary, favoured a European solution, integrating Westland with a consortium including British Aerospace and French companies and Trade and Industry Secretary Leon Brittan, while ostensibly maintaining a neutral stance, wanted to see Westland merge with Sikorsky, an American company. Heseltine refused to accept Thatcher's choice and claimed that Thatcher was refusing to allow a free ministerial discussion about the matter suggesting she had lied about cancelling a scheduled meeting, he when ordered to cease campaigning for his European consortium and walked out of a Cabinet meeting in January 1986.
Brittan was forced to resign for having ordered the leaking to the press of a confidential legal letter critical of Heseltine, for his lack of candour to the House of Commons about his efforts to persuade BAe to withdraw from Heseltine's consortium. Thatcher's survival as Prime Minister appeared to be in question, although she rode out the crisis; the episode had been an embarrassment to the Conservative Thatcher government and undermined her reputation. The Westland affair originated with Alan Bristow's bid for the company in April 1985. By June, Bristow was threatening to end his bid unless the Government assured him that there would be future orders for the company from the Ministry of Defence and that the repayment of over £40 million of launch aid for Westland's newest helicopter from the Department of Trade and Industry was waived. Heseltine at this time was uninterested in Westland helicopters when approached by Norman Tebbit, the Trade and Industry Secretary, as plenty of American helicopters were available to meet Britain's defence requirements.
He attended two meetings about the company's future in June chaired by Thatcher. It was decided that Tebbit should persuade the Bank of England to co-operate with the main creditors in the hope that a recovery plan and new management would end the threat of receivership. Bristow withdrew his bid and in late June Sir John Cuckney was brought in as chairman of Westland. Cuckney proposed. No British firm was willing. Cuckney proposed that Westland merge with United Technologies Corporation, of which the US company Sikorsky was a subsidiary. Heseltine came out against this plan after realising that Westland would become responsible for assembling the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, which the Ministry of Defence would be under great pressure to buy, he preferred Westland to go into receivership so that British companies GEC and British Aerospace could buy the viable parts of the business. In mid-October Heseltine suggested a European consortium which would include French Aerospatiale, German MBB and Italian Agusta.
Leon Brittan, who had replaced Tebbit as Trade and Industry Secretary in September 1985, at first urged Thatcher to consider a European option. The Government was neutral but by November Heseltine was lobbying hard for the European option. In late November Peter Levene, Chief of Procurement at the Ministry of Defence, had a meeting at the Ministry with his French, West German and Italian counterparts and the representatives of the consortium, agreed to "buy European" for certain classes of helicopters. If Westland went ahead with Sikorsky its helicopters, under this new agreement, would be unable to be bought by the four governments; the meeting was praised by the House of Commons Defence Select Committee. Thatcher, who only learned of the meeting through Cuckney, was displeased, as were Brittan and the Treasury, who thought the US option might be cheaper. Although Thatcher and Leon Brittan kept to their official pretence of neutrality. In November 1985, Sikorsky made Westland's management were favourable.
In early December Thatcher had two ad hoc meetings with Heseltine, Tebbit, William Whitelaw, Geoffrey Howe and Nigel Lawson on 5 and 6 December. Brittan argued that the NADs' opposition should be set aside, but Howe and Tebbit were not unsympathetic to Heseltine's proposed consortium, the decision was deferred to the Cabinet Economic Affairs Committee on Monday 9 December 1985. Cuckney and a Westland financial adviser were invited to attend the E meeting. Cuckney said. A majority of the E meeting agreed to dismiss the NADs' opposition. Thatcher, who complained that three hours had been spent discussing a company with a market capitalisation of only £30m, allowed Heseltine until 4 pm on Friday 13 December to submit a viable proposal for a European deal, he did. Heseltine had expected that there would be a second meeting of E to discus
Dulwich is an area of south London, England. The settlement is in the London Borough of Southwark, with parts in the London Borough of Lambeth and consists of Dulwich Village, East Dulwich, West Dulwich and the Southwark half of Herne Hill. Dulwich lies in a valley between the neighbouring districts of Camberwell, Crystal Palace, Denmark Hill, Forest Hill, Sydenham Hill and Tulse Hill and was in Surrey until 1889, when the County of London was created. Dulwich was part of the ancient parish of Camberwell, which became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, included Camberwell, Peckham and other London districts; the first documented evidence of Dulwich is as a hamlet outside London in 967 AD, granted by King Edgar to one of his thanes Earl Aelfheah. The name of Dulwich has been spelt in various ways, Dylways and may come from two old English words, Dill, a white flower, wihs, meaning a damp meadow, giving a meaning of "the meadow where dill grows". Harold Godwinson owned the land at one point, after 1066, King William I of England.
In 1333, the population of Dulwich was recorded as 100. In 1538, Henry VIII seized control of Dulwich and sold it to goldsmith Thomas Calton for £609. Calton's grandson Sir Francis Calton sold the Manor of Dulwich for £4,900 in 1605 to Elizabethan actor and entrepreneur Edward Alleyn, he vested his wealth in a charitable foundation, Alleyn's College of God's Gift, established in 1619. The charity's modern successor, The Dulwich Estate, still owns 1,500 acres in the area, including a number of private roads and a tollgate. Alleyn constructed a school, a chapel and alms houses in Dulwich. Dulwich Almshouse Charity and Christ's Chapel of God's Gift at Dulwich still fulfill their original functions. Alleyn's original school building is no longer used for that purpose, instead now housing the Estate's Governors; the school moved around 1840 to accommodate larger numbers of pupils into new buildings designed by Charles Barry, son of Sir Charles Barry who designed Westminster Palace. It was subsequently divided into Dulwich College and Alleyn's School in 1882, the latter moving to the present day site in Townley Road.
In the 17th century, King Charles I of England visited Dulwich Woods on a regular basis to hunt. In 1738, a man named. On 5 August 1677 John Evelyn writes; the Dulwich waters were cried about the streets of London as far back as 1678. In 1739, Mr. Cox, master of the Green Man, a tavern situated about a mile south of the village of Dulwich, sunk a well for his family; the water was found to be possessed of purgative qualities, was for some time used medicinally. While the water was popular much custom was drawn to the adjoining tavern, its proprietor flourished; the oak-lined formal avenue, known as Cox's Walk, leading from the junction of Dulwich Common and Lordship Lane was cut soon after 1732 by Francis Cox to connect his establishment of the Green Man Tavern and Dulwich Wells with the more popular Sydenham Wells. By 1815 the Green Man had become a school known as Dr. Glennie's academy in Dulwich Grove, although it was demolished about ten years later. Among the pupils here there were a few who became well known, Lord Byron, General Le Marchant and Captain Barclay.
Dr Glennie held Saturday evening concerts which attracted visitors from outside the family circle, such as the poet Thomas Campbell living in nearby Sydenham, Robert Barker, inventor of the panorama. Following the closure of the school, the building reverted to its original use and was known as the Grove Tavern; the building has now been neglected for many years by owners the Dulwich Estate. In 1803, Samuel Matthews – known as the "Dulwich Hermit" – was murdered in Dulwich Woods. By 1901, the population was recorded as 10,247. In the Second World War, Dulwich was hit by many V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets. A possible explanation for this is that the British military when announcing V-1 and V-2 explosions deliberately gave map co-ordinates four miles north of the truth in an attempt to protect densely populated central London and focus the drops on the open spaces in the suburbs instead. There are a number of recognised districts in Dulwich: Dulwich Village which includes the traditional village centre West Dulwich, a residential area bordering West Norwood and Tulse Hill.
Herne Hill which forms the North Dulwich Triangle, borders Brixton, Denmark Hill, Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill. East Dulwich a residential area, bordering Peckham Dulwich Village contains the original shopping street and still contains nearly all of its original 18th and 19th century buildings, it remains uncommercialised and is a conservation zone. The village borders on Dulwich Park, where the Dulwich Motor Show is held every year. Dulwich is home to Dulwich Hamlet, founded in 1893 and competing in the Ryman Isthmian League today, they ground share with another Non-League football club Fisher F. C. at Champion Hill in East Dulwich. In recent years Sainsbury's acquired the site, built DHFC a new ground, developed one of the largest Sainsbury's in the country; the Old Alleynian Football Club is a local rugby union team for former pupils of Dulwich College, but is now open to all who wish to play. Dulwich Paragon cycling club are based in the area. Alleyn Old Boys Club - former pupils of Alleyn's School - is located on Burbage Road.
Dulwich has two running clubs, namely Dulwich Park Dulwich Runners. Dulwich Park was opened in 18
John Witherow is a British newspaper editor with The Times of London. A former journalist with Reuters, he joined News International in 1980 and was appointed editor of The Sunday Times in 1994 and editor of The Times in 2013. Witherow was born in South Africa, he migrated to Britain in the mid 1950s before moving to Australia, in the late 1950s. He returned to Britain in the early 1960s, where he attended Bedford School and the University of York. Witherow started his career working for the BBC World Service in Namibia. After university, Witherow was taken on by Reuters news agency in 1977 as a trainee and sent to the Cardiff School of Journalism, he moved to Reuters, working in London and Madrid before joining The Times as a reporter in 1980. At The Times, he covered the Iran -- Falklands wars. In 1982, Witherow was sent on the aircraft carrier Invincible to cover the Falklands War. After the fall of Port Stanley in June, 1982, he returned to the UK on a Hercules plane with the SAS, he wrote a book, The Winter War, The Falklands, with Patrick Bishop, a war correspondent for The Observer newspaper.
Witherow moved to The Sunday Times in 1983 under the Editorship of Andrew Neil. There he served in several positions, including Defence Editor, Diplomatic Editor, Foreign Editor and Head of News. Witherow was made Acting Editor after the departure of Neil in 1994, he was confirmed in the job the following year. In early 2013, Witherow was made Editor of The Times in succession to James Harding; the Times' independent directors confirmed the appointment in September of that year and The Times won Newspaper of the Year for 2014 in the Press Awards. Early in Witherow's editorship at The Sunday Times the paper published false claims that Labour politician Michael Foot was a KGB agent; the paper reached a settlement with Foot over the claim. In 2010, Witherow sought to defend the critic A. A. Gill after he called Clare Balding a "dyke on a bike" in a TV review. Replying to a letter of complaint from Balding, Witherow wrote, "In my view some members of the gay community need to stop regarding themselves as having a special victim status and behave like any other sensible group, accepted by society.
Not having a privileged status means, of course, one must accept being the butt of jokes. A person's sexuality should not give them a protected status." Balding complained to the Press Complaints Commission and the complaint was upheld. While working as editor at The Times, Witherow received a letter from leading UK scientists, including Lord Krebs and Lord Stern, which criticized an article for being based on a method that "involves ignoring everything that science has discovered about atmospheric physics since the discovery of greenhouse warming by John Tyndall more than 150 years ago" while adding, "On social media it has been a laughing stock."The letter went on to argue that this article was not an isolated example as it added to a series of articles that appeared to be designed to undermine climate science and consequent emission reduction programs. Witherow has three children from his former marriage to Sarah Linton. Witherow, John & Bishop, Patrick; the Winter War: Falklands Conflict.
Quartet Books. ISBN 0-7043-3424-0. Witherow, John & Sullivan, Aidan; the Sunday Times War in the Gulf: A Pictorial History. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-06706-2; the International Who's Who 2004. Routledge. 2003. "John Witherow" profile as part The Guardian Media Top 100 of 2003 The editors: John Witherow profile as part of Newsworks John Witherow profile for News UK
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted