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In materials science, liquefaction is a process that generates a liquid from a solid or a gas or that generates a non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics. It occurs both and artificially; as an example of the latter, a "major commercial application of liquefaction is the liquefaction of air to allow separation of the constituents, such as oxygen and the noble gases." Another is the conversion of solid coal into a liquid form usable as a substitute for liquid fuels. In geology, soil liquefaction refers to the process by which water-saturated, unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid in an earthquake. Soil liquefaction was blamed for building collapses in the city of Palu, Indonesia in October 2018. In a related phenomenon, liquefaction of bulk materials in cargo ships may cause a dangerous shift in the load. In physics and chemistry, the phase transitions from solid and gas to liquid may be referred to as liquefaction; the melting point is the pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid.

In commercial and industrial situations, the process of condensing a gas to liquid is sometimes referred to as liquefaction of gases. Coal liquefaction is the production of liquid fuels from coal using a variety of industrial processes. Liquefaction is used in commercial and industrial settings to refer to mechanical dissolution of a solid by mixing, grinding or blending with a liquid. In kitchen or laboratory settings, solids may be chopped into smaller parts sometimes in combination with a liquid, for example in food preparation or laboratory use; this may be done with a liquidiser in British English. In biology, liquefaction involves organic tissue turning into a more liquid-like state. For example, liquefactive necrosis in liquefaction as a parameter in semen analysis. Seminal Clot Liquefaction

Shelley Lee

Shelley Lee Lai Kuen is a former senior official in the Hong Kong Government. Lee retired in 2005 from the civil service as the Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs, after a distinguished 34-year career in public service. Lee has made exemplary contributions to the development of Hong Kong and is well respected for her compassion towards those in difficulties. In 1971, Lee graduated from the University of Hong Kong where she studied English Literature in the Arts Faculty. In 1985, Lee graduated from Harvard University Kennedy School of Government with a MPA degree. Lee completed the six-week Advanced Management Programme of the Harvard Business School in 2000. In her earlier years, Lee attended the Maryknoll Convent School. In 1971, Lee joined the Hong Kong Government as an Executive Officer and subsequently transferred to the Administrative Service in August 1972, she rose to the rank of Administrative Officer Staff Grade A1 in September 2004. Lee was the first woman to take on the post of Private Secretary to the former Governor Baron MacLehose.

During her 33 years of service in the Administrative Service, Lee has served in a number of senior positions including: Deputy Secretary-General, Office of Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils. She became Permanent Secretary for Home Affairs in the principal officials shakeup of July 2002, retiring from civil service in October 2005. Over the years, Lee has been active in promoting women's and children's rights and welfare within the Civil Service. During the SARS crisis, she set up the We Care Education Fund for children of the deceased alongside Carrie Lam, Fanny Law and Margaret Chan, she is a founding member and former Chairman of the Association of Female Senior Government Officers formed in 1979 where she worked with other female senior civil servants, Anson Chan, Elizabeth Wong and Katherine Fok Lo Shiu-ching, to fight for equal remuneration terms for married women in the Civil Service. This was achieved in 1981; as a result of such achievements, Lee is considered to be an early member of the 「手袋黨」—the "handbag party".

Lee is known fondly to the public in the education and welfare sectors as the "Community Godmother", 「眾人媽打」, or 「媽打」. This is in tribute to her warmth and sincere care and concern for the underprivileged, the orphaned and victims of catastrophes. On 28 March 2012, Radio Television Hong Kong announced that Lee will co-host a radio talk show called【七百萬人的先鋒】with 區家麟. For this show, Lee will interview "50 Successful Women in Hong Kong" including: Elsie Tu, Ann Hui, Elizabeth Wong, Rosanna Wong, etc; the first show will air on RTHK Radio 1 on 7 April 2012. In 2004, Lee received an Honorary Fellowship from the University of Hong Kong. In 2006, Lee received the Gold Bauhinia Star. Profile

Monica McWilliams

Monica Mary McWilliams is a Northern Irish academic, peace activist, human rights defender and former politician. In 1996, she co-founded the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition political party and was elected as a delegate at the Multi-Party Peace Negotiations, which led to the Good Friday Peace Agreement in 1998, she served as a member of the Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly from 1998-2003 and chaired the Implementation Committee on Human Rights on behalf of the British and Irish governments. She was appointed as Chief Commissioner of the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission from 2005-2011, was the Oversight Commissioner for prison reform in Northern Ireland, she sits on the Independent Reporting Commission for the disbandment of paramilitary organisations in Northern Ireland. She is Emeritus Professor in the Transitional Justice Institute at Ulster University and continues her academic research into domestic violence, she specialises in conflict resolution and working with women in conflict regions.

McWilliams was born in Ballymoney, County Antrim, grew up in Kilrea, County Londonderry and was educated at Loreto College, Coleraine. She is a graduate of Queen's University Belfast and the University of Michigan, became Professor of Women's Studies and Social Policy at the University of Ulster. McWilliams, a Catholic residing in south Belfast, co-founded the Northern Ireland Women's Coalition, a political party with a feminist platform in an era where civil liberties, let alone women's rights, were difficult to gain traction on, she was inspired by Martin Luther King and watched the civil rights movement grow under his leadership in North America, noting herself that rights in Northern Ireland were of real concern too. Her focus for Northern Ireland was on a broader vision of peace based on inclusion, human rights and equality. In 1996, McWilliams won a seat with Sagar representing the Women’s Coalition at the multi party peace talks in Northern Ireland leading to the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.

She joined 3% of women globally as a signatory to an international peace treaty. She faced frequent sexism and ridicule in the Forum for Dialogue and Understanding, which sat alongside the peace talks, challenged the way in which women in public life were subjected to such behavior. In the peace accord, she secured key outcomes such as restitution for victims, inclusion of reconciliation, integrated education, shared housing and a civic forum rather than a sole focus on decommissioning and disarmament; this was key to the success of the Good Friday agreement. She was elected as one of two Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition Members of the Legislative Assembly in Northern Ireland from 1998 to 2003, representing South Belfast. During the negotiations following the Agreement, she was the Chairperson of the Human Rights Sub-Committee until 2003. In the 2003 Assembly election she lost her seat to Sinn Féin. After ten years in existence, the NIWC decided in 2006 to stand down the party. McWilliams returned to her university post from 2003 until she was appointed by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland as full-time Chief Commissioner of the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission in June 2005, for a three-year term.

She was reappointed for a second term, in September 2008. Under her six-year leadership the Commission finalized the advice on a Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland, it was presented to the UK government in December 2008 where legislation on a Bill of Rights for Northern Ireland is still awaited. In 2011 she returned to the University of Ulster as Professor of Women's Studies in the Transitional Justice Institute which carries out research on gender, human rights and conflict. McWilliams was one of five persons appointed in December 2011 to a Prisons Reform Oversight Group advising the Northern Ireland Department of Justice. In 2015 she was appointed by the First Minister and the Deputy First Minister to the Fresh Start Panel on the Disbandment of Paramilitary Organizations in Northern Ireland, she was subsequently appointed by international treaty between the British and Irish governments to the Independent Reporting Commission from 2017 to 2021 to oversee the recommendations from the Panel report.

Monica is the Chairperson of the Governing Board of Interpeace, an international NGO based in Geneva, is Emeritus Professor in the Transitional Justice Institute at Ulster University. Monica is on their board of directors. Monica has co-authored two books and three government-published research studies: Bringing It Out in the Open: Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland and Taking Domestic Violence Seriously: Issues for the Civil and Criminal Justice System and'Intimate Partner Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies Insights and Lessons from Northern Ireland', her research in the 1990’s led to the first government policy on domestic violence and was followed up twenty five years as the first longitudinal study on domestic violence during and post conflict. She has published several articles on the impact of political conflict, on conflict resolution and women's rights, she has facilitated workshops with women in conflict regions including Columbia, Uganda, DRC, Yemen, Iraq and Palestine.

She was one of nine signatories of the Northern Ireland peace process jointly awarded the John F. Kennedy Library Profile in Courage Award in 1998, she was a joint recipient of the Frank Cousins Peace Award in 1999. She has received honorary doctorates from Lesley College (Massachuse

Tadeusz Vetulani

Tadeusz Bolesław Vetulani was a Polish agriculturalist and biologist, associate professor of Adam Mickiewicz University in animal husbandry. He was a pioneer of biodiversity research in Poland and conducted notable research into forest tarpan and the Polish koniks, launching restoration and breeding schemes. Vetulani was born in Sanok in 1897, the son of Roman and Elżbieta Kunachowicz, brother of Kazimierz, a professor of Lvov University, Adam, a professor of Jagiellonian University, Maria, Elżbieta. In the years 1915-1916 he studied philosophy at the University of Vienna, in the years 1919-1922 at Jagiellonian University in agriculture. In the years 1922-1929 he published work on the Polish pony, he is credited with introducing the term "Polish pony" or Polish konik into the hippological literature in the mid-1920s. Zbigniew Jaworski of the Polish Academy of Sciences says that "based on his research and observations, he hypothesized that a forest variety of the tarpan had split off from the populations living in the steppes of Eastern Europe and had survived into the mid 18th century in the lands of Poland and Prussia."In 1926, Vetulani received a doctoral degree in agriculture at the Jagiellonian University.

Three years he obtained his degree of associate professor in animal husbandry. From 1931 to 1935 he worked as an associate professor and head of the Department of Animal Breeding at the Stefan Batory University in Vilnius. In February 1936, he founded a reserve and restoration scheme in Bialowieza Forest involving the breeding of Polish koniks, putting his early hypothesis to practice. Helmut Hemmer says that "Tadeusz Vetulani purchased animals with high resemblance to tarpans and subjected them to a selection programme carried out in the Institute for Genetics and Animal Breeding of the Polish Academy." From 1938, Vetulani was co-editor of the German journal "Zeitschrift für Züchtungsbiologie." In 1939 he represented Poland in Zürich in an international conference on breeding. During World War II Vetulani lived in Kraków, working as a clerk in the Polish Red Cross from 1940-1943, he was a spokesperson for the organization against the occupation authorities. He aided in the care of Polish prisoners of war.

Vetulani rejected all proposals for collaboration with the Nazis and refused to join the committee appointed to audit the Katyn graves, not wanting to serve the German propaganda. Between 1945-1952 worked in restoration and increasing the breeding of the Polish pony. In 1949 he received the full title of Professor of Animal Husbandry. On June 5, 1949 he married Marie Godlewska, their son Zygmunt was born in 1950. Tadeusz Vetulani died of a heart attack on February 24, 1952, he had fainted while working in a laboratory in Krakow during a scientific trip, died the same day. He was buried at the Rakowicki Cemetery

Hull loss

A hull loss is an aviation accident that damages the aircraft beyond economical repair, resulting in a total loss. The term applies to situations in which the aircraft are missing, the search for their wreckage is terminated or when the wreckage is inaccessible."Hull losses per 100,000 flight departures" has been a long-used statistical criterion. From 1959 to 2006, throughout the entire jet aircraft era, 384 of 835 hull losses, or 46%, were nonfatal. Airlines buy insurance to cover hull loss on a twelve-month basis. Before the September 11 attacks in 2001, the typical insurance amount for hull loss could reach $250 million, but since demands for higher liability have increased. Constructive hull loss factors other incidental expenses beyond repair, such as salvage, logistical costs of repairing the non-airworthy aircraft within the confines of the incident site, recertifying the aircraft, etc. Insurance policies covering any asset, subject to depreciation pay the insured a fraction of the cost of replacing the property, so that a loss may be deemed to be total although some residual value remains.

List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft Total loss Constructive total loss

Rudolf Jordan (painter)

Wilhelm Rudolf Jordan was a German genre painter, illustrator and art teacher. His father was a member of the Judicial Council and he was a descendant of Charles-Étienne Jordan. After completing his basic artistic studies with Karl Wilhelm Wach at his private school in Berlin, Jordan moved to the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, where he took master classes with Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and Karl Ferdinand Sohn. In 1837, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, he graduated from the Kunstakademie in 1840 and, from 1848, operated his own studio. He is considered to be one of the founders of the ethnographic approach to genre painting. During this time, he was named a "Titularprofessor". After 1843, following the success of his painting "Heiratsantrag auf Helgoland", he devoted himself to portraying fisherman and sailors, which involved frequent journeys to Belgium and France. Many of these works became popular and were disseminated as lithographs and engravings. In 1848, he was one of a progressive art society in Düsseldorf.

That same year, during the Revolution, he served as a member of the Bürgerwehr under Commander Lorenz Clasen a painter by profession. In 1869, he was awarded the Order of the Red Eagle. A year before his death, he was presented with the Order of the Crown, he was a recipient of the Commander's Cross in the Order of Vasa. His first wife, Sofie von Mülmann, was a painter of some note. More digitalized illustrations may be found in the corresponding article on German Wikipedia K. Stieler, H. Wachenhusen, F. W. Hackländer: Rheinfahrt. Von den Quellen des Rheins bis zum Meere. Kröner, Stuttgart 1875. Digitalized online Johann Karl Musäus and Julius Ludwig Klee. Volksmährchen der Deutschen. With woodcuts and original drawings, Mayer und Wigand, Leipzig 1842. Digitalized online "Jordan, Rudolf". In: Hermann Alexander Müller: Biographisches Künstler-Lexikon. Die bekanntesten Zeitgenossen auf dem Gebiet der bildenden Künste aller Länder mit Angabe ihrer Werke. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1882 "Jordan, Rudolf".

In: Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol.19, E. A. Seemann, Leipzig 1926, pgs.161–162. Hans Paffrath/Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf: Lexikon der Düsseldorfer Malerschule. Vol.2, Bruckmann, München 1998, ISBN 3-7654-3010-2, pgs.193-196 F. W. Ross, Rudolf Jordan, der Maler Helgolands, weiland Genremaler und Professor zu Düsseldorf. Hannover, Self-published, 1900. Description of his life and art with samples and reviews. ArtNet: More works by Jordan